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Handbook of Research on Developments and Trends in Wireless Sensor Networks: From Principle to Practice

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The Handbook of Research on Developments and Trends in Wireless Sensor Networks: From Principle to Practice provides research in the rapidly changing world of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). These findings feature developments and studies of WSNs to provide a seedbed for new breakthroughs in this technology.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. List of Contributors
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. 1. Introduction and General Issues
    1. 1. Introduction and Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT ARE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS?
        1. Concepts
        2. Basic Elements of Wireless Sensor Networks
        3. Features of Wireless Sensor Network
      4. ARCHITECTURE AND PROTOCOLS OF WSNS
        1. Hardware Structure of Sensor Node
        2. Architecture Overview
        3. Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks
          1. Medium Access Control Protocols
          2. Network Protocols
          3. Time Synchronization and Localization Protocols
      5. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF WSNS
        1. Current Development
          1. Development of Software
          2. Development of Operating System
          3. Development of Protocols
          4. Development of Middleware
          5. Development of Localization and Coverage Algorithms
        2. Applications
          1. Military Applications
          2. Agriculture Fields
          3. Environment Monitoring
          4. Medical Insurance
          5. Industrial Automation
      6. CHALLENGES AND TRENDS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
        1. Sensor Nodes and Topology Control
        2. Robustness and Fault-Tolerant
        3. Low Cost
        4. Generality
        5. Security
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 2. Deployment Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLASSIFICATION OF DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY
      4. DETERMINISTIC DEPLOYMENT
      5. RANDOM DEPLOYMENT
      6. CENTRALIZED DEPLOYMENT
      7. DISTRIBUTED DEPLOYMENT
      8. THE COVERAGE PROBLEM
      9. JUDGING K-COVERAGE
      10. COVERAGE AND CONNECTIVITY
      11. THE WORST AND BEST CASE COVERAGE
      12. THE ENERGY-EFFICIENCY ISSUE
      13. DUTY CYCLE DEPENDENT
      14. ROLE DEPENDENT
        1. Relay Nodes
        2. Base Stations
      15. TOPOLOGY DEPENDENT
      16. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      17. REFERENCES
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 3. Collaborative Sensor Networks: Taxonomy and Design Space
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. OVERVIEW
        1. 2.1 Background and Motivation
        2. 2.2 Building Blocks and Techniques
          1. 2.2.1 Infrastructure Design
          2. 2.2.2 Query Input and Data Output
          3. 2.2.3 Query Processor
      4. 3. TAXONOMY OF COLLABORATIVE SENSOR NETWORKS
        1. 3.1 Flat Architecture
          1. 3.1.1 Unified Model
          2. 3.1.2 Autonomous Model
        2. 3.2 Hierarchical Architecture
          1. 3.2.1 Centralized Model
          2. 3.2.2 Service-Oriented Model
      5. 4. DESIGN SPACE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
        1. 4.1 Formalization and Description of Sensor Networks
        2. 4.2 Interconnecting Sensor Networks
        3. 4.3 Sensing Control and Query Scheduling
        4. 4.4 Scalable and Reliable Data Management
        5. 4.5 Other Issues
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 4. QoS: Requirements, Design Features, and Challenges on Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. QOS REQUIREMENTS IN WSNS
      4. REAL TIME REQUIREMENTS
      5. ENERGY-AWARE REQUIREMENTS
      6. RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS
      7. HETEROGENEOUS TRAFFIC REQUIREMENTS
      8. DESIGN STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES TO DEAL WITH QOS IN WSNS
      9. SERVICE DIFFERENTIATION
      10. A SURVEY OF PROJECTS THAT MANAGE SOME QOS FEATURES
        1. End-to-End Delay and Latency QoS
        2. Reliability Assurance
        3. Extending Network Lifetime
        4. Network Lifetime as a Requirement
        5. Other Application-Specific QoS Features
      11. QOS CHALLENGES AND OPEN RESEARCH
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. 5. Infrastructure for Testing Nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TESTING INFRASTRUCTURE
      4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. WSN AVAILABILITY
      7. SYSTEM-LEVEL TESTING
      8. REDUCTION OF TEST DATA VOLUME
      9. TESTING INFRASTRUCTURE
      10. RF MODULE TEST SCHEME
      11. TRANSMISSION POWER AND RECEIVER SENSITIVITY
      12. ADJACENT CHANNEL AND ALTERNATE CHANNEL REJECTION
      13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF MCU TESTING
      14. INSTRUCTION SELECTION AND COMBINATION
