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Handbook of Research on Wireless Security

Book Description

Security is one of the most significant components in wireless systems to ensure the integrity of communications among terminals, networks, and services. As the field of wireless communications expands and inundates personal and professional lives worldwide, up-to-date wireless security research and knowledge becomes increasingly more vital to society.

The Handbook of Research on Wireless Security combines research from esteemed experts on security issues in various wireless communications, recent advances in wireless security, the wireless security model, and future directions in wireless security. As an innovative and current reference source for students, educators, faculty members, researchers, engineers in the field of wireless security, this handbook will make an invaluable addition to any library collection.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. I. Security Fundamentals
    1. I. Malicious Software in Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EVOLUTION OF MALWARE
      5. INFECTION VECTORS
      6. MALWARE DEFENSES
        1. Host-Based Defenses
        2. Network-Based Defenses
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    2. II. Secure Service Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Security Goals in Service Discovery, Invocation, and Composition
      3. SERVICE DISCOVERY MODELS WITHOUT INHERENT SECURITY
        1. Secure Service Discovery Models
        2. Infrastructure-Based Security
        3. Infrastructure-Less Security
        4. Smart Space Dependent Security
      4. EXAMPLES USING TRUST MODELS
        1. Sleeper
      5. SSRD
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
        1. Privacy
        2. Trust
        3. Multi-Protocol Environments
        4. Trust in Service Composition
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    3. III. Security of Mobile Code
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Time Limited Black-Box Security and Obfuscated Code
        2. Encrypted Functions
        3. Cryptographic Traces
        4. Chained MAC Protocol
        5. Watermarking
        6. Fingerprinting
        7. Publicly Verifiable Chained Digital Signatures
        8. Environmental Key Generation
        9. Itinerary Recording with Replication and Voting
      4. A METHOD BASED ON SECRETS AND PROOFS
        1. Outline of the Method
        2. Specification of the Method
          1. The Initial Phase
          2. The Validation Phase
      5. SECURITY AND SCALABILITY
        1. Definitions and Notions
        2. Analysis
        3. Comparison with Other Methods
        4. Scalability
        5. Modifications
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    4. IV. Identity Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Definition
        2. Objectives
        3. Main Aspects
          1. Authentication
          2. Authorisation
          3. Access Control
          4. Auditing and Reporting
      3. DIGITAL IDENTITY
        1. What is Digital Identity?
        2. Composition of Digital Identity
          1. Who You Are
          2. Context
          3. Profile
        3. Usage of Digital Identity
      4. PROS AND CONS OF IDENTITY MANAGEMENT
        1. Benefits of Identity Management
          1. Reduce Total Cost Ownership (TCO) for All Systems
          2. Competitive Advantage Through Streamlining and Automation of Business Processes
          3. Increase Data Security
          4. Support Legal Initiatives and Demonstrate Compliance (Courion, 2005; Reed, 2002)
        2. Drawbacks of Identity Management
      5. STANDARDS AND SOLUTIONS
        1. Relevant Standard Bodies
        2. IdM Standards
          1. Directory Services
          2. Web Services
          3. Security
          4. Federated Identity
          5. Workflow
          6. Provisioning
      6. IdM IN NG WIRELESS NETWORKS
        1. Motivation
        2. Benefits in NG Wireless Networks
        3. Requirements for IdM in NG Wireless Networks
        4. End User Requirements
          1. Unique Identity for User and Terminal
          2. Storage of User Information
          3. Exchange of User Identity
          4. Self-Service
          5. Single Sign-On
          6. Security and Privacy
          7. Access Network Selection
          8. Mobility
          9. Network Operator Requirements
          10. Interface to Other Network Operators
          11. Interface to Trusted Third Party
          12. Identity Requirements
          13. Scalability and Performance
          14. Mobility Management
          15. Security
          16. Billing
        5. Service Provider Requirements
          1. Interface to Other Service Providers
          2. Interface to Network Operator
          3. Interface to Trusted Third Party
          4. Mobility Management
          5. Security
          6. Billing
          7. Regulatory Requirements
          8. Legal Requirements
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    5. V. Wireless Wardriving
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE (ART OF) WARDRIVING
      3. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
        1. Wireless Interfaces
        2. Device Drivers and Scanning
        3. An Example of Driver Hacking
        4. The Operating System and Other Matters
        5. XOR Arithmetic and CRC32 in a Nutshell
      4. ABOUT THE SECURITY OF IEEE 802.11
        1. NO Encryption
          1. MAC Address Filtering
          2. Hiding the SSID
        2. WEP Encryption
          1. Understanding the Effective Strength of the WEP
        3. WPA Encryption
        4. Some Considerations about Layer 1 Security
          1. Wireless Power
          2. Antenna Gain
      5. WEP ATTACKS
        1. Bruteforce Attacks
