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Handbook of Research on Business Process Modeling

Book Description

The Handbook of Research on Business Process Modeling aids managers in the transformation of organizations into world-class competitors through business process applications. A useful resource for business leaders, field researchers, and academicians, this reference book contains a repository to the most relevant and up-to-date information on business process modeling.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. List of Contributors
  3. Preface
  4. About the Editors
  5. I. Advanced Modeling Methodologies
    1. I. Business Process Modelling in the jABC: The One-Thing-Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WHY "ONE THING": THE CULTURAL GAP
      3. EXTREME MODEL DRIVEN DESIGN: THE ONE THING APPROACH
      4. EXTREME MODEL-DRIVEN DESIGN (XMDD) CONTRASTS THE CLASSICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PRACTICE
      5. THE jABC FRAMEWORK: AN INTERGRATED ENVIRONMENT FOR EXTREME MODEL DRIVEN DESIGN
        1. jABC: Empowering the Business Developer
        2. Models and Metamodel
      6. MODELLING VARIABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY
      7. VARYING POWER FOR DIFFERENT NEEDS AT DIFFERENT TIMES
      8. XMDD-BASED CONTINUOUS ENGINEERING
      9. CASE STUDY: COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SCM APPLICATIONS
        1. The Setting
        2. The Starting Point
        3. Introducing jABC
        4. Designing the Document Management Process
        5. The Global Workflow
        6. The Delivery Management Workflow
        7. The Document Management Workflow
        8. Workflow Granularity
        9. Workflow Validation and Verification
        10. Workflow Execution
        11. Workflow Evolution
      10. APPROACH AND LESSONS LEARNED
      11. RELATED WORK
      12. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
      15. QUESTIONS
      16. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      17. ENDNOTES
    2. II. Modeling Process-Driven SOAs: A View-Based Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF THE MODELING FRAMEWORK
      4. VIEW-BASED MODELING FRAMEWORK
        1. The Core Model
        2. Control-Flow View Model
        3. Collaboration View Model
        4. Information View Model
        5. Human View Model
        6. Extension Mechanisms
        7. Integration Mechanisms
        8. Model Transformations
      5. CASE STUDY
        1. The Shopping Process
        2. View Development
        3. View Integration
        4. Code Generation
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      11. EXERCISES
        1. Beginner
        2. Intermediate
        3. Advanced
        4. Practical Exercise
    3. III. Process Modeling for Holistic Process Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT
        1. 1.1 Process Management Life Cycle
        2. 1.2 Holistic Approach
        3. 1.3 Standards
      3. 2. PERSPECTIVE ORIENTED PROCESS MODELING
        1. 2.1 Functional Perspective
        2. 2.2 Data and Dataflow Perspective
        3. 2.3 Behavioral Perspective
        4. 2.4 Organizational Perspective
        5. 2.5 Operational Perspective
        6. 2.6 Further Perspectives
      4. 3. IMPLEMENTING PERSPECTIVE ORIENTED PROCESS MODELING
        1. 3.1 Excursus
      5. 4. PROCESS VISUALIZATION
        1. 4.1 Models as Communication Means
        2. 4.2 Supporting Domain Specific Visualization
      6. 5. CONCLUSION, SUMMARY, AND OUTLOOK
      7. 6. EXERCISES
        1. 6.1 Process Design
        2. 6.2 Registration for an Exam
        3. 6.3 Development of Domain Specific Modeling Constructs for Flow Perspectives (Here: Behavioral Perspective)
        4. 6.4 Modeling the Organizational Perspective
      8. 7. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  6. II. Modern Business Process Languages
    1. IV. The Dichotomy of Modeling and Execution: BPMN and WS-BPEL
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Business Process Modeling Notation
        2. WS-BPEL 2.0 and BPEL4People
          1. WS-BPEL Extension for People
        3. Service Component Architecture
      3. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT USING BPMN AND WS-BPEL
        1. Mapping from BPMN to WS-BPEL
