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Handbook of Research on Global Information Technology Management in the Digital Economy

Book Description

Today's enterprises are increasingly going global by becoming more distributed, leveraging resource bases in all parts of the world. Whether through offshore relationships, global support or application development programs, or linking disparate parts of organizations, enterprises are reducing costs by managing applications centrally, boosting security, and assuring network uptime.

Global Information Technology Management in the Digital Economy provides comprehensive coverage and definitions of the most important issues, concepts, trends and technologies in the field of the emerging sub-discipline of global information technology management, covering topics such as the technical platform for global IS applications, information systems projects spanning cultures, managing information technology in multi-domestic/international/global/transnational corporations, and global information technology systems and socioeconomic development in developing countries.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. I. Economic Development: Governments's Cutting Edge in IT
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. SCOPE AND OVERVIEW
    3. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INTERFACE
      1. Economic Development Defined
      2. Information Technology Implications of a Broad Definition of Economic Development
      3. Public Impacts on IT
      4. Government Shaping IT
      5. Government as Regulator
      6. Government as Provider
      7. Government as Consumer
      8. Economic Development Structures And Functions
      9. IT/Economic Development Revolutions
      10. Database Management
      11. History of Database
      12. Transition from Flat File to Relational Databases
    4. GIS
      1. Web Sites
      2. IT Applications in Practice: Web Sites
      3. Tinley Park, IL
      4. Tampa, FL
      5. Boston, MA
      6. The Future
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
  6. II. The Development of National ICT Policy in Kenya: The Influence of Regional Institutions and Key Stakeholders
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. THE CASE OF ICT POLICY DEVELOPMENT IN KENYA
      1. ICT Policy and Regulatory Environment
    5. THE NATIONAL ICT POLICY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN KENYA
      1. 1997-2004
      2. E-Government Strategy (2004)
      3. 2004-2006
      4. Influence of Regional Institutions
      5. The Role of the Private Sector and Civil Society
      6. Challenges
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. RECOMMENDATIONS
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    12. ENDNOTES
  7. III. Electronic Highways in Southeast Asia: Liberality, Control, and Social Change
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. The Growth of Southeast Asian Economies
      2. An International Division of Labor and the Development of a Regional Economy
      3. Searching for High-Tech
      4. Information Technology Projects
      5. Malaysia and Singapore: Engineering Growth
      6. Economics, Politics, and ICTs
      7. Economics, Politics, And Privatization
      8. Political Changes?
    3. CONCLUSION
    4. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. ENDNOTES
  8. IV. The Possibility of Water-Cooler Chat? Developing Communities of Practice for Knowledge Sharing within Global Virtual Teams
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. A Conceptual Framework for Communities of Practice
      2. Cultivating Virtual CoPs
      3. Applying the weak Ties Theory for Understanding the Social Virtual Structure of Global Virtual Teams
      4. Using ICTs for Supporting Communities of Practice in the Virtual Work Context
      5. Implications of Weak Ties Theory and Cultural Dimensions on Developing Communities of Practice
          1. (1) The impact of social ties among team members' on the development of virtual communities of practice
          2. (2) The impact of national culture on knowledge-sharing activities using ICTs
          3. (3) The impact of ICTs on knowledge sharing and emergence of communities of practice within global virtual teams
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    5. REFERENCES
    6. ADDITIONAL READING
  9. V. Understanding Brand Web Site Positioning in the New EU Member States: The Case of the Czech Republic
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    4. ENLARGEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
    5. MEDIA USAGE IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE
      1. The Czech Republic
      2. Poland and Hungary
      3. Other Eu Member States
      4. Standardization vs. Localization
        1. Web Site Positioning as Global Information Management
      5. Communication in the Global Web Site Environment
    6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