      15. OPERAND SELECTION
      16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF EMBEDDED MEMORY TESTING
      17. SINGLE-BIT-CONVERT (SBC) ADDRESSING FOR MEMORY TESTING
      18. INTERLEAVING FLASH MEMORY TESTING WITH OTHER TESTS
      19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY THROUGH REDUCTION OF TEST DATA VOLUME
      20. CHARACTERIZATION OF SBST PROGRAM CODE
      21. GENERAL-PURPOSE COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS
        1. LZW Compression
        2. Dynamic Huffman Coding
        3. BSTW Algorithm
      22. COMPRESSION ALGORITHM COMPARISON
        1. Static Coding
        2. Universal Codes
        3. Rice Coding
      23. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
        1. WSN Research Platform
      24. RF MODULE CHARACTERIZATION
      25. MCU TESTING EFFICIENCY
      26. EMBEDDED MEMORY TESTING EFFICIENCY
        1. SBC Addressing of Flash Memory
        2. Interleaving of Flash Memory Testing with Other Tests
      27. SBST PROGRAM COMPRESSION
        1. Experimental Setup
        2. Compression Ratio Comparison
        3. Energy Expenditure Comparison
      28. CONCLUSION
      29. REFERENCES
      30. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. 6. Power Conservation Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POWER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES
        1. Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN)
        2. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)
        3. Threshold-Sensitive Energy Efficient Protocols (TEEN & APTEEN)
        4. Minimum Cost Forwarding Algorithm (MCFA
        5. Fractional Coverage Schemes (FCS)
        6. Directed Diffusion
        7. Rumor Routing
      4. DISCUSSION OF THE TECHNIQUES
        1. Issues, Controversies, and Problems
        2. Solutions and Recommendations
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  8. 2. Protocols and Middlewares
    1. 7. Practical Experiences and Design Considerations on Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL TRENDS AND SOLUTIONS
        1. Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks
        2. Main Sources of Energy Wastage
          1. Idle Listening
          2. Packet Collisions
          3. Overhearing
          4. Control Packet Overhead
        3. Energy Efficient Techniques
          1. Non-Contended Strict Time Slot Assignments
          2. Common Active/Sleep Schedules
          3. Preamble Sampling
        4. Classification of MAC Protocols
          1. TDMA-Based MAC Protocols
            1. TRAMA
            2. LMAC
            3. BitMAC
          2. Contention-Based Protocols
            1. S-MAC
            2. T-MAC
            3. B-MAC
            4. WiseMAC
          3. Hybrid Protocols
            1. Z-MAC
          4. Multi-Channel MAC Protocols
            1. DCMA/AP
      4. TRAFFIC AWARENESS IN MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL PROTOCOLS
      5. SPECTRUM AGILITY
      6. COEXISTENCE OF MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL PROTOCOLS
      7. MULTI-RADIO MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL PROTOCOLS
      8. WAKE-UP RADIO BASED SOLUTIONS
      9. CROSS-LAYER DESIGN ASPECTS
      10. PORTABLE MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL DESIGN
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 8. Transmission Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROTOCOLS
        1. Congestion Control
          1. Congestion Detection and Notification
          2. Congestion Control Algorithms
            1. 1. Traffic Control
              1. A. Source Rate Control
              2. B. Forward Rate Control
              3. C. Integrated Traffic Control
            2. 2. Traffic Multiplexing
            3. 3. Data Aggregation
            4. 4. Virtual Sink
        2. Reliability Guarantee
          1. Retransmission-Based Protocols
            1. 1. Loss Detection and Notification
            2. 2. Retransmission Mechanism
              1. A. Sink-to-Node Reliability
              2. B. Node-to-Sink Reliability
              3. C. Bidirectional Reliability
          2. Redundant Sending
            1. 1. Copy-Based Redundancy
            2. 2. Coding-Based Redundancy
        3. Fairness Guarantee
          1. Fairness Guarantee with Flow Control
            1. 1. Max-Min Fairness
            2. 2. Fairness Based on Queue Management
          2. Fairness Integrated with Congestion Control
          3. 1. Fairness Based on Traffic Control
          4. 2. Fairness Based on Queue Management
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 9. Joint Link Scheduling and Topology Control for Wireless Sensor Networks with SINR Constraints
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM MODEL AND PROBLEM DEFINITIONS
        1. System Model
        2. Problem Definitions
        3. Examples
      4. THE FOUR FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE SCHEDULING LENGTH
        1. Power Assignment Strategies Make a Difference
        2. Link Topologies Make a Difference
        3. Length Diversities Make a Difference
