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Handbook of Research on Green ICT

Book Description

Green ICT encompasses a vast and vital domain in today’s business and social worlds. The need for focused attention on the green dimension of ICT could not be higher. Handbook of Research on Green ICT: Technology, Business and Social Perspectives unites worldwide investigations, thoughts, and practices in the area of Green ICT. This two-volume work fosters technical advances, methodological innovations, and social changes that result in enhancements and improvements in business strategies, processes, social policies and technical implementations related to the environment.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
    1. Volume I
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
    1. Core Contents of this Handbook
    2. Audience
    3. Critiques
  8. Acknowledgment
  9. Section 1: Strategies and Methods
    1. Chapter 1: Strategies for a Sustainable Enterprise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE
      4. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING A SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM
      5. WHERE DOES SUSTAINABILITY FIT IN THE OVERALL ARCHITECTURE?
      6. RESOURCE REDUCTION EXAMPLE: PAPER
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE DIRECTION
    2. Chapter 2: Green Strategic Alignment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT: A CONCEPTUAL TOOL-KIT
      4. ARTICULATING STRATEGIES VIA OPTIMIZATION OBJECTIVES
      5. STRATEGIC RE-ALIGNMENT WITH SUSTAINABILITY OBJECTIVES
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: The Role of the Business Analyst in Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ROLE OF THE BUSINESS ANALYST IN GREEN ICT
      4. ENTERPRISE ANALYSIS OF GREEN ICT
      5. BUSINESS ANALYSIS OF GREEN ICT PROJECTS
      6. TRACKING PROGRESS OF GREEN ICT
      7. THE FUTURE OF THE BUSINESS ANALYST ROLE IN GREEN ICT
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: Strategies for Greening Enterprise IT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF IT
      4. GREENING IT: A NECESSITY, NOT AN OPTION
      5. STRATEGIES FOR GREENING ENTERPRISE IT
      6. A SEVEN-STEP APPROACH TO CREATING GREEN IT STRATEGY
      7. CREATING GREEN AWARENESS
      8. USING IT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
      9. ETHICS AND GREEN IT
      10. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Strategic Business Trends in the Context of Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GREEN ICT WITHIN BUSINESS DRIVERS
      4. STRATEGIC BUSINESS TRENDS AND THE ROLE OF GREEN ICT
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: Extending and Applying Business Intelligence and Customer Strategies for Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING ENVIRONMENTAL INTELLIGENCE – A CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE
      4. ENVIRONMENTAL INTELLIGENCE IN INTERNAL SYSTEMS
      5. DEVELOPING KEY ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES
      6. BUSINESS DATA MANAGEMENT AND EI
      7. IMPLEMENTING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES WITH BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS VALUE
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UTILITY VALUE
      4. EXCHANGE VALUE
      5. ESSENTIAL VALUE
      6. A GREEN ICT BUSINESS STRATEGY
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 8: Information Systems for a Green Organisation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATING INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO GREEN ORGANIZATION
      4. AREAS OF GREEN ICT IN THE ORGANIZATION
      5. INFORMATION OVERLOAD IN GREEN ICT SYSTEMS
      6. GREEN ICT REGULATORY CONSTRAINTS
      7. STRATEGIES FOR GATHERING RELEVANT GREEN INFORMATION
      8. STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING GREEN INFORMATION
      9. ONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE GREEN ICT INFORMATION PORTAL
      10. USING INFORMATION FOR CHANGE MANAGEMENT
      11. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: A Comprehensive and Practical Green ICT Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHY IS GREEN ICT IMPORTANT?