        2. Introducing Constraints for BPMN
        3. Mapping BPMN Constructs to SCA
        4. Mapping BPMN User Tasks to BPEL-4People
      4. REMAINING PAIN POINTS AND SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS
        1. Recommendations for BPMN
        2. Recommendations for BPEL
          1. WS-BPEL Extension for Cyclic Flows
          2. WS-BPEL Extension for Deferred Choices
          3. WS-BPEL Extension for Fault Links
        3. Improved Mapping and Further Considerations
      5. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      6. EXERCISES
        1. Beginner:
        2. Intermediate:
        3. Advanced:
      7. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      8. REFERENCES
    2. V. Yet Another Workflow Language: Concepts, Tool Support, and Application
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Workflow Patterns
        2. Approaches to Process Modelling and Execution
      4. CONCEPTS
        1. Control-Flow Perspective
          1. Petri Nets
          2. Workflow Nets
          3. YAWL
        2. Data Perspective
        3. Resource Perspective
        4. Exception Handling
        5. Dynamic Workflow
      5. SYSTEM
        1. Architecture
        2. Design Environment
        3. Runtime Environment
      6. CASE STUDY: YAWL4FILM
        1. Background and Overview
        2. Process Model
        3. User Interface
        4. Pilot Projects
      7. EPILOGUE
      8. EXERCISES
      9. REFERENCES
      10. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      12. ENDNOTES
    3. VI. Modelling Constructs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
        1. 2.1 Business Processes Modelling
        2. 2.2 Business Processes and Workflows
        3. 2.3 Problems with Existing Notations
        4. 2.4 Workflow Patterns
        5. 2.5 Objectives of this Chapter
      4. 3. PRINCIPLES
        1. 3.1 Modelling Objectives
        2. 3.2 Criteria for Models
      5. 4. MODELLING CONSTRUCTS
        1. 4.1 Patterns and Concepts
          1. Basic Patterns
          2. Concurrent Execution and Dependencies
          3. Multiple Instances
          4. External Choice
          5. Non-Local Synchronization
          6. Explicit and Implicit Termination
          7. Sub-Processes
          8. Start Over
        2. 4.2 Constructs
          1. Basic Formalism
          2. Blocks
          3. Block Entry Modes
          4. Block Termination Modes
          5. Cancellation
          6. Exceptions
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. EXERCISES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. VII. ICN-Based Workflow Model and its Advances
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. ICN-Based Workflow Model
        2. Workflow Meta-Model
        3. Information Control Net
        4. An Example: The Hiring Workflow Model
          1. Elementary Activities
        5. Actors and Roles
        6. Relevant Data
      4. ADVANCED WORKFLOW MODELS
        1. Role-Based Workflow Model
        2. Actor-Based Workflow Model
      5. IMPLICATIONS ON WORKFLOW ARCHITECTURES
        1. Workflow Architectural Complexity
        2. Workflow Architectural Framework
        3. Advanced Workflow Architectures
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
  7. III. Process Models in Dynamic Environments
    1. VIII. Enabling Adaptive Process-Aware Information Systems with ADEPT2
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUNDS AND BASIC NOTIONS
      4. PROCESS MODELING AND ENACTMENT IN ADEPT2
        1. Process Modeling in ADEPT2
          1. Basic Concepts for Control Flow Modeling
          2. Basic Concepts for Data Flow Modeling
          3. Process Composition by Plug & Play of Application Components
        2. Process Enactment in ADEPT2
        3. Other Process Aspects Covered in ADEPT2
      5. ADEPT2 PROCESS CHANGE FRAMEWORK
        1. Requirements
        2. Support of Change Patterns in ADEPT2
        3. Ensuring Correctness of Dynamic Changes
        4. Scenarios for Dynamic Process Changes in ADEPT2
          1. Ad-Hoc Changes of Single Process Instances
          2. Process Schema Evolution
        5. Full Process Lifecycle Support Through Adaptive Processes
      6. ARCHITECTURE OF THE ADEPT2 PROCESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      7. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. EXCERCISES