        2. The Tim Newsham's 21-Bit Attack
        3. Weak IVs
        4. Keystream Reuse
        5. The Oracle
        6. Decryption Dictionary
        7. Examples
          1. WEP Attack via KisMAC
          2. WEP Attack via Terminal-Based Tools
      6. WPA-PSK ATTACKS
        1. The Handshake Attack
        2. Example
      7. SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT THE WARDRIVERS COMMUNITY
        1. Monitor the Internet Community
        2. Avoid Default Configurations (Always)
        3. Browse the Source and Use the Tools
        4. Do Not Rely on Weak Passwords
      8. TOOLS
      9. SUMMARY TABLE ABOUT WARDRIVING ATTACKS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      14. ENDNOTES
    6. VI. Intrusion and Anomaly Detection in Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VULNERABILITIES, THREATS, AND ATTACKS IN WIRELESS NETWORKS
        1. Security Requirements in Wireless Environments
        2. Wireless Vulnerabilities and Threats
          1. WLAN Vulnerabilities and Threats
          2. Cellular System Vulnerabilities and Threats
        3. Wireless Attacks
          1. Illicit Use
          2. Wireless Spoofing
          3. Man in the Middle Attacks
          4. Denial of Service Attacks
      4. WIRELESS INTRUSION AND ANOMALY DETECTION
        1. Basic Techniques for Detection
        2. Wireless Detection Approaches
          1. Mobile Profiles Construction
          2. Monitoring Wireless Devices
          3. Radio Frequency Fingerprinting (RFF)
        3. Cluster-Based Detection in Ad Hoc Networks
          1. Cluster Formation
          2. Intrusion Detection Architecture
      5. DETECTION MODELS
        1. Intrusion and Anomaly Detection Model Exchange
          1. Model Distribution
          2. Model Aggregation/Profiling
        2. Anomaly Based Detection Models
          1. Building an Anomaly Detection Model
          2. Detecting Abnormal Updates to Routing Tables
          3. Detecting Abnormal Activities in Other Layers
      6. WIRELESS INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES
        1. Wireless Intrusion Tracking System
        2. Agent-Based IDS for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
        3. Modular IDS Architecture
          1. Intrusion Response
      7. DISTRIBUTED INTRUSION DETECTION
        1. IDS for PublicWiFi System
        2. Multi-Layer Integrated Intrusion Detection and Response
      8. WIRELESS TOLERANCE AND PREVENTION
        1. Intrusion Tolerance Based on Multiple Base Stations Redundancy
        2. INSENS: Intrusion-Tolerant Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    7. VII. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network Security: Firewall Issues
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. PROBLEM DEFINITION
      3. GNUTELLA NETWORK
      4. UNIDIRECTIONAL FIREWALLS
      5. PORT-BLOCKING FIREWALLS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    8. VIII. Identity Management for Wireless Service Access
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IDENTITY MANAGEMENT FOR WIRELESS SERVICE ACCESS
        1. Requirements of Identity Management Systems
        2. Identity Management Solutions and Controversies
        3. Components of User Identities
        4. Integrated Identity Management Mechanism
        5. Security Infrastructure in Identity Management Systems
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    9. IX. Privacy-Enhancing Technique: A Survey and Classification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRIVACY PROTECTION GOALS
        1. Example
      4. DISCUSSION OF PRIVACY-ENHANCING TECHNIQUES
        1. Network Level Privacy Protection
        2. Application Layer Privacy Protection
          1. Location Protection
          2. Use of Pseudonyms
          3. Anonymous Payment Systems
          4. Descriptive Approaches
            1. 1. P3P/APPEL
            2. 2. IETFs GeoPriv
          5. Server Side Means
      5. ASSESSMENT OF PRIVACY-ENHANCING TECHNIQUES
        1. Evaluation of Presented Techniques
        2. Protection Level
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    10. X. Vulnerability Analysis and Defenses in Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF SECURITY CHALLENGES IN WIRELESS NETWORKS
        1. Specific Challenges and Key Issues
        2. Analysis of Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Protocol
        3. War Driving and Its variants
        4. Security Enhancements
          1. Temporary Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
          2. Counter CBC-MAC Mode
          3. 802.1x/EAP Authentication
        5. Other Protocols
        6. Other Attacks on Wireless Security
          1. WPA Passive Dictionary Attack
          2. Attack on Michael MIC
          3. Encryption Attacks on Known Plaintext, Double Encryption, and Message Modification
        7. General WLAN Security Measures
      4. TYPES OF DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
        1. Flooding and Spoofing Attacks
        2. DDoS Attack
        3. Defense Mechanisms Against DoS Attacks
          1. Mechanisms Against Spoofing
          2. Filtering Techniques
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. Additional Important Links/References:
          1. CERT Coordination Center References
          2. Other links
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    11. XI. Key Distribution and Management for Mobile Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A PROBLEM OF MEDIA ACCESS
      3. A LONG WAY TO SECURE COMMUNICATION
      4. FROM KEY EXCHANGE TO ACCESS CONTROL INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. AUTHENTICATION OF DEVICE GROUPS
      6. SECURE HOME NETWORK AND RIGHTS MANAGEMENT
      7. SMART CARDS AND CELLULAR OPERATORS
      8. BREAKING THE LAST CENTIMETRE BOUNDARY