        4. The Scheduling Policies Make a Difference
      5. HEURISTIC ALGORITHMS FOR MLSAT
        1. Top-Down Approach
        2. Bottom-Up Approach
          1. Non-Matching Based Algorithms
          2. Matching Based Algorithms
      6. ALGORITHMS INEFFICIENCY ANALYSES
      7. JOINT TOPOLOGY CONSTRUCTION AND LINK SCHEDULING FOR MLSTT
      8. ALGORITHM COMPARISONS
        1. Comparisons of Algorithms for MLSAT
        2. Comparisons of Algorithms for MLSTT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 10. Connected k-Coverage Protocols for Densely Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Challenging Problems
          1. Sensor Capabilities and Resources
          2. Location Management
          3. Deployment Field
          4. Time-Varying Characteristics
          5. Network Scalability, Heterogeneity, and Mobility
          6. Sensing Application Needs
        2. Network Model
        3. Literature Review
          1. Two-Dimensional Connected k-Coverage
          2. Three-Dimensional Connected k-Coverage
      4. CONNECTED K-COVERAGE CONFIGURATION PROTOCOLS
        1. Two-Dimensional Network Deployment
          1. k-Coverage Characterization
          2. Centralized Clustered Protocol
          3. Distributed Protocol
          4. Performance Evaluation
        2. Three-Dimensional Network Deployment
          1. The Curse of Dimensionality
          2. Protocol Description
          3. Performance Evaluation
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
        1. Discussion
        2. Concluding Remarks
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. 11. Middleware Support for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS AND CHALLENGES OF WSN MIDDLEWARES
        1. WSN Characteristics
        2. Challenges of WSN Middleware
      4. MIDDLEWARE TAXONOMY
      5. OVERVIEW OF SOME STATE-OF-THE-ART WSN MIDDLEWARES
        1. Generic Paradigm: Local Node Programming
          1. Imperative Paradigm: Agent Model
            1. AGILLA
            2. Maté
            3. TinyLime
          2. Analysis
        2. Domain Specific Paradigm: Local Node Programming
          1. Declarative Paradigm: Event Model
            1. IMPALA
          2. Declarative Paradigm: Data Fusion Model
            1. DFUSE
          3. Analysis
        3. Domain Specific Paradigm: Global Network Programming
          1. Declarative Paradigm: Database Model
            1. TinyDB
            2. SINA
          2. Declarative Paradigm: QoS Model
            1. MiLAN
          3. Declarative Paradigm: Globally Specific Event Model
            1. AWARE
          4. Analysis
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. 3. Security and Privacy
    1. 12. A Survey on Applied Cryptography in Secure Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CRYPTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES OF SECURE MANETS/WSNS DESIGN
        1. Overview of Cryptographic Techniques
        2. Symmetric Key Techniques Applied in MANETs/WSNs
          1. Case Study 1: LHAP Protocol
        3. Asymmetric Cryptographic Techniques Applied in MANET/WSN Security
          1. Introduction to Identity-Based Cryptography
          2. Case Study 2: ID-Based Key Management Scheme - IKM
            1. Network Initialization
            2. Key Revocation
            3. Key Update
            4. SecurityAnalysis On Threshold Cryptography Used
        4. Threshold Cryptography Applied in MANET/WSN Security
        5. Other Cryptographic Techniques Applied in Security of MANET/WSN
        6. Case Study 3: An Identity-Based Batch Verification Scheme IBV
          1. Key Generation and Pre-Distribution
          2. Pseudo Identity Generation
          3. Message Signing
          4. Batch Verification
          5. Security Analysis
      4. OPEN ISSUES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 13. Privacy and Trust Management Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRIVACY
        1. Taxonomy
        2. State-of-the-Art Research
          1. Anonymity Schemes
          2. Secrecy
          3. Solitude
        3. Challenging Issues
      4. TRUST MANAGEMENT
        1. Taxonomy
        2. State-of-the-Art Research
        3. Challenging Issues
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 14. Distributed Group Security for Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON GROUP SECURITY
        1. GKM Based on Delegation of Tasks
        2. GKM Based on Tree-Based Approaches
      4. DISTRIBUTED GROUP SECURITY IN WSNS
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
        2. Solutions and Recommendations
          1. Pairwise Keying
            1. Pre-Deployment Approach
            2. Post-Deployment Approach
          2. Global Keying
      5. A DISTRIBUTED GKM PROPOSAL FOR WSNS
        1. Initial Creation of the Group
        2. Management of Group Dynamism (Joins and Leaves)
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 15. Jamming Attacks and Countermeasures in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. JAMMING ATTACK MODELS AND METRICS
        1. Jamming Attack Models
        2. Jamming Metrics