    7. METHODOLOGY
    8. RESULTS
    9. DISCUSSION
        1. Limitations
    10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. REFERENCES
    12. ADDITIONAL READING
  10. VI. Beyond Localization: A New Look at Disseminating Information via the Web
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND CONCEPTS
    4. DATA AND INFORMATION
    5. THE LIMITS OF LOCALIZATION
    6. USING ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE
    7. HOW TO WRITE GLOBAL ENGLISH
    8. LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR WEB DOCUMENTS
    9. TRANSCENDING OUR CULTURAL PREFERENCES
    10. THE RISE OF MANDARIN: DECONSTRUCTING THE HYPE
    11. FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE
    12. CONCLUSION
    13. REFERENCES
    14. ADDITIONAL READING
      1. Suggested URLs
    15. ENDNOTES
  11. VII. Understanding Social Capital Formation for Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. The Emergence of Virtual Communities
        1. Virtual Communities of Relationship
        2. Virtual Communities of Place/Fantasy
        3. Virtual Communities of Mind/Interest
        4. Virtual Communities of Memory
        5. Virtual Communities of Transaction
      2. Significance of Knowledge Sharing
    4. UNDERSTANDING THE FORMATION PROCESS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
    5. A SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR SOCIAL CAPITAL FORMATION
    6. ELEMENTARY THEORY OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE (ET)
    7. SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
    8. PROPOSED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
    9. SOCIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
        1. Flexible Structures and Mobility
        2. Trustworthiness Among Members
        3. Memberships
        4. Volunteerism
        5. Reciprocity
        6. Leadership
    10. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. ADDITIONAL READING
  12. VIII. Business & IT Alignment in a Multinational Company: Issues and Approaches
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. RESEARCH DESIGN
    4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS & IT ALIGNMENT
      1. Phase 1: Traditional IT Planning
      2. Phase 2: Modern IT Planning
      3. Phase 3: Business & IT Alignment
    5. PRACTICAL ISSUES WITH BUSINESS AND IT ALIGNMENT
      1. Alignment vs. Economies of Scale
      2. Multiple Businesses
      3. A Fuzzy Target
    6. SPECIFIC ISSUES WITH BUSINESS & IT ALIGNMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES
      1. The Impact of Localization
      2. The Role of the Corporate Center
    7. BUSINESS AND IT ALIGNMENT IN PRACTICE
      1. Create an Overview
      2. Create Buying Power
      3. Install A Project Authorization Process
      4. Develop (Technical) Standards
      5. Rationalize The Application Portfolio
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
  13. IX. Intercultural Collaboration in the ICT Sector
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND: CHALLENGES OF INTERCULTURAL COLLABORATION
      1. Multicultural Teams
      2. Virtual Teams
        1. Foreign Assignments
    4. HOW TO PREVENT CHALLENGES OF INTERCULTURAL COLLABORATION?
      1. Intercultural Selection Strategies Of Personnel
      2. Intercultural Personnel Development
        1. Personnel Development off the Job
        2. Ethical Principles of Cross-Cultural Trainings
        3. Theoretical Frameworks of Cross-Cultural Training
        4. Objectives of Cross-Cultural Trainings
      3. Classifications of Cross-Cultural Trainings
      4. Cross-Oultural Personnel Development On The Job
      5. Diversity Training
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. ENDNOTES
  14. X. Computer-Mediated Communication: Enhancing Online Group Interactions
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Communication Style Differences
      2. CMC Communication Style Differences
      3. Summary
    3. ISSUES
      1. Media Richness
      2. Media Richness' Impact on Communication Style
      3. CMC Strategies
      4. Gender-Based Communication Style Identification
      5. Gender-Based Communication Style Training
      6. Summary
    4. RECOMMENDATIONS
      1. Community Building
      2. Utilizing CMC Strategies
      3. Multimedia CMC Tools
      4. Skype
      5. iVisit
      6. Microsoft NetMeeting and Messenger
      7. Elluminate®
      8. Multimedia CMC Uses for Support and Collaboration
      9. Summary
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
      1. Expanding and Changing CMC Skills
      2. Expanding Need for Global Understandings
      3. Summary
      4. Future Research Directions
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
  15. XI. The Dynamics and Rationality of Collective Behavior within a Global Information System
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. General Perspective
      2. Objectives
