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Handbook of Research on Secure Multimedia Distribution

Book Description

The Handbook of Research on Secure Multimedia Distribution provides the latest research on secure multimedia content distribution, embracing a wide variety of aspects and providing a scientifically and scholarly sound treatment of state-of-the-art techniques to students, researchers, and academicians.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. List of Contributors
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. I. Secure Distribution Systems
    1. I. Rights Expression Languages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN OVERVIEW OF RIGHTS EXPRESSION LANGUAGES
        1. The Role of REL in DRM Systems
        2. Conceptual Model
      4. FORMALIZATION OF RELs
        1. XML-Based RELs
        2. Logic-Based RELs
        3. Role of REL in DRM Systems
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    2. II. Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DRM TECHNIQUES
        1. Software Self-Defense
        2. BOBE-Resistance
        3. Hardware-Assisted DRM
      4. DRM FOR STREAMING MEDIA
        1. Streaming Media System
        2. DRM System
        3. Comparison with Windows Media Player
      5. ATTACKS
      6. IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Operating System Issues
        2. Open Source Resources
        3. Distinct Scrambling Algorithms
        4. Hardware Requirements
        5. Implementation in Linux
          1. Server-Side Components
          2. Receiver-Side Components
          3. Secure Device Driver
          4. Streaming Data
          5. HTTPS and RTP Clients
          6. Creating Receiver Components
        6. Deployment
          1. Performance Issues
          2. Comparison of Secure RTP, RTP and HTTPS
          3. Testing of Secure Driver
          4. Startup Latency and Throughput
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    3. III. Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
        1. Putting the User in Charge
      4. A MODEL FOR MANAGING EXCEPTIONS IN DRM ENVIRONMENTS
        1. Content Protection
        2. Exception Management
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    4. IV. Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BASIC TERMS AND CONCEPTS OF DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT
      4. THE OPEN MOBILE ALLIANCE™ AND OMA DRM
      5. CONTROLLED ACCESS TO DIGITAL WORKS: OMA DRM version 2.0
        1. General Overview of the OMA DRM Architecture
        2. Rights Objects and Rights Expression Language
        3. Public Key Infrastructure and Device Binding
        4. Domains
        5. Protected Content Format
        6. Superdistribution
        7. Subscription Services
        8. Backup
        9. Export
      6. USAGE MEASUREMENT AND LICENSE TRANSFER: OMA DRM VERSION 2.1
      7. OMA DRM EXTENSIONS FOR BROADCAST SUPPORT
        1. Key Management System
      8. OMA BCAST PROFILES
        1. OMA DRM v2.0 Extensions for Broadcast Support
          1. Binary Messages
          2. Subscriber Group Management
          3. Broadcast Encryption Schemes
          4. Token-Based Consumption
        2. Transport and Recording of Broadcast Streams
      9. PORTABILITY OF PROTECTED CONTENT: OMA SECURE REMOVABLE MEDIA
        1. Architecture of an SRM
        2. Move of Rights Objects
        3. Direct Rendering of Content
        4. Mutual Authentication and Revocation
      10. MORE FLEXIBILITY: OMA SECURE CONTENT EXCHANGE
        1. User Domains
        2. Move Operation
        3. Adhoc Sharing
        4. Import
      11. FURTHER DRM ISSUES
        1. Privacy Considerations
        2. DRM Interoperability
      12. SUMMARY
      13. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      14. APPENDIX: USE OF TRADEMARKs AND REGISTERED TRADEMARKS
    5. V. Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEM ANALYSIS
        1. Establishing Terminology, Core stakeholders and Their Incentives
          1. Content Creator
          2. Distributor
          3. User
        2. Conceptual process Model
        3. Problem Analysis Results