      9. ON THE DAWN ON PERSONAL CONTENT MANAGEMENT
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    12. XII. Architecture and Protocols for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting in the Future Wireless Communications Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The RADIUS Protocol
        2. Evolution from RADIUS to Diameter
          1. Diameter Protocol Overview
          2. Diameter Agents
          3. Server Initiated Messages in Diameter
          4. Diameter Applications
        3. Protocol Mechanisms
          1. Diameter Peer Discovery
          2. Diameter Policies
          3. Diameter Request Routing
          4. Diameter's Failover and Failback Algorithms
          5. A Summary of Diameter's Session Management and Accounting
      4. DIAMETER-BASED ARCHITECTURES
        1. At the Access Layer: 1xEV-DO with a translation agent
        2. At the Distribution Layer: Diameter MobileIPv4
        3. At the Core: IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Interfaces
      5. ISSUES AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      9. ENDNOTES
    13. XIII. Authentication, Authorisation, and Access Control in Mobile Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Subscriber Authentication in Current Networks
      4. AAA IN CONVERGED NETWORKS
        1. Interworking Between Mobile and Wireless Networks
        2. Authentication in Converged Networks
        3. Anonymity and Identity
        4. Security and Computing Power
        5. Security in Personal Area and Home Networks
        6. Mobile Nodes (Network Mobility)
        7. Customer Ergonomics
      5. OUTLOOK
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    14. XIV. Trustworthy Networks, Authentication, Privacy, and Security Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRUST MANAGEMENT
        1. Trust Establishment Basis
        2. Need for Trust Management in Mobile Networks
        3. Recent Advances in Trust Management
      4. GENERAL MODELS FOR AUTHENTICATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS
        1. Actors in an Authentication System
        2. Authentication Management Architecture
        3. Authentication Issues in Wireless Networks
        4. Password Authentication
        5. The RADIUS Protocol
        6. Authentication Between Heterogeneous Wireless Environments
      5. AUTHENTICATION APPROACHES FOR CELLULAR AND MESH NETWORKS
        1. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks
        2. Authentication Models for WLANs
          1. Web-Based Authentication Model
          2. 802.1X Authentication Framework
          3. The Point-to-Point VPN Model
        3. Authentication Protocols for GSM
        4. Kerberos Based Authentication Schemes for Ad Hoc Networks
        5. Authentication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
        6. Authentication in 802.16 WMANs
        7. Authentication in Mobile IPv6
      6. PRIVACY PROTECTION
        1. Location Privacy
        2. Transaction Based Privacy
      7. SECURITY MODELS
        1. Trust Representation, Modeling, and Verification
        2. Security Policy Specification
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    15. XV. The Provably Secure Formal Methods for Authentication and Key Agreement Protocols
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OVERVIEW
        1. The Canetti-Krawczyk Model
          1. Attacker Model
          2. Three Components in CK Model
          3. Definition of Session-Key Security
        2. The Universal Composable Model
        3. The Relationship Between the SK-Security and UC-Security
      4. SECURITY ANALYSIS OF THE CANETTI-KRAWCZYK MODEL
        1. Properties of Key-Agreement Protocols
        2. The Relationship Between the CK Model and the Desirable Secure Attributes
          1. The Relationship Between the Security Attributes and the Two Requirements of SK-Security
        3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the CK Mode
          1. Advantages of the CK Model
          2. Disadvantages of the CK Model
      5. A UNIVERSALLY COMPOSABLE ANONYMOUS HASH CERTIFICATION MODEL
        1. Anonymous Hash Certification Ideal Functionality FCred
          1. Security Requirements of FCred
          2. The Construction of Anonymous Hash Certification Ideal Functionality FCred
        2. Construction of UC-Secure Anonymous Hash Certification Protocol
        3. Proof of πCred Securely Realizes FCred in the (FSIG, FHCA)-Hybrid Model
      6. THE SECURITY ANALYSIS OF FOUR-WAY HANDSHAKE IN 802.11I WITH THE CK MODEL AND UC MODEL
        1. The Four-Way Handshake Protocol in 802.11i
        2. The Security Analysis of Four-Way Handshake Protocol
        3. Protocol 4WHSAM
        4. The Security Analysis of Protocol 4WHSAM
        5. Authenticator λprf
        6. The Security Analysis of Four-way Handshake Protocol in the UM
        7. The Four-Way Handshake Protocol is UC-Secure
      7. THE SECURITY ANALYSIS OF CHINESE WLAN SECURITY STANDARD WAPI WITH THE CK MODEL
        1. WAIs in WAPI and its Implementation Plan
          1. WAI in WAPI
          2. WAI in the Implementation Plan
        2. The Security Weaknesses of WAI in WAPI
        3. The Security Analysis of WAI in the Implementation Plan
          1. The Design of an Encryption Game
          2. Security Analysis of Key-Agreement Protocol in WAI
        4. The Implementation Plan Overcomes the Weaknesses of the Original WAPI
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    16. XVI. Multimedia Encryption and Watermarking in Wireless Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF MULTIMEDIA CONTENT PROTECTION
        1. Requirements of Multimedia Encryption
        2. Requirements of Multimedia Watermarking
      4. THE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA
        1. Format Independent Encryption