    2. IX. Modelling Business Process Variability for Design-Time Configuration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LANGUAGES FOR BUSINESS PROCESS VARIABILITY MODELING
        1. Configurable Nodes
        2. Hiding and Blocking
        3. Annotation-Based Process Variability
      4. DOMAIN-ORIENTED PROCESS CONFIGURATION
        1. Questionnaire Models
        2. Feature Diagrams
        3. Adaptive Mechanisms
      5. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
      6. EXERCISES
      7. ADDITIONAL READINGS AND RESOURCES
        1. Configurable Nodes
        2. Hiding & Blocking
        3. Annotation-Based Process Variability
        4. Questionnaire Models
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. X. Design of Repairable Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TYPES OF REPAIR
      4. DESIGN TIME REPAIR STRATEGIES
        1. Insertion of Functional Monitors
        2. Exception Handlers
        3. Service Redundancy
        4. QoS Constraints Monitors
      5. RUN-TIME REPAIR STRATEGIES
      6. REPAIR STRATEGIES EVALUATION
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    4. XI. Web Process Adaptation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTROL THEORY BASICS
        1. System
        2. Controller
        3. Open and Closed Loop Controllers
      4. ADAPTATION CONTROLLER FOR WEB PROCESSES
        1. Adaptation in WS-BPEL: Open Loop Adaptation
        2. Adaptation in METEOR-S: Closed Loop Adaptation
      5. OTHER EXAMPLES OF CLOSED LOOP WEB PROCESS ADAPTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. EXERCISES
  8. IV. Enriching Process Models and Enactment Architectures
    1. XII. Temporalities for Workflow Management Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEMPORALITIES IN WORKFLOW MODELS
        1. Temporalities in the Process Model
        2. Temporalities in the Information Model
        3. Temporalities in the Organizational Model
      4. TEMPORALITIES IN EXPECTED EXCEPTIONS
      5. TEMPORAL SCHEDULING
        1. The Algorithm
      6. TEMPORAL ARCHITECTURES FOR WFMSS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. EXERCISES
        1. Exercise 1
        2. Exercise 2
        3. Exercise 3
        4. Exercise 4
        5. Exercise 5
        6. Exercise 6
        7. Exercise 7
      11. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READINGS
        1. Temporalities in the Process Model
        2. Temporalities in the Organizational Model
        3. Temporalities in Expected Exceptions
        4. Temporal Scheduling
        5. Temporal Architectures for WfMSs
    2. XIII. The People Integration Challenge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CASE FOR PEOPLE INTEGRATION
      4. FROM WORKFLOW TO SERVICE ORCHESTRATION
      5. MODELLING THE HUMAN PROCESS INTERFACE
      6. SERVICE-ENABLING HUMAN TASKS
        1. Architectural Constellations
        2. The WS-HumanTask Lifecycle Model
        3. Roles and Role Resolution
        4. Deadline and Escalation Management
        5. Building Task List Clients
      7. OPPORTUNITIES FOR FURTHER ENHANCEMENT
        1. Enhancing the Notion of the Organisational Model
        2. Integrating External Resource Repositories
        3. Supporting Complex Work Distribution Strategies
        4. Extending Security and Authorisation Capabilities
      8. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
      9. FURTHER READING
      10. REFERENCES
      11. EXERCISES
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      13. ENDNOTES
    3. XIV. Semantic Business Process Management: Applying Ontologies in BPM
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION OVERVIEW: EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES, NOTATIONS AND APPROACHES
        1. 2.1 BPM Lifecycle
        2. 2.2 Applying Ontologies in Service Modeling and Execution
      4. 3. ENHANCING BPM WITH SEMANTICS
        1. 3.1 SBPM Lifecycle
        2. 3.2 Modeling
        3. 3.3 Configuration
        4. 3.4 Execution
        5. 3.5 Analysis and Monitoring
      5. 4. ARCHITECTURE
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. XV. Compiling Business Process Models into Executable Code
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION
      4. PROCESS REPRESENTATIONS