      4. THE GREEN ICT FRAMEWORK
      5. EQUIPMENT LIFECYCLE
      6. END USER COMPUTING
      7. ENTERPRISE COMPUTING
      8. ICT AS A LOW-CARBON ENABLER
      9. ATTITUDE, POLICY, PRACTICE AND TECHNOLOGY
      10. METRICS
      11. MEASURING GREEN ICT
      12. FUTURE DIRECTION
      13. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 10: Green ICT Organizational Implementations and Workplace Relationships
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF GREEN ICT LITERATURE
      4. RESEARCH QUESTION
      5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      6. RESEARCH DESIGN
      7. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      8. ENVIRONMENTAL READINESS
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS
      11. FURTHER RESEARCH
      12. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 11: Approaches and Initiatives to Green IT Strategy in Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
      4. GREENING IT STRATEGY
      5. GREEN IT INITIATIVES
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE WORK AND CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 12: The Optimizing WEB
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION ARCHITECTURES
      4. DISTRIBUTED OPTIMIZATION: THE OPEN QUESTIONS
      5. THE SBDO APPROACH TO DISTRIBUTED OPTIMIZATION
      6. SBDO: DETAILS
      7. OPTIMIZATION IN MULTI-AGENT PLANNING
      8. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 13: Business Processes Management for a Green Telecommunications Company
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GREEN TELCO BACKGROUND
      4. GREEN BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT
      5. TRANSFORMING AND MANAGING BUSINESS PROCESS FOR A GREEN TELCO
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION
      7. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 14: A Framework for Environmentally Responsible Business Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICT AND THE ENVIRONMENT: LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. NEED FOR REENGINEERING THE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE
      5. MAP AND INVESTIVATE THE PROCESS TO BE REENGINEERED
      6. DESIGN ERBS
      7. ERBS ARCHITECTURE
      8. OPPORTUNITY AND SOLUTIONS:
      9. RESEARCH OUTCOMES
      10. MAJOR ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
      11. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 15: Role of Mobile Technologies in an Environmentally Responsible Business Strategy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SIGNIFICANT FACTORS IN THE CREATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ERBS
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    16. Chapter 16: The Negative Impact of ICT Waste on Environment and Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS ICT WASTE?
      4. THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ICT ON ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH
      5. ICT AS AN ENABLER TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING
      6. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 17: Collaboration as a Key Enabler for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Implementing Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT DRIVES SMEs TOWARDS GREEN ICT?
      4. PEOPLE, PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR SME’S GREEN ICT EFFORT
      5. COLLABORATION AND GREEN ICT INITIATIVES FOR SMES
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 18: Sustainable Business Initiatives in the Context of Emerging Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING INTERNATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY
      4. ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
      6. BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT EFFORTS ON SUSTAINABILITY IN BRIC COUNTRIES
      7. ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS & REGULATION IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
      8. INTERNATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES IN PRACTICE
      9. FUTURE DIRECTION
      10. CONCLUSION
    19. Chapter 19: Digital Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: WHY ARE WE ‘GREENING’ ICT?
      3. GREEN ICT VISION
      4. ICT CONTRIBUTION
      5. AREAS FOR ICT CARBON REDUCTION
      6. GREEN ICT STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES
      7. PROGRESS IN GREENING THE ICT
      8. FUTURE DIRECTION
      9. RISKS AND MITIGATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    20. Chapter 20: Using Knowledge Management Tools in Fostering Green ICT Related Behavior Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
      4. MICROSOFT HOHM: MANAGING SUSTAINABILITY
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 2: Technologies
    1. Chapter 21: Enhancing the Efficiency of ICT by Spatial Data Interoperability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPATIAL DATA AND INTEROPERABILITY
      4. SPATIAL DATA DESCRIPTION IMPROVES INTEROPERABILITY
      5. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 22: Infrastructure Sharing & Renewable Energy Use In Telecommunication Industry for Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KEY APPROACHES TO DECREASE CO2 EMISSIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 23: Applying Service Oriented Architecture and Cloud Computing for a Greener Traffic Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CASE STUDY: TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      4. SOA ARCHITECTURE STYLES
      5. CLOUD COMPUTING
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION FOR TMS
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 24: An Australian Rules Football Club Approach To Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STATE OF GREEN ICT