        2. Format Compliant Encryption
        3. Communication Compliant Encryption
        4. Direct Operation Supported Encryption
      5. THE WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA
        1. Mobile Agent Based Task Partitioning
        2. Lightweight Watermarking Algorithms
        3. Communication Compliant Algorithms
      6. COMBINATION OF MULTIMEDIA ENCRYPTION AND MULTIMEDIA WATERMARKING
        1. Secure Multimedia Sharing
        2. Secure Multimedia Distribution
        3. Commutative Watermarking and Encryption
      7. OPEN ISSUES
        1. Contradiction Between Format Independence and Format Compliance
        2. Standardization of Watermarking Algorithms
        3. Fingerprint Algorithms Against Collusion Attacks
        4. Key Management in Mobile Applications
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    17. XVII. System-on-Chip Design of the Whirlpool Hash Function
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUNDAMENTALS FOR HASH FUNCTIONS
        1. Dedicated Hash Functions
        2. Whirlpool Hash Function Specifications
      4. WHIRLPOOL ARCHITECTURES AND VLSI IMPLEMENTATIONS
      5. IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMs
        1. Glossary
  6. II. Security in 3G/B3G/4G
    1. XVIII. Security in 4G
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. GENERATIONS OF PUBLIC LAND MOBILE NETWORKS
        1. From 1G to 2G
        2. The Third Generation of PLMN
        3. The Anticipated 3G to 4G Transition
        4. Possible Delays
      3. 4G: A TECHNOLOGY-OPPORTUNISTIC, USER-CENTRIC SYSTEM
        1. 4G Expectations
        2. Our 4G Vision
          1. From Service-Centric to Data-Centric Approaches, from Technology-Centric to User-Centric Approaches
          2. Multi-Provider Network Environment
          3. SPN Organization and Management
        3. Possible Approaches to 4G
          1. Multimode Devices
          2. Overlay Networks
          3. Common Access Protocol
        4. Related work
          1. Related Work on 4G Architectures
          2. Related Work on 4G Security
      4. 4G SECURITY REQUIREMENTS
        1. 4G Vulnerabilities
          1. Vulnerabilities of Wireless Networks
          2. Vulnerabilities of Service Provider Networks
          3. User Vulnerabilities
        2. Heterogeneous Security
        3. 4G Security Layer
      5. NETWORK ACCESS SECURITY
          1. Network Selection
          2. User-Network Authentication
          3. Data Encryption and Integrity Functions
        1. Provider-Provider Security
        2. Other Security Problems
      6. APPROACHES TO 4G SECURITY
        1. Visualization
        2. Adaptation
        3. Standardization
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. XIX. Security Architectures for B3G Mobile Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The B3G Network Architecture
      4. SECURITY ARCHITECTURES FOR B3G NETWORKS
        1. WLAN Direct IP Access Scenario
        2. Authentication in WLAN Direct IP Access
          1. Data Protection-802.11i Standard
        3. WLAN 3GPP IP Access
          1. Authentication in WLAN 3GPP IP Access
          2. Data Protection
      5. COMPARISON OF THE SCENARIOS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. XX. Security in UMTS 3G Mobile Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. UMTS Network
        2. UMTS Security Architecture
      4. NETWORK ACCESS SECURITY
        1. User Identity Confidentiality
        2. Authentication and Key Agreement
        3. Data Confidentiality
        4. Integrity Protection of Signaling Messages
      5. NETWORK DOMAIN SECURITY
        1. IP-Based Protocol
        2. SS7-Based Protocols
        3. Traditional Network Security Features
      6. USER AND APPLICATION DOMAIN SECURITY FEATURES
        1. User Domain Security
        2. Application Domain Security
        3. Security Visibility and Configurability
        4. Network-Wide User Data Confidentiality
      7. SECURITY WEAKNESSES
      8. CURRENT RESEARCH ON UMTS SECURITY
        1. Identity Confidentiality
        2. Authentication and Key Agreement
        3. User Data Security
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      13. ENDNOTES
    4. XXI. Access Security in UMTS and IMS
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND OVERVIEW
      3. ACCESS SECURITY IN UMTS
        1. Distribution of Authentication Vector
        2. Authentication and Key Establishment
      4. ACCESS SECURITY IN IMS
      5. GPRS AUTHENTICATION
      6. IMS AUTHENTICATION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Security Management in Heterogeneous Network
        2. Security-Mobility Management Interaction and Security-Energy Tradeoff
        3. Higher Security Protocols
        4. Security Protocols Performance
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    5. XXII. Security in 2.5G Mobile Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GPRS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
      4. GPRS SECURITY ARCHITECTURE
        1. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
        2. Subscriber Identity Confidentiality
        3. Subscriber Identity Authentication
        4. Data and Signalling Protection
        5. GPRS Backbone Security
      5. GPRS SECURITY WEAKNESSES
        1. Subscriber Identity Confidentiality
        2. Subscriber Authentication
        3. Data and signalling Protection
        4. GPRS Backbone
          1. Signaling Plane
          2. Data Plane
      6. CURRENT RESEARCH ON GPRS SECURITY
        1. SIM Card
        2. User Data
        3. Signaling Plane of the GPRs Backbone
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    6. XXIII. End-to-End Security Comparisons Between IEEE 802.16e and 3G Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECTIVES OF SECURITY FEATURES FOR 3G/MOBILE-WIMAX