    3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      1. Electronic Exchange as a Global Information System
        1. The Notion of Information System (IS)
      2. Is Categories
      3. Is Dynamics
      4. Rationality of Human Behavior
        1. Traditional Approach to Rationality
        2. Alternative Notions of Rationality
    4. METHODOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
      1. The Paradigm Shift
      2. Collectivity of Investors as a Complex Aadaptive System
      3. Research Method
        1. Three-Element Ecological Model
        2. Identification of the Research Area
        3. Identification of the Mechanism of Collective Behavior
        4. Analysis of the Identified Mechanism
        5. Synthesis: A Mathematical Description of the Mechanism
    5. PRACTICAL VERIFICATION
      1. Application of the Logarithmic Spiral on the Index Chart
      2. Examples from an Emerging Market
      3. Examples from Developed Markets
    6. CONCLUSION: INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
  16. XII. Group Decision Making in Computer-Mediated Communication as Networked Communication: Understanding the Technology and Implications
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS
      1. Some Key Benefits of CMC
        1. Freedom to Participate
        2. Equalized/Democratic Participation
    5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      1. Making Networked Communication work
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
      1. Implications and Recommendations
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
  17. XIII. Understanding Global Information Technology and Outsourcing Dynamics: A Multi-Lens Model
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. Outsourcing, Offshoring, and Nearsourcing
    3. THE BASICS OF GLOBALIZATION
    4. DISCUSSION OF LENSES
      1. The Technological Lens
      2. The Political Lens
      3. The Organizational (Management) Lens
      4. The Economic Lens
      5. The Legal Lens
      6. The Educational Lens
      7. The Cultural Lens
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS: GENDER, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READINGS
  18. XIV. Global IT Outsourcing: Current Trends, Risks, and Cultural Issues
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CURRENT TRENDS IN GLOBAL IT OUTSOURCING
    4. CULTURAL ISSUES IN OFFSHORE OUTSOURCING
    5. THEORETICAL CONCEPTS BEHIND OUTSOURCING
      1. Transactional Cost Theory
    6. RISKS DEFINED
    7. RISK FACTORS
    8. RESEARCH METHOD
    9. CASE STUDY FORMAT
    10. CASE STUDY: FIRM-1
      1. Background
      2. Introduction
      3. Outsourcing Decision
      4. Case Conclusion
    11. CASE STUDY: FIRM-2
      1. Background
      2. Introduction
      3. Outsourcing Decision
        1. Best Practices:
      4. Case Conclusion
    12. ANALYSIS OF THE CASES
    13. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    14. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    15. NOTE
    16. REFERENCES
    17. ADDITIONAL READING
  19. A. Appendix
    1. QUESTIONNAIRE ON IT OUTSOURCING PROJECTS
  20. XV. Quality Standardization Patterns in ICT Offshore
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUTION
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Quality Management And The Current Internationalization Process Of The Ict Sector
      2. Quality Standards in the Context of the ICT Branch in Europe
    4. QUALITY STANDARDIZATION PATTERNS IN ICT OFFSHORE
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. ENDNOTES
  21. XVI. Offshoring in the ICT Sector in Europe: Trends and Scenario Analysis
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND: THE EVOLUTION AND INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE EUROPEAN ICT SECTOR
      1. The Meaning of ICT Off-and Nearshoring
    4. MAIN THRUST: COUNTRY SPECIFIC ANALYSIS
      1. Offshoring Trends Of Companies Representing Selected European Countries
      2. Hidden Costs and Risks of offshoring
      3. Solutions and Recommendations
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    10. ENDNOTES
  22. XVII. Information Technology Consulting in Global Information Technology
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND: THE WORLDWIDE MARKET DEVELOPMENT OF IT CONSULTING
    4. IT CONSULTANCY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      1. The Scope Of It Consulting: Research Strands
        1. The Long-Term Advice: (Management) Consulting on IT Strategy and Planning
        2. The Process Level Perspective: Roles of IT Consultants
      2. Solutions: A Conceptual Framework
    5. FUTURE TRENDS IN IT CONSULTING
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    10. ENDNOTES
  23. XVIII. Information Technology Consulting and the Implementation of Information Technology
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PROCESSES OF IT IMPLEMENTATION IN ORGANIZATIONS AND IT CONSULTING
      1. Organizations, Power, and IT Projects