      5. WHERE IS THE AFL AND ITS CLUBS WITH GREEN ICT?
      6. GREEN ICT AND THE CARLTON FOOTBALL CLUB
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 25: Environmental Challenges in Mobile Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE SERVICES AND CARBON FOOTPRINTS
      4. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF MOBILE SERVICES
      5. FUTURE DIRECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 26: A Taxonomy of Green Information and Communication Protocols and Standards
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A TAXONOMY OF GREEN ICT PROTOCOLS
      5. GOVERNING BODIES OF GREEN ICT PROTOCOLS
      6. STANDARD DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS
    7. Chapter 27: Energy Management System Using Wireless Sensor Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUTOMATIC METER READING
      4. WIRELESS BASE ARCHITECTURE FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:
      5. ENERGY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
      6. GREEN BENEFITS FROM THE FULLY AMR SYSTEM
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 28: Exploratory Analysis of Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Time Series Using Independent Component Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS
      4. SYSTEM MODEL
      5. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 29: Green Semicondoctor Design Techniques and Challanges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW
      3. EARLY POWER ESTIMATION
      4. CONCLUSION: AFTER APPLYING CLOCK GATING ON ABOVE SOC DESIGN
  11. Section 3: Applications
    1. Chapter 30: Carbon Emissions Management Software (CEMS)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRESSURES AND RISKS IN THE BUSINESS WORLD
      4. THE GREENHOUSE GAS PROTOCOL
      5. MEASURING GHG EMISSIONS
      6. MANAGING THE DATA
      7. THE PROBLEMS WITH SPREADSHEETS
      8. THE EMERGING CEMS MARKET
      9. THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF CEMS
      10. CEMS MARKET OVERVIEW
      11. CEMS FUNCTIONAL FOCUS
      12. THE ROLE OF CEMS IN LOW-CARBON ECONOMY
      13. CARBON EMISSIONS TRADING
      14. CEMS OPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES
      15. CEMS IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS
      16. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 31: Architecture, Design and Development of a Green ICT System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
      5. GREEN ICT PROJECT
      6. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING GREEN ICT SOLUTION
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSIONS
    3. Chapter 32: Green ICT System Architecture Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW
      4. BUSINESS STRATEGY AND VISION
      5. APPLICATION OF EA IN GREEN ENTERPRISE
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 33: Using Carbons Emissions Management Solutions in Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS CEMS?
      4. PRACTICAL USE OF CEMS TOOLS
      5. THREE CATEGORIES OF CEMS TOOLS
      6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ADVANTAGE AND LIMITATIONS OF CEMS TOOLS
      7. CEMS TOOLS IN ORGANISATIONS
      8. CHALLENGES IN CONFIGURING AND IMPLEMENTING CEMS TOOLS
      9. FUTURE DIRECTION OF CEMS TOOLS
    5. Chapter 34: Green Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ASPECTS OF THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY
      4. THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT
      5. STAKEHOLDERS, PLAYERS AND VALUE CHAIN IN HEALTHCARE
      6. ROLE OF GREEN ICT IN THE HEALTHCARE SECTOR
      7. MOBILE AND WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES IN THE HEALTH SECTOR
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 35: E-Waste Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO E-WASTE
      3. E-WASTE - WHAT DOES IT CONTAIN?
      4. WHY E-WASTE IS A PROBLEM?
      5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF E-WASTE – (ANTI GREEN) FACTORS
      6. THE GEOGRAPHICAL OUTLOOK ON E-WASTE
      7. STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND COMPLIANCE OUTLOOK ON EWASTE
      8. E-WASTE METRICS AND MEASUREMENTS
      9. STRATEGIES FOR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT & CONTROL
      10. FUTURE DIRECTION
      11. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 36: Smart Software Applications for a Low Carbon Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES
      4. STANDARDS
      5. SMART GRID SOFTWARE
      6. SOFTWARE CONTROL POINT
      7. APPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 37: Low Power Techniques for Greener Hardware
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSONAL ICT DEVICES
      4. WIRELESS DEVICES
      5. USER INTERFACE
      6. PROTOCOLS FOR REDUCING POWER CONSUMPTION FOR BATTERY POWERED DEVICES
      7. ROUTERS
      8. DATA CENTRES
      9. FUTURE DIRECTION
      10. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 38: Integrating Green ICT in a Supply Chain Management System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GREEN INTEGRATED SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW
      4. GISCM SOLUTIONS
      5. GISCM SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
      6. BENEFITS OF GISCM SYSTEMS
      7. ISSUES AND BARRIERS IN GISCM ANALYSIS
      8. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR GISCM SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE CHALLENGE
    10. Chapter 39: Application of a Composite Process Framework for Managing Green ICT Applications Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPOSITE PROCESS FRAMEWORK
      4. GREEN ICT SYSTEMS OVERVIEW
      5. GREEN ICT SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION
      6. GREEN ICT STRATEGIES
      7. GREEN ICT SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
      8. APPLICATION OF COMPOSITE PROCESS FRAMEWORK FOR GREEN ICT SYSTMES DEVELOPMENT
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTION
    11. Chapter 40: Green ICT and Architectural Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT SITUATION
      4. ORGANISATIONAL PROCESS LANDSCAPE
      5. COMPLEXITIES OF CURRENT APPLICATION ENVIRONMENTS
      6. GREEN ICT METRICS
      7. TOTAL SUSTAINABILITY ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    12. Chapter 41: Supply Chain Optimization Audit (SCOA) for Green ICT Opportunities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SCOA OUTLINE