      4. GSM
        1. GSM Security Features
        2. GSM Security Attacks
        3. E2E Scheme for GSM
        4. Strong User Authentication
        5. E2E security of Mobile Data in GSM
      5. GPRS
        1. GPRS Classifications of Security Services
        2. Data Services Offered on the Gp and Gi Interfaces
        3. Threats in GPRS
        4. GPRS Security Features
        5. E2E Security in GPRS
        6. GPRS Security Features.
      6. CDMA
        1. Subscriber Authentication
        2. Packet Core
        3. Transport Security (Protecting Traffic in Transit)
        4. Perimeter Security (PS)
        5. End Point Compliance
      7. MOBILE-WIMAX (IEEE 802.16E)
        1. E2E security Enhancements
        2. E2E Security Architecture
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      11. ENDNOTE
    7. XXIV. Generic Application Security in Current and Future Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPLICATION SECURITY FOUNDATIONS IN MOBILE NETWORKS
        1. Special Requirements for Mobile Application Security
        2. Historic Approaches to Application Security
        3. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA)
      4. APPLICATION SECURITY BASED ON THE GENERIC BOOTSTRAPPING ARCHITECTURE
        1. Mobile Networks Applications Using GBA
        2. Network Agnostic Usage of GBA
        3. Fixed—Mobile Convergence and GBA
      5. FUTURE TRENDS AND GENERIC AUTHENTICATION IN BEYOND 3G NETWORKS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    8. XXV. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Framework in Network Mobility (NEMO) Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LOCALIZED AAA FRAMEWORK IN NEMO ENVIRONMENTS
        1. System Architecture
        2. Mobile Router Authentication
          1. Inter-Domain AAA Procedure
          2. Intra-Domain AAA Procedure
        3. Visiting Mobile Node (VMN) Authentication
      5. SECURITY ANALYSIS
        1. Mutual Authentication
        2. Key Exposure
        3. Replay Attack
        4. Man-in-the-Middle Attack
      6. SIGNALING COST ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTE
  7. III. Security in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
    1. XXVI. Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VULNERABILITIES, SECURITY SERVICES, AND CHALLENGES
        1. MANETs Vulnerabilities
        2. Security Services
        3. Security Challenges
      4. SECURITY SOLUTIONS FOR MANETS
        1. Wireless MAC Security
        2. Secure Routing Protocols
        3. Attacks on MANET Routing
        4. Secure Routing Protocols
        5. Cooperation in MANETs
        6. Authentication and Key Management in MANETS
          1. Authentication in MANETs
          2. Key Management in MANETs
        7. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) for MANETs
      5. OPEN CHALLENGES AND CONCLUSION
        1. Challenges
        2. Conclusion
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      8. END NOTE
    2. XXVII. Privacy and Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Definitions of Anonymity and Related Concepts
        2. On the Relation between Privacy and Anonymity
        3. On Measuring Anonymity
          1. Anonymous Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
        4. Anonymous Routing Protocols
        5. Anonymous Overlay Networks
        6. Comparison between Anonymous Routing Protocols and Anonymous Overlay Networks
          1. Survey of Anonymous Communication Mechanisms for Ad Hoc Networks
        7. Evaluation Criteria
        8. Survey of Anonymous Routing Protocols
          1. Anonymous Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (AnonDSR)
        9. Secure Distributed Anonymous Routing Protocol (SDAR)
      4. MASK
        1. Anonymous On-Demand Routing (ANODR)
        2. Discount Anonymous On-Demand Routing (Discount ANODR)
        3. Anonymous Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (ARM)
        4. Distributed Anonymous Secure Routing Protocol (ASRP)
        5. Privacy Preserving Routing (PPR)
          1. Summary of Survey Results for Anonymous Routing Protocols
      5. SURVEY OF ANONYMOUS OVERLAY NETWORKS
        1. Chameleon
        2. Mix Route Algorithm (MRA)
          1. Summary of Survey Results for Anonymous Overlay Networks
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. The Sybil Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
        2. Mechanisms for Detecting the Sybil Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      11. END NOTES
    3. XXVIII. Secure Routing with Reputation in MANET
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REPUTATION-BASED SECURE ROUTING IN MANET
        1. Trust and Reputation Modelling
        2. Distributed Reputation for Secure MANET
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    4. XXIX. Trust Management and Context-Driven Access Control
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRUST MANAGEMENT
        1. Trust Definition and Properties
        2. Trust Management Systems
      4. SEMANTIC CONTEXT-DRIVEN ACCESS CONTROL
        1. Semantic Access Control Policies
      5. THE COMITY FRAMEWORK
        1. COMITY Context Model
        2. COMITY Trust Model
        3. COMITY Trust-Dependent Access Control Model
        4. Context and Trust Relationship Implementation
      6. CONCLUSIONS AND OPEN RESEARCH ISSUES
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    5. XXX. A Survey of Key Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
        2. Characteristics of MANETs
        3. Security Challenges Overview
          1. Security Attacks
          2. Security Goals
          3. Security Mechanisms
          4. Key Management
      3. KEY MANAGEMENT IN MANETS
        1. Fundamentals of Key Management
        2. Trust Models
          1. Centralized Trust Model
          2. TTPs in Symmetric Key Management Systems