      4. ESTABLISHING CORE SECURITY REQUIREMENTS USING OBJECTIVE TREES
        1. Content Creator
        2. Distributor
        3. User
        4. Consequences
      5. APPLICABILITY
        1. Comparison to Generic DRM systems
          1. Coral
          2. Open Mobile Alliance DRM
          3. Marlin
        2. Verifying DRM Design
        3. Application to popular DRM system
          1. Windows Media DRM
          2. iTunes
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      9. ENDNOTES
    6. VI. Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. P2P Networks
        2. Digital Rights Management
        3. DRM for P2P Networks
        4. Motivation and Design Goals
        5. Prior Research
      4. DESIGN
        1. Design Decisions
          1. A Hybrid Approach
          2. Entities
          3. Content Distribution
          4. Model for Reselling
          5. Content Packaging
          6. Use of PKI
          7. License Distribution
          8. Independence from the Underlying P2P Network
          9. Need for Client Software
          10. Portability
          11. BOBE Resistance
        2. Architecture
          1. Content Wrapper
          2. Functional Architecture
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Secure Superscripter Peer (SSP)
          1. Multiple Connections
          2. Identification of Users
          3. User Interface
          4. Class Diagram
        2. Wrapper Creator Software
          1. Design Pattern
          2. Wrapper as an Executable Archive
          3. Format of Unencrypted Metadata
          4. User-Interface
        3. Wrapper Access Software
          1. Archive Extraction
          2. User-Interface
          3. Class Diagram
      6. SECURITY ANALYSIS
        1. SSP Security Features
          1. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
            1. SSP Authentication Through SSL
            2. Secure Data Exchange Through SSL
            3. SSL Implementation in P2PRM
          2. Master Key Generation and Encryption
        2. Security Features of Wrapper Creator software
          1. Content Encryption
          2. License with Content
          3. BOBE Resistance
          4. Secure Connection to SSP
        3. Security Features in Wrapper Access Software
          1. Unauthorized Access
          2. Hard Disk Storage
          3. Secure Connection to SSP
      7. TESTING
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    7. VII. Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. A. Video Surveillance Applications
        2. B. Video Surveillance Systems Components
        3. C. Video Surveillance Over IP
        4. D. Migration and Extension to Wireless Networks for Video Surveillance Systems
      4. TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES
      5. VIDEO ENCODING AND COMPRESSION
      6. TRAFFIC ENGINEERING AND CENTRALIZED NETWORK DESIGN
      7. DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENCE NETWORK DESIGN
      8. REAL-LIFE CASE STUDY: VIDEO SURVEILLANCE IN A LARGE INDUSTRIAL SEAPORT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      11. ENDNOTES
    8. VIII. P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. MPEG-4
          1. Fairplay
          2. Purchasing and Downloading a Song
          3. Playing a Purchased Song
          4. Watermarking
        2. Reverse Engineering iTunes
        3. Introduction to P2P Networks
        4. Goals of this Research
        5. Previous Work
      4. DESIGN OF P2PTunes
        1. A Hybrid Approach
        2. Entities in P2PTunes
        3. Architecture of P2PTunes
          1. P2PTunes Metadata
          2. Purchasing and Playing a Song
        4. Advantages of P2PTunes
        5. P2P Issues
      5. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
      6. SECURITY
        1. Initiate Request
        2. Respond to a Request
        3. Choose Specific Content
        4. Content Transmitted
        5. Originator Receives Data
        6. Role of PTS
        7. Playing Purchased Content
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    9. IX. A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND PROPOSED APPROACH