      4. WHAT IS SCOA?
      5. WHY SCOA
      6. SCOA TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
      7. SPONSORSHIP FOR SCOA
      8. LEAN SCOA
      9. SOCIAL OR BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF SCOA
      10. SCOA AND THE PROCESS STABILITY PYRAMID IDEA
      11. DOMINANT INPUT AND THE SWISS CHEESE MODEL
      12. SCOA AND THE CONCEPT OF DEPARTURE FROM BEST PRACTICE, AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF EQUIPMENT ABNORMAL OPERATION OR PLANT FAILURE.
      13. SCOA CAN BE APPLIED TO THE SUPPLY CHAIN OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES, ENERGY OR EVEN SERVICES AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
      14. VALUE-BASED MODELING
      15. SUBTRACTION OF MODELED VALUE FROM ACTUAL PARAMETER VALUE, TO DETECT MALFUNCTION
      16. PROVING THE ACCURACY OF THE MODEL
      17. THE MODEL SHOULD ALSO TEMPORALLY ACCURATE BY APPROPRIATE DESIGN
      18. THE ACCURACY OF THE MODEL CAN BE CONSTANTLY TESTED IN REAL TIME AND SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS RECOMPUTED
      19. DETECTING PROCESS ANOMALIES BY RECOGNIZING MODELED ERROR PATTERNS
      20. WHAT IS PARALLEL SENSITIVITY?
      21. CASE STUDIES
      22. A TUNED MODEL CAN PREDICT AND HELP OPERATIONS DECIDE WHEN A FIX MUST BE DONE
      23. WHAT HAPPENS IF THE REGULATION IS POOR?
      24. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 42: Understanding the Context of Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING GREEN ICT
      4. GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEN HOUSE GASES
      5. ROLE OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE IN GREEN ICT
      6. CARBON EMISSION AND EMISSION FACTOR
      7. INNOVATION IN ICT
      8. DECISION MAKER’S PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS GREEN ICT
      9. CONTRIBUTORS FOR PROMOTING GREEN ICT
      10. GREEN INITIATIVES INCLUDE
      11. CONCLUSION
  12. Section 4: Social
    1. Chapter 43: Standards and Legislation for the Carbon Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POLITICAL BACKGROUND
      4. REVIEW OF CURRENT LEGISLATIONS ON CARBON EMISSIONS
      5. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING CPRS
      6. APPROACH TO HANDLING THOSE CHALLENGES- BASED ON ISO 14001
      7. USE OF SOFTWARE RELATED TO CPRS
      8. KYOTO VERSUS COPENHAGEN
      9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSIONS
    2. Chapter 44: Balancing Green ICT Business Development with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR): A DEFINITION
      4. MARKET SEGMENTS
      5. CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN ENVIRONMENT
      7. DRIVERS FOR CHANGE IN ENVIRONMENT
      8. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) BETWEEN GREEN ICT AND BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION: SOME EXAMPLES OF CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 45: CAMCE
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AN OPEN STANDARDS BASED FRAMEWORK
      5. ADVANTAGES OF THE CAMCE FRAMEWORK
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
    4. Chapter 46: Decision Criteria for Green Management Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT OPTIONS ON THE GREENING MENU
      4. CHALLENGES OF THE GREENING APPROACH AND OPTIONS
      5. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS ORIENTED GREENING DECISION CRITERIA
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND DIRECTIONS
    5. Chapter 47: Adopting Green ICT in Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. RELEVANCE TO “GREEN ICT” THEME
      3. ADOPTING GREEN ICT IN BUSINESS
      4. FACTORS DRIVING ADOPTION OF GREEN COMPUTING
      5. IMPLEMENTING GREEN COMPUTING
      6. BUSINESS COMPUTING
      7. NATIONAL GREENHOUSE AND ENERGY REPORTING SCHEME (NGERS)
      8. IMPACT OF NGERS ON BUSINESS
      9. IT’S ENERGY UTILIZATION AND CARBON FOOTPRINT
      10. CARBON EMISSION MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
      11. CONCLUSION
  13. Compilation of References
  14. Index