          3. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
          4. Web-of-Trust Model
          5. Decentralized Trust Model
          6. Hybrid Trust Model
        3. Overview of Key Management Schemes in MANETs
          1. Asymmetric Key Management Schemes
          2. Symmetric Key Management Schemes
          3. Group Key Management Schemes
      4. ASYMMETRIC KEY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES IN MANETS
        1. Secure Routing Protocol (SRP)
        2. Ubiquitous and Robust Access Control (URSA)
        3. Mobile Certificate Authority (MOCA)
        4. Self-Organized Key Management
        5. Composite Key Management
        6. Secure and Efficient Key Management (SEKM)
      5. SYMMETRIC KEY MANAGEMENT SCHEMES IN MANETS
        1. Distributed Key Predistribution Scheme (DKPS)
        2. Peer Intermediaries for Key Establishment (PIKE)
      6. GROUP KEY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
        1. Logical Key Hierarchy (LKH)
        2. One-Way Function Trees (OFT)
        3. Tree-Based Group Diffie-Hellman (TGDH)
        4. Group Diffie-Hellman (GDH)
        5. Burmester-Desmedt (BD)
        6. Skinny Tree (STR)
      7. OPEN CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    6. XXXI. Security Measures for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LAYERED ATTACKS
        1. Wireless Routing Protocols in General
          1. Proactive (Table-driven)
          2. Reactive (On-demand)
      4. MANET SECURITY REQUIREMENTS
        1. Secure Routing
      5. ATTACKS ON AD HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS
        1. Possible solutions
      6. CHALLENGES IN SECURE ROUTING FOR MANETS
      7. KEY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
      8. SECURITY MECHANISMS IN MANETS
      9. SECURE PROTOCOLS FOR MANETS
        1. ARIADNE (A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks)
        2. SEAD (Secure Efficient Distance Vector Routing for Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks)
        3. SADSR (Security-Aware Adaptive Dynamic Source Routing Protocol)
        4. SDSR (Secure Dynamic Source Routing)
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    7. XXXII. A Novel Secure Video Surveillance System Over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Wireless Networks
          1. Ad Hoc Solution
          2. Security Issues
          3. Routing Protocol
          4. Network Processor
      4. A NOVEL SECURE VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
        1. Framework Design of Wireless Networks
          1. Video Processing
        2. System Security Management
          1. Confidentiality
          2. Authentication
          3. Reactive Protection Scheme
          4. Key Distribution
      5. SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Testing Environment
        2. Experiments on Key Embedding Algorithm
        3. Simulation of Routing Protocols
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    8. XXXIII. Cutting the Gordian Knot: Intrusion Detection Systems in Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHARACTERISTICS OF AD HOC NETWORKS
        1. Lack of Infrastructure
        2. Absence of a Central Authority
        3. Wireless links
        4. Poor Physical Protection
        5. Energy Constraints
        6. Unsuitability of Static Configurations
        7. Delay Constraints
        8. Transient Associations
        9. Routing Security
      5. INTRUSTION DETECTION TECHNIQUES
      6. A SIMPLE IDS
      7. AD HOC NETWORK IDS REQUIREMENTS
        1. Knowledge Limitations in Audits
        2. Detection Strategies
        3. Inference
      8. IDS MODELS
        1. Architectures
          1. IDS Using Mobile Agents
        2. Local Intrusion Detection System Using Mobile Agents
          1. Stationary Secure Database IDS
          2. Modular Intrusion Detection Architecture
          3. Distributed IDS
        3. Methodologies
          1. TIARA
          2. Threshold-Based Detection
          3. State-Based Anomaly Detection
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    9. XXXIV. Security in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Extremely Limited Resources
        2. Highly Unreliable Communication Medium
        3. Unattended Operation
        4. Security Requirements
          1. Data Confidentiality
          2. Data Integrity
          3. Data Freshness
        5. Authentication
          1. Availability
          2. Autoconfiguration
        6. Security Attacks on Wireless Sensor Networks
        7. Attack Scenario
          1. Attacks to Routing Protocols
          2. Attacks to Data Aggregation Techniques
          3. Physical Attacks
        8. Defense Countermeasures
          1. Key Establishment Process
          2. Overview
          3. Key Establishment Protocols
          4. Public Key Cryptography
        9. Preventing Against Denial-of-Service
        10. Defending Against Routing Protocol Attacks
        11. Security Techniques for Routing Protocols
        12. How to Protect from Traffic Analysis Attacks
        13. Defending Against sensor Node Privacy Attacks
          1. Anonymity Mechanisms
          2. Policy-Based Approach
        14. Information Flooding
          1. Protecting from Physical Attacks
        15. Secure Data Aggregation
          1. Overview
          2. Secure Data Aggregation Techniques
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    10. XXXV. Security and Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks: Challenges and Solutions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. WSN SECURITY OBJECTIVES
        1. WSN Security challenges
          1. Resource Limitations
          2. Data Loss
          3. Uncontrollable Behavior
        2. Security Requirements
          1. Data Confidentiality
          2. Data Integrity