        1. Access Control & DRM Models
          1. Access Control Models
          2. DRM Languages
          3. Access & Usage Control Rules
        2. Secure Enforcement of Access & Usage Control
          1. Enforcement of Access & Usage Control
          2. Background on Secure Chips
        3. Trusted AUC Architecture
      4. HARDWARE BASED SECURITY ELEMENTS
        1. Hardware Enforcement of XML Access Control Rules
          1. Streaming Evaluation of Access Control Rules
          2. Integrity Checking with Random Accesses
          3. Dynamic Access Control Policy Management
        2. Protection of On-Board Data
          1. Databases on Chip: Existing Approaches and Systems
          2. Challenges Related to Data Storage and Indexation
          3. EEPROM and Flash-Based Solutions
      5. SCENARIOS
        1. A Fair DRM Scenario
        2. Healthcare Scenario
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTES
  9. II. Core Techniques
    1. X. A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TESTING THE DIFFIE-HELLMAN ASSUMPTION
        1. Testing procedure to determine validity of DHI for a group G
        2. Extension to Two or More Groups
      5. TESTING THE DIFFIE-HELLMAN INDISTINGUISHABILITY ASSUMPTION IN THE MULTIPLICATIVE GROUP Z*p
        1. The Rate of Convergence of the Testing procedure
        2. Comparis/titleon of the DHI Assumption Across Groups
      6. A LOOK OF THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE DISCRETE LOGARITHM PROBLEM
        1. So What is the Conclusion to be Drawn From These Numbers?
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. XI. Secret Sharing with K-Dimensional Access Structure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: SECRET SHARING SCHEMES
          1. (k, n) Threshold Secret Sharing Schemes
        1. Secret Sharing Schemes Based on General Access Structure
      4. GRAPH-BASED GENERAL ACCESS STRUCTURE FOR SECRET SHARING
        1. Secret Sharing in Graph-Based Access Structure
        2. Secret Sharing in Graph-Based Prohibited Structure
        3. Secret Sharing in Graph-Based Adversary Structures
        4. Remarks
      5. A PLANE-BASED ACCESS STRUCTURE FOR SECRET SHARING
        1. Shares Generation Phase
        2. Secret Recovery Phase
        3. Performance Comparison
        4. Remarks
      6. A GENERIC K-Dimensional ACCESS STRUCTURE FOR SECRET SHARING
        1. System Initialization Phase
        2. Shares Generation Phase
          1. Secret Recovery Phase
          2. Security Analysis
          3. Performance Analysis
          4. Remarks
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    3. XII. Wireless Video Transmission
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON VIDEO CODING STANDARDS
        1. Video Compression Concepts
      4. H.264/AVC MPEG-4 PART 10 ADVANCED VIDEO CODING STANDARD
        1. Error-Resilient Tools in H.264/AVC
        2. Rate Control scheme in H.264/AVC
      5. WIRELESS CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS
        1. Radio Channel Parameters
          1. Time Delay Spread and Coherence Bandwidth
          2. Doppler Spread and Coherence Time
        2. Wireless Channel Simulator
      6. ERROR RESILIENT VIDEO TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
      7. SELECTED WORKS IN H.264/AVC WIRELESS VIDEO TRANSMISSION
        1. Improved H.264/AVC Rate Control Using Channel Throughput Estimate for ARQ-Based Wireless Video Transmission
        2. Using FMO for H.264/AVC Wireless Video Transmission
          1. Joint FMO and FEC Coding for H.264/ AVC Wireless Video Transmission
          2. Joint FMO Using Spatial and Temporal Indicators, FEC Coding and Interleaving for Wireless Video Transmission
      8. SUMMARY AND FURTHER READINGS
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    4. XIII. A Survey of Information Hiding
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY
        1. A. Temporal Method
        2. B. Spatial Domain Method
        3. C. Fractal Method
      5. VIDEO STEGANOGRAPHY
        1. B.Finding New Dimensions in Video
        2. C. Using the Special Characteristics of Video Saving Formats
      6. AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY
        1. A. Wavelet Domain LSB (Cvejic and Seppanen, 2002)
        2. B. Audio-to-Image Wavelet Domain Steganography (Santosa and Bao, 2005)