      5. EXAMPLE
        1. Design-Time Control Flow Graphs
        2. Run-Time Control Flow Graphs
        3. Design-Time XML Serialization
        4. Run-Time Control Flow Graphs
        5. Run-Time Java Code
      6. ARCHITECTURE
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. EXERCISES
        1. Beginner
        2. Intermediate
        3. Advanced
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      13. ENDNOTES
    5. XVI. Using WfMS to Support Unstructured Activities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ADJUSTING THE WFMS TO ORGANIZATIONS
      4. 3. EXCEPTIONS IN WFMS
        1. 3.1 Systems Perspective on Failures and Exceptions
        2. 3.2 Organizational Perspective on Exceptions
        3. 3.3 New Exception Classification
      5. 4. OPENNESS AND COMPLETENESS
      6. 5. RESILIENCE IN WFMS
        1. 5.1 Systemic Approaches to Increase Resilience
        2. 5.2 Human-Oriented Approaches to Increase Resilience
        3. 5.3 Discussion
      7. 6. A SOLUTION TO SUPPORT THE WHOLE SPECTRUM OF ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITIES
        1. 6.1 Conceptual Approach
        2. 6.2 Basic Functions
        3. 6.3 Situation Diagnosis
        4. 6.4 Exception Handling Strategies
      8. 7. SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE AND IMPLEMENTATION
        1. 7.1 Architecture
        2. 7.2 Exception Handling Workflow
        3. 7.3 Recovery Actions, Monitoring Actions and Support Users Removing Inconsistencies
      9. 8. EVALUATION
        1. 8.1 Exercises
      10. 9. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      13. ENDNOTES
  9. V. Business Process Management in Organizations
    1. XVII. Business Process Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUSINES PROCESS MANAGEMENT
      4. ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION ENGINEERING
      5. BUSINESS PROCESS ENGINEERING
      6. MULTIPLE FACILITY CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
      7. STARTEGIC INTELLIGENCE AS SUPPORT FOR SUCESSFUL BUSINESS OPERATION
      8. BODY OF KNOWLEDGE FOR BUSINESS PROCESS ENGINEERING
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. EXERCISES
        1. Practical Exercise
      13. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    2. XVIII. B2B and EAI with Business Process Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTEGRATION EXAMPLES
        1. B2B Example: RFQ Process
        2. EAI Example: Process Integration
      4. INTEGRATION ABSTRACTION
      5. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF INTEGRATION
        1. Integration
        2. Endpoint
        3. Formats and Protocols (FAP)
        4. Process
        5. Data Flow
        6. Data Mediation
        7. Canonical Data Definition
        8. Compensation
      6. INTEGRATION SCENARIOS
        1. Data Copying
        2. Integration Expansion
        3. Business Process
      7. SUMMARY
      8. EXERCISES
        1. Hotel Room Availability Inquiry (Beginner)
        2. Customer Address Update (Intermediate)
        3. Error Handling (Intermediate)
        4. Master-Slave Replication (Advanced)
        5. Consistent Data Update (Advanced)
        6. Data Replication (Most Advanced)
      9. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    3. XIX. Systems for Interorganizational Business Process Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERORGANIZATIONAL BUSINESS PROCESSES
        1. The Concept of Intraorganizational Business Processes
        2. The Concept of Interorganizational Business Processes
        3. Levels in Interorganizational Business Processes
        4. Static vs. Dynamic Interorganizational Business Processes
      4. EARLY DEVELOPMENTS
        1. Brief Overview of Projects
      5. WISE
      6. CROSSFLOW: DYNAMIC SERVICE OUTSOURCING
        1. The Cross Flow Approach
          1. Dynamic Service Outsourcing
          2. Contract-Based Service Specification
          3. Fine-Grained, Advanced Interaction
          4. Contract-Dependent Generation of Enactment Infrastructure
        2. The Cross Flow System
          1. Contract Establishment
          2. Dynamic Infrastructure Generation
          3. Contract Enactment
          4. Dynamic Infrastructure Disposal
        3. Cross Flow in Retrospective