          3. Data Freshness
          4. Availability
          5. Self-Organization
          6. Time Synchronization
          7. Secure Localization
          8. Authentication
        3. Attacks against WSNS
          1. Denial-of-Service Attacks
          2. Traffic Analysis Attacks
          3. Wormhole Attacks
          4. Attacks against Privacy
          5. Physical Attacks
          6. Countermeasures
        4. Key Management Fundamentals
        5. Key Establishment
          1. WSN Key Management Protocols
          2. WSN and Public Key Cryptography
        6. Dos Countermeasures
        7. Detecting Node Replication Attacks
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    11. XXXVI. Routing Security in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Wireless Sensor Network Overview
        2. Applications of WSN
        3. Sensor Node Structure
        4. WSN vs. MANET
      4. ROUTING SECURITY
        1. What is Routing Security
        2. Why Routing Security is Important in WSN
      5. ROUTING ATTACKS AND THREATS IN WSN
        1. Threat Models
        2. Routing Attacks and Examples
        3. Countermeasures Against Routing Attacks
      6. ROUTING SECURITY SOLUTIONS AND TECHNIQUES
        1. Security Goals
        2. Intrusion Prevention and Detection Approaches
        3. Cryptography-Based Solutions
        4. WSN Key Management Schemes
        5. Protocols Based on Key Predistribution Schemes
        6. Non Cryptography-Based Solutions
          1. Reputation-Based Solutions
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    12. XXXVII. Localization Security in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: LOCALIZATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
        1. Anchor-Based Range-Based Approaches
        2. Anchor-Based Range-Free Approaches
        3. Anchor-Free Range-Based Approaches
        4. Anchor-Free Range-Free Approaches
      4. THREATS TO LOCALIZATION APPROACHES
        1. Fake Location
        2. Wormhole
        3. Range Enlargement and Reduction
      5. A TAXONOMY OF SECURE MECHANISMS
        1. Secure Localization Schemes Against Wormholes
        2. Secure Localization Schemes Against All Attacks
        3. Location Verification Schemes
          1. Verification Using Special Hardware
          2. Verification Without Special Hardware
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    13. XXXVIII. Resilience Against False Data Injection Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. False Data Injection Attacks
        2. En-Route Filtering Framework
          1. Report Generation Using MACs
          2. En-Route Filtering
          3. Sink Verification
      4. SCHEMES IN EN-ROUTE FILTERING FRAMEWORK
        1. Statistic En-Route Filtering
          1. Methodology
          2. Features
        2. Interleaved Hop-by-Hop Authentication
          1. Methodology
          2. Features
        3. Commutative Cipher-Based En-Route Filtering
          1. Methodology
          2. Features
        4. Location-Based Resilient Security
          1. Methodology
          2. Features
        5. Location-Aware End-to-End Data Security
          1. Methodology
          2. Features
          3. Dynamic En-Route Filtering
          4. Methodology
          5. Features
      5. SCHEMES IN HETEROGENEOUS SENSOR NETWORKS
        1. Model of a Heterogeneous Sensor Network
        2. Sink Filtering Scheme (SFS)
          1. Methodology
          2. Features
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    14. XXXIX. Survivability of Sensors with Key and Trust Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ASPECTS OF NODES SURVIVABILITY
        1. Node(s) Survivability
        2. The Assets Underlying the Survivability
        3. The Routing Asset Case-Study
          1. MANET Routing Protocols
          2. Sensors Network Protocols
        4. Survey of the Attacks on the Nodes Assets
      4. PROTECTION MECHANISMS
        1. Key Deployment and Management
        2. Computational Trust Management
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    15. XL. Fault Tolerant Topology Design for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FAULT TOLERANT DESIGN IN POWER CONTROL
      4. FAULT TOLERANT DESIGN IN TOPOLOGY CONTROL
      5. FAULT TOLERANT DESIGN IN COVERAGE AND PROTECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  8. IV. Security in Wireless PAN/LAN/MAN Networks
    1. XLI. Evaluating Security Mechanisms in Different Protocol Layers for Bluetooth Connections
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL FRAMEWORK DESCRIPTION
      4. PERFORMANCE MEASURES
        1. Bluetooth Security Modes I and III Evaluation
        2. Secure Shell (SSH) Evaluation
        3. IPsec Evaluation
        4. Comparison Between PDA and Laptop Clients
      5. COMMENTS ON THE RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    2. XLII. Bluetooth Devices Effect on Radiated EMS of Vehicle Wiring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
        1. The Increase in Electrical and Electronic Components in Automobiles
        2. Bluetooth Devices and Applications in Automobiles
        3. Directive 2004/104/CE for the Assessment of EMC in Vehicles
        4. Radiated Susceptibility Test According to ISO 11452-2
        5. Aspects of Bluetooth Devices that are not Considered in Directive 2004/104/EC
        6. Related Published Works
      3. PROPOSED METHOD FOR ASSESSING THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF BLUETOOTH DEVICES USED INSIDE VEHICLES
        1. Fundament of the Proposed Measure
      4. PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS
        1. Design of the Interference Pattern
        2. Elements of the Setup
        3. Results
      5. FUTURE WORKS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    3. XLIII. Security in WLAN