        3. C. Comparing Wavelet and Fourier Transforms for High Rate Steganography (Cvejic and Seppanen, 2004)
      7. TEXT STEGANOGRAPHY
        1. A. Steganography of Information in Random Character and Word Sequences
        2. B. Steganography of Information in Specific Characters in Words
        3. C. Creating Spam Texts
        4. D. Line Shifting
        5. E. Word Shifting
        6. F. Syntactic Methods
        7. G. Semantic Methods
        8. H. Feature Coding
        9. I. Abbreviation
        10. J. Open Spaces
        11. K. Persian/Arabic Text Steganography
      8. STEGANOGRAPHY IN BLACK &WHITE IMAGE
        1. A. Using Dithered Images
        2. B. Method to Displace Words and Lines
        3. C. Changing Two Bits in Each Block
        4. D. Changing One Bit in Each Block
      9. STEGANOGRAPHY IN WEB PAGES
        1. A. Hiding in Comments
        2. B. Hiding at the End of HTML Files
        3. C. Steganography by Creating White Spaces
        4. D. Hiding by Changing the Case of the Letters
        5. E. Hiding by Permuting Tags' Attributes
        6. F. Steganography in Tags' ID
        7. G. Steganography by Adding Pseudo-Spaces
        8. H. Steganography in HTTP Protocol
        9. I. Steganography by Chaning Page Elements' Color
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    5. XIV. Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING ALGORITHM
        1. Spatial Domain
        2. Wavelet Domain
      4. WATERMARKING CAPACITY
      5. WATERMARKING CAPACITY BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK
        1. Algorithm
        2. Capacity Based on Neural Network
        3. The Minimum Capacity
      6. DETECTION ERROR RATE
        1. Capacity and Detection Error Rate
        2. The Bounds of Error Rate
      7. PAYLOAD CAPACITY
      8. RESULTS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    6. XV. Digital Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Steganography
        2. Cryptography
        3. Digital Watermarking Reviewed
        4. Watermarking
      4. WATERMARKING TRADEOFFS
      5. KERCHOFF'S ASSUMPTION
      6. APPLICATIONS OF WATERMARKING
      7. COMMERCIAL WATERMARKING
      8. THE WATERMARKING PROCESS
        1. Watermark Types
      9. WATERMARK EMBEDDING
        1. Spread Spectrum Watermarking
        2. Pseudorandom Watermarks
        3. Chaotic watermarks
        4. Embedding Domains
        5. Watermark Detection
        6. Attacks
      10. FUTURE TRENDS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    7. XVI. Digital Video Authentication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1.INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. A TYPICAL VIDEO AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM
        1. 2.1 Properties and Design Issues
        2. 2.2 Classification of Benign and Tampering Operations
        3. 2.3 Classification of Authentication Scenarios
      4. 3. VIDEO AUTHENTICATION TECHNIQUES
        1. 3.1 Digital Signature Schemes
        2. 3.2 Digital Watermarking Schemes
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. 5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    8. XVII. Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 AUTHENTICATION BASICS
        1. 2.1 Message Authentication
        2. 2.2 Multimedia Authentication
      4. 3 PRIOR ART ON STREAM AUTHENTICATION TECHNIQUES
        1. 3.1 Packet Based Stream Authentication Scheme (P-SAS)
          1. 3.1.1 Graph Based Stream Authentication Scheme (GP-SAS)
          2. 3.1.2 Tree Based Stream Authentication Scheme (TP-SAS)
        2. 3.2 Packet Independent Stream Authentication Scheme (PiSAS)
      5. 4 FLEXIBLE STREAM AUTHENTICATION FRAMEWORK
      6. 5 PiSAS OVER LAYERED STREAM
        1. 5.1 Notations and Preliminaries
        2. 5.2 PiSAS Preparation
          1. 5.2.1 Generating Authentication Data
          2. 5.2.2 Amortizing Authentication Data
        3. 5.3 PiSAS Transcoding
        4. 5.3 PiSAS Verification
      7. 6 SECURITY AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
        1. 6.1 Authentication Probability
        2. 6.2 Computational Cost
        3. 6.3 Communication Overhead
      8. 7 FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    9. XVIII. Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Watermarking