      7. CROSSWORK: DYNAMIC PROCESS COMPOSITION
        1. Business Processes in Instant Virtual Enterprises
        2. The Cross Work System
        3. CrossWork in Retrospective
      8. XTC: TRANSACTIONAL PROCESS SERVICE INTEGRATION
        1. The XTC Approach to Business Process Management
          1. Explicit Treatment of Process Reliability
          2. Dual View on Processes and Services
          3. Modular, Service-Oriented Business Process Composition
        2. The XTC Architecture
        3. XTC in Retrospective
      9. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. EXERCISES
      12. REFERENCES (SUGGESTED FURTHER READING)
      13. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    4. XX. The Journey to Business Process Compliance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 1.1 Compliance Space
        2. 1.2 Managing Compliance
        3. 1.3 Organisation of the Chapter
      3. 2. NORMATIVE SPECIFICATIONS
        1. 2.1 Formalising Deontic Constraints
        2. 2.2 Formalising Violations of Deontic Constraints
        3. 2.3 Formal Contract Logic (FCL)
        4. 2.4 Normal Forms
          1. 2.4.1 Merging Norms
          2. 2.4.2 Removing Redundancies
          3. 2.4.3 Normalisation Process
        5. 2.5 Reasoning with Norms
          1. 2.5.1 Defeasible Logic at Work
          2. 2.5.2 Adding Reparation Chains
        6. 2.6 Summary
      4. 3. PROCESS MODELLING
        1. 3.1 Execution Semantics
        2. 3.2 Annotation of Processes
        3. 3.3 Summary
      5. 4. COMPLIANCE CHECKING
        1. 4.1 Ideal Semantics
        2. 4.2 Checking Compliance
        3. 4.3 From Tasks to Obligations
        4. 4.4 Obligation Propagation
        5. 4.5 Summary
      6. 5. RELATED WORK
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      11. ENDNOTES
  10. VI. Improving Business Processes
    1. XXI. Business Process Intelligence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PROCESS MINING FOR MODELING
        1. 2.1 Running Example
        2. 2.2 Discovery Techniques
        3. 2.3 Conformance Techniques
        4. 2.4 Extension Techniques
      4. 3. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION
        1. 3.1 Critical Factor Analysis
        2. 3.2 Prediction
        3. 3.3 Business Impact Analysis
        4. 3.4 Resource Allocation
      5. 4. PRACTICAL CHALLENGES AND FUTURE TRENDS
        1. 4.1 Technical Challenges
        2. 4.2 Interpretative Challenges
        3. 4.3 Pragmatic Challenges
        4. 4.4 Future Trends
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      9. EXERCISES
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. XXII. Applied Sequence Clustering Techniques for Process Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SEQUENCE CLUSTERING
      4. 3. DATA PREPROCESSING
      5. 4. CASE STUDY: MINING HUMAN ACTIVITIES
      6. 5. CASE STUDY: CONFORMANCE OF AN ISSUE HANDLING PROCESS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. EXERCISES
      9. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      12. ENDNOTES
    3. XXIII. A Data–Centric Design Methodology for Business Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE DATA-CENTRIC DESIGN METHODOLOGY
        1. 2.1. A Family of Possible Artifact-Centric Business Process Models
        2. 2.2. Overview of Design Methodology
      4. 3. ILLUSTRATION OF THE DESIGN METHODOLOGY
        1. 3.1. Business Artifact Discovery for DES
        2. 3.2. Design of the Business Operations Model for DES
        3. 3.3. Workflow Realization for DES
      5. 4. DISCUSSIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERM
        1. Glossary
    4. XXIV. Measurement and Maturity of Business Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUSINESS PROCESS MATURITY MODEL
        1. The Five Maturity Levels of BPMM
      4. MEASUREMENT ACTIVITIES IN BPMM
        1. Process Areas with Guidelines for Measurement
        2. The Implicit Process of Measurement and Analysis in BPMM
      5. MEASURABLE CONCEPTS AND MEASURES ALIGNED WITH BPMM
        1. State of the Art of Measures for Business Process
        2. Measures for Business Processes at Each Maturity Level
          1. Measures for Business Process Modeling
          2. Measures for Business Process Execution
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Contributors