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WLAN STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGIES, BENEFITS AND USE CASES
      3. WLAN MANAGEMENT FRAMES
      4. WLAN SECURITY ESSENTIALS
        1. WEP-Based Authentication
        2. WEP Confidentiality and Data Integrity
      5. ISSUES IN WLAN SECURITY
        1. WEP Weaknesses
      6. 802.1X, WPA, AND IEEE 802.11I (WPA2)
      7. WPA
        1. Key Hierarchy
        2. Preshared Key
      8. IEEE 802.1X
          1. IEEE 802.11i (WPA2)
          2. 4-Way Handshake
          3. EAP
          4. Authentication Server
          5. EAP-TLS
        1. Security Problems
        2. Additional Security Needs: Privacy and Identity Protection
        3. Hardware Security in WLAN
      9. THE UNIVERSAL ACCESS METHOD
      10. UNLICENSED MOBILE ACCESS
      11. SECURITY PERFORMANCES IN WLAN
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
    4. XLIV. Access Control in Wireless Local Area Networks: Fast Authentication Schemes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IEEE 802.11I AUTHENTICATION PROCESS
      4. INTRADOMAIN FAST AUTHENTICATION SOLUTIONS
        1. Preauthentication
        2. Proactive Key Distribution
        3. Proactive Key Caching
        4. Predictive Authentication
      5. INTERDOMAIN FAST AUTHENTICATION
        1. Trust-Cloud Key Sharing
        2. Performance Evaluation
        3. Open Issues
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. XLV. Security and Privacy in RFID Based Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OVERVIEW
        1. RFID Threats and Countermeasures
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    6. XLVI. Security and Privacy Approaches for Wireless Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANs & MANs)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SECURITY ISSUES IN WIRELESS LANS AND MANS
      5. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
        1. IEEE 802.111 and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
        2. Implementation Cost and Performance Evaluation
      6. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    7. XLVII. End-to-End (E2E) Security Approach in WiMAX: A Security Technical Overview for Corporate Multimedia Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Why Wireless Networks Could not Provide the Required Security
          1. Problem #1: Easy Access
          2. Problem #2: "Rogue" Access Points
          3. Problem #3: Unauthorized Use of Service
          4. Problem #4: Performance and Service Constraints
          5. Problem #5: MAC Spoofing and Session Hijacking
          6. Problem #6: Traffic Analysis and Eavesdropping
          7. Problem #7: Higher Level Attacks
      3. WIMAX SECURITY LAYERS
        1. Physical Layer Security
        2. MAC Layer Security
        3. Security at Upper Layers
        4. Lawful Interception (LI) or Lawful Legal Interception (LLI) (Baker, Foster, & Sharp, 2004; Brown, 2006; Mulholland, 2006)
          1. ETSI Approach to Lawful Interception
          2. IETF Decision on the Lawful Interception
      4. SECURITY OF IMS AND WIMAX
        1. Security of VoIP
      5. END-TO-END APPROACH IN WIMAX
      6. WIMAX VS. 3G TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Security Breaches in 3G Technologies
        2. Mobile-WiMAX (802.16e)
      7. CONCLUSION
          1. Multi-Level Security and Control ("Product Overview," 2006)
          2. End-user Remote-Access
          3. End-User Security Through Encryption (Data Security)
          4. Device Authentication
          5. Secure IMs For Fixed And Mobile Applications
          6. Security at the CPE
          7. WIMAX vs. WI-FI
          8. WIMAX and IMs Security
          9. Security in Fixed-and Mobile-WIMAX
      8. REFERENCES
    8. XLVIII. Evaluation of Security Architectures for Mobile Broadband Access
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE BROADBAND TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Wi-Fi
        2. Security Architecture
        3. Authentication
        4. Encryption
        5. Integrity
        6. Security Vulnerabilities
          1. Disassociation Storm
          2. Authenticated / Deauthenticated Storm
      4. UMTS
        1. Security Architecture
        2. Authentication
        3. Confidentiality and Integrity
        4. GSM Compatibility
          1. Security Vulnerabilities
      5. WIMAX
        1. Security Architecture
          1. Security Vulnerabilities
      6. FLASH-OFDM
        1. Security Architecture
          1. Security Analysis
          2. Methodology
        2. Objective-Based Comparison
          1. Authentication Evaluation
          2. Confidentiality Evaluation
          3. Integrity Evaluation
          4. Physical Layer Resilience Evaluation
      7. OVERALL COMPARISON
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. WiMax Evolution
        2. Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)
        3. 4G - Future Wireless Cellular Technology
          1. Security Issues
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    9. XLIX. Extensible Authentication (EAP) Protocol Integrations in the Next Generation Cellular Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EAP AND IEEE 802.1X
      4. RADIUS AND DIAMETER
        1. Applying RADIUS to Wireless LANs
        2. EAP and Different Authentication Methods
      5. IEEE 802.11I - WLAN SECURITY STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION
        1. WPA in 802.11i
        2. WPA2 and 802.11i
        3. EAP Method Requirements for Wireless LANs
      6. PKMV2-EAP SCHEME IN WIMAX (IEEE 802.16)
        1. Authorization via PKM RSA Authentication Protocol
        2. Authorization via PKM Extensible Authentication Protocol
        3. Security Analysis of WiMAX Authentication
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  9. About the Contributors