        3. Problem Definition
      4. JAMMING DETECTION
        1. Utility Metrics
        2. Detecting Jamming Attacks
      5. JAMMING DEFENSE STRATEGIES
        1. Mapping Jammed Region
        2. Channel Surfing
        3. Spatial Retreat
        4. Wormhole-Based Anti-Jamming
        5. Timing Channels
      6. LOCATE THE JAMMER
        1. Range-Based Localization
        2. Range-Free Localization
        3. Virtual Force Iterative Localization
        4. Geometric-Covering Based Localization
          1. Network Assumptions
          2. GCL Algorithm
          3. GCL Algorithm Analysis
            1. Correctness
            2. Complexity
          4. Simulation Evaluation
            1. Accuracy
            2. Impact of Node Density
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH ISSUES
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. 4. Practices and Applications
    1. 16. Visualizations of Wireless Sensor Network Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Characteristics and Properties
        2. Analysis of Existing Deployments
        3. Existing Visualizations
          1. Network
          2. Sensed Data
          3. Hybrid
          4. Summary
      4. MULTIPLE LEVEL VISUALIZATION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 17. Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks: From Theory to Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFENCE AGAINST THE HOT-SPOT PROBLEM
      4. DEPLOYMENT STRATEGIES INVOLVING SINK MOBILITY
        1. Taxonomy of Deployment Scenarios Involving Mobile Sink(s)
          1. Types of Node-to-Sink Data Delivery
          2. Types of Mobile Sink Trajectories
        2. Mobile-Sink Deployment Scenario Close to Reality
      5. MULTI-HOP DATA DELIVERY WITH PREDICTABLE/FIXED TRAJECTORY MODEL: ANALYTICAL EVALUATION
        1. Analytical Preliminaries
          1. Network Assumptions
          2. Performance Metrics
        2. Analytical Results
          1. Total Energy Consumption
          2. Average Packet Delay
          3. Network Lifetime / Maximum Node Load
      6. SINK MOBILITY IN ZIGBEE WSNS: SIMULATION-BASED EVALUATION
        1. Overview of ZigBee
        2. Simulation Preliminaries
          1. Simulation Tool
          2. Network Parameters
          3. Performance Metrics
        3. Simulation Results
          1. Maximum Node Load
          2. Overall Energy Consumption and Packet Delivery Delay
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. A. APPENDIX
    4. 18. Network-Wide Broadcast Service in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
        1. Network-Wide Broadcast
        2. Low Duty-Cycle Networks
        3. Summary
      4. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      5. ALGORITHM DESIGN FOR RBS
        1. Definitions
        2. Algorithm Description
          1. Wake-Up Message Processing
          2. Broadcast Message Processing
          3. Dynamic Forwarding Scheduling
      6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Settings
        2. Simulation Results
          1. Scalability with Node Number
          2. Robustness Against Wireless Loss
          3. Adaptability to Duty-Cycle
      7. FURTHER DISCUSSION ON PRACTICAL ISSUES
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTE
    5. 19. Description and Analysis of an Indoor Positioning System that Uses Wireless ZigBee Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LOCATION METHODS
      4. ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY
      5. CHIPCON'S SYSTEM ON CHIP CC2431
      6. COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM
        1. Hardware
        2. Software
        3. General Vision of the System
      7. OBJECTIVES
      8. EXPOSITION OF THE STUDY
        1. General Analysis of Precision in the Positioning
          1. Test Scenario
          2. Results
        2. Analysis of the Influence of the Number of Reference Nodes
          1. Test Scenario
          2. Results
        3. Analysis of the Influence of the Reference Nodes Disposition
          1. Test Scenario
          2. Results
        4. Analysis of the Influence of the Distance Between Nodes I
          1. Test Scenario
          2. Results
        5. Analysis of the Influence of the Distance Between Nodes II
          1. Test Scenario
          2. Results
        6. Reach Analysis
          1. Test Scenario
          2. Results
        7. Analysis of the Influence of Obstacles
          1. Test Scenario
          2. Results
      9. RESULTS SUMMARY
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. 20. Sensor Web: Integration of Sensor Networks with Web and Cyber Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SENSOR WEB ENABLEMENT
      5. OPEN SENSORWEB ARCHITECTURE
        1. Sensor Model Language
        2. Observations and Measurements Schema
        3. Transducer Markup Language
        4. Sensor Observation Service
        5. Sensor Planning Service
        6. Sensor Alert Service
        7. Web Notification Service
      6. CASE STUDY: A GESTURE RECOGNITION APPLICATION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Contributors