        2. Compression
        3. The Embedding of Watermarks
        4. Distribution
      4. SCALABLE WATERMARK DISTRIBUTIONS
        1. Network Based Watermarking
          1. Watercasting
          2. Hierarchical Tagging
          3. WHIM - Backbone
          4. WHIM - Last Hop
        2. Unique Fragments Distribution
          1. Combined Unicast and Multicast
          2. Joint Source Fingerprinting
        3. Shared Fragments Distribution
          1. Packet Based Embedding
          2. Frame Based Embedding
          3. Bulk Tagging and COiN-Video
          4. Joint Fingerprint Design and Distribution
        4. Client Based Watermarking
          1. Chameleon
          2. Mask Blending
          3. Joint Fingerprinting and Decryption
          4. Modified Transform Watermarking
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Network Dependence
        2. Data Expansion
        3. Secure Hardware
        4. Collaborating Pirates
        5. Test Pattern Attack
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    10. XIX. Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INFORMATION HIDING: AN OVERVIEW
      4. INFORMATION HIDING: REQUIREMENTS
      5. STEGANOGRAPHY: STATE-OF-THE-ART
      6. ATTACKS ON STEGANOGRAPHY: STEGANALYSIS
        1. Visual Steganalysis
        2. Statistical Learning Based Steganalysis
        3. Model Based Steganalysis
      7. EXISTING STEGANOGRAPHIC TOOLS
        1. GIF-Shuffle
        2. GIF-It-Up
        3. EzStego
        4. S-Tools
        5. JSteg
        6. F5
        7. JP-Hide-and-Seek
        8. OutGuess
        9. MP3Stego 25
      8. STEGANALYSIS SOFTWARE TOOLS
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      12. ENDNOTES
  10. III. Typical Applications
    1. XX. Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: REPLICATION IN PURE P2P AND AD HOC NETWORKS
        1. System and Adversary Models
        2. Problem Statement: (In)Secure Content Distribution
        3. Content Authentication
        4. Authorization and Access Control
      4. SECURITY FOR CONTENT DISTRIBUTION IN P2P FILE SHARING SYSTEMS
        1. Design Challenges and Cryptographic Primitives
        2. Problems with Conventional Approaches
        3. Public Key Primitives and Digital Certificates
        4. Threshold Cryptography
        5. Byzantine Agreement
        6. Web of Trust
        7. A Note on Rationality and Fair Exchange
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Proof of Work
        2. Delegation
        3. Social Networks
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMs
    2. XXI. Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. 1.1 The Notion of Trusted Platforms
      3. TRUST IN MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION
        1. 2.1 The Multimedia Lifecycle
        2. 2.2 Trusted Platform Key Usages
      4. 3. TRUSTED COMPUTING GROUP TECHNOLOGY ESSENTIALS
      5. 4. SELECTED TOPICS
        1. 4.1 Trusted Local (Super-) Distribution of Multimedia Content
        2. 4.2 Trusted Broadcast Systems
          1. 4.2.1 Trust-Enhanced CAM
          2. 4.2.2 Online CAS
          3. 4.2.3 Online Take Ownership / Online Registration
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
        1. 5.1 Advantages of Trusted Platform Usage
        2. 5.2 Security and Practical Issues
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    3. XXII. Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. 2.1 DRM Architecture
        2. 2.2 MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3) Audio Coder
        3. 2.3 MPEG-4 Simple Profile Video Coder
          1. 2.3.1 Coding Scheme
          2. 2.3.2 Coding Options
      4. JOINT AND PARTIAL ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE IN A/V CODEC
        1. 3.1 Audio Encryption Technique
          1. 3.1.1 Magnitude-Based Watermarking and Scrambling (M-WS)
          2. 3.1.2 Phase-Based Watermarking- Scrambling (P-WS)
          3. 3.1.3 M-WS Plus P-WS (M-WS/P-WS)
        2. 3.2 Video Encryption Technique
          1. 3.2.1 Segment-Based DCT Coefficient Scrambling (S-DCTCS) for Intraframes
          2. 3.2.2 MV Scrambling (MVS) for Interframes
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    4. XXIII. Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STEGANOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES
      4. STEGANALYTIC TECHNIQUES
      5. GA-BASED BREAKING METHODOLOGY
        1. Fitness Function.
        2. Reproduction.
        3. Crossover.
        4. Mutation.
        5. The Algorithm for Recombining the Chromosomes (Wu, 2006).
      6. THE GA-BASED BREAKING ALGORITHM ON SDSS
        1. Generating the Stego-Image on the Visual Steganalytic System (VSS)
          1. The Algorithm for Generating a Stego-Im- age on VSS.
        2. Generating the Stego-Image on the IQM-Based Steganalytic System (IQM-SDSS)
          1. The Algorithm for Generating a Stego-image on IQM-SDSS.
          2. The Procedure for Generating an 8× 8 Embedded-image on IQM-SDSS.
      7. THE GA-BASED BREAKING ALGORITHM ON FDSS
        1. Algorithm for Generating a Stego-image on JFDSS.
      8. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
        1. The GA-Based Breaking Algorithm on VSS
        2. The GA-Based Breaking Algorithm on IQM-SDSS
        3. The GA-Based Breaking Algorithm on JFDSS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    5. XXIV. Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT ARTS ON ADAPTIVE STEGANOGRAPHY IN MEDIA
      4. STEGANGORAPHY BASED ON NON-UNIFORM GENERALIZED LSB AND DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING
        1. Structural Similarity Metric
        2. Non-Uniformation Generalized LSB Substitution
          1. A. Embedding Method
          2. B. Capacity
          3. C. Distortion
        3. Optimal Steganography Based on the Dynamic Programming
      5. STEGANOGRAPHY BASED ON ADAPTIVE QUANTIZATION EMBEDDER AND REVERSIBLE DATA HIDING
        1. Adaptive Quantization Embedder
        2. Contrast-Correlation Distortion
        3. AQE Parameters Embedding Based on Reversible Data Hiding Method
        4. Steganography Based on AQE
          1. A. Embedding method
          2. B. Extracting Method
      6. EXPERIMENTS
        1. Experimental Results of Method A
        2. Experimental Results of Method B
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    6. XXV. A Survey on Video Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BRIEF HISTORY OF VIDEO WATERMARKING
      4. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENT OF VIDEO WATERMARKING
      5. APPLICATIONS OF VIDEO WATERMARKING
      6. RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS
      7. TYPICAL ATTACKS AGAINST VIDEO WATERMARKING
        1. Collusion Attack
        2. De-Synchronization Attack
        3. Hybrid Attack
      8. RESEARCH PROGRESS
        1. Robust Video Watermarking
          1. Watermarking Embedding and Compression
          2. The Domain of Watermarking Embedding
          3. Robust Embedding Against Attacks
            1. Embedding against Spatial Attacks
            2. Embedding Against Temporal Attacks
        2. Authentication Watermarking
          1. Fragile Watermarking
          2. Semi-Fragile Watermarking
        3. Video Fingerprinting
          1. Inter-Video Collusion Attack
          2. Fingerprinting Generation
          3. Fingerprinting Distribution
      9. HOT TOPICS AND OPEN ISSUES IN VIDEO WATERMARKING
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    7. XXVI. Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTIPLE DESCRIPTION CODING
        1. Basic Concepts
        2. MDC Design Algorithms
          1. Multiple Description Scalar Quantization
          2. Multiple Description Lattice Vector Quantization
          3. Iterative Coding of Multiple Descriptions
        3. Applications
      4. MULTIPLE DESCRIPTION WATERMARKING FRAMEWORK
        1. Introduction
        2. MDWM Framework I: MDC for Host Signal
        3. Algorithm Description
          1. Applying MDC to the Host Image
          2. Embedding Watermark
          3. Extracting and Detecting Watermark
        4. Experimental Results
      5. Conclusion
      6. MDWM FRAMEWORK II: MDC FOR WATERMARK
        1. Algorithm Description
          1. Applying MDC to the Watermark
          2. Embedding Watermark
          3. Extracting and Detecting Watermark
        2. Experimental Results
        3. Conclusion
      7. MDWM FRAMEWORK III: MDC FOR WATERMARKED SIGNAL
        1. Chu's scheme
          1. Algorithm Description
            1. Embedding Watermark
            2. Applying MDC to the Watermarked Image
            3. Extracting and Detecting Watermark
        2. Experimental Results
          1. Conclusion
        3. Day's scheme
          1. Algorithm Description
            1. Embedding Watermark
          2. Applying MDC to the Watermarked Image
            1. Extracting and Detecting Watermark
        4. Experimental Results
          1. Conclusion
      8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    8. XXVII. Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: FRACTAL MATING CODING SCHEMES
      4. SECURED MULTIPLE-IMAGE COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Contributors