      2. Information Technology Implementation And It Consulting Within Organizations
    4. IT CONSULTANCY AS AN IMPLEMENTATION OF CHANGE: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
      1. The Major Challenges of IT Consultancy in Technochange Projects
        1. The Planning Phase
        2. The Project Phase
        3. The Implementation Phase
        4. Summary
      2. Recommendations and Solutions
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    10. ENDNOTES
  24. XIX. Digital Preservation by Design
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DIGITAL PRESERVATION STRATEGIES
    4. OAIS REFERENCE MODEL
    5. THE FOUR GOALS OF PRESERVATION
      1. Keeping the Bits Safe
        1. Storage
        2. Archiving
        3. IT Contingency Planning
      2. Keeping the Files Usable
        1. Format Risk Assessment
        2. Format Registries
        3. Redaction
        4. Data Ingest
        5. Identification and Validation
        6. Data Provenance
        7. Persistent Identifiers
      3. Keeping The Integrity Of The Object
      4. Keeping the Context of the Object
        1. Preservation System Models
        2. DSpace
        3. Fedora
        4. Greenstone
        5. Digital Information Archiving System (DIAS)
    6. DIGITAL REPOSITORY DISCUSSION
      1. Attributes of Digital Repositories
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. NOTE
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READINGS
  25. XX. Teaching Information Systems to International Students in Australia: A Global Information Technology Perspective
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA
    4. IT AND IS IN AUSTRALIA: A GLOBAL VIEWPOINT
      1. Computing Classification and Its Impact in Australia
      2. IS and Its Programs in Australia
      3. Global Information Systems in Australia
    5. GLOBAL IT AND IS IN AUSTRALIA
      1. Background
      2. Global IT and Its Impact on IT in Australia: An Immigration Viewpoint
      3. Global IT and Its Impacts on IT in Australia: A Comparative Viewpoint
      4. Global IT and Its Impacts on IT Curricula in Australia
    6. TEACHING IT AND IS TO INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN AUSTRALIA
      1. Teaching with International Vision
      2. Student-Centered Teaching Activities
      3. Integrating Who's Who, Theory, and practice
      4. Teaching Informed by Research
      5. Teaching Related to Community Engagement
      6. Outcome of Teaching IT and IS and Discussion
      7. Some Secrets Revealed
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
  26. XXI. Sampling Approaches on Collecting Internet Statistics in the Digital Economy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PRELIMINARIES
      1. Related Work For Measuring The Growth Of The Internet
      2. Monte Carlo Sampling
      3. Variance-Reduction Technique: Importance Sampling
    4. AN IMPROVED IMPORTANCE SAMPLING SCHEME
    5. MEASURING THE NUMBER OF ACTIVE WEB SERVERS
      1. Implementation of Importance Sampling Strategies
      2. Choosing the Biasing Density
      3. Scaling the Biased Estimator
    6. MEASUREMENT RESULTS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READINGS
      1. Books
      2. Site
    11. ENDNOTES
  27. B. APPENDIX: DERIVATION OF CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY MASS FUNCTION OF TRIALS N REQUIRED TO GET K SUCCESSES FROM A BINOMIAL PROCESS
  28. XXII. Natural Language Processing Agents and Document Clustering in Knowledge Management: The Semantic Web Case
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Ontologies and the Semantic Web
      2. Ontology Learning
      3. Ontology Editing: Mapping, Merging, Aligning, and Refinement
      4. Ontelligent Applications
        1. Web Services
        2. Agents
      5. Filling the Gaps
    4. NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING AND SEMANTIC WEB AGENTS
      1. Morphological Analysis
        1. Part-of-Speech Tagging
        2. Chunking
        3. Dependency Structure Analysis
        4. Semantic Tagging
        5. Clustering
      2. Example Of Document-Level Clustering with Som
        1. Spade
        2. The Document Gatherer
        3. The Document Analyzer
        4. The Docuspace Agent
        5. The Dimensionality Reduction Agent
        6. The Post-Processing Agent
      3. Grubber
        1. The Labeling Agent
        2. The Coloring Agent
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    9. ENDNOTES
  29. XXIII. Integrating Mobile Technologies in Enterprise Architecture with a Focus on Global Supply Chain Management Systems
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
    4. EXISTING MODEL OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
    5. MOBILE (EMERGING) TECHNOLOGIES
      1. Wireless Technologies
        1. Third-Generation Mobile Network
        2. Mobile Satellite Networks
        3. Infrared
        4. Bluetooth
        5. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
        6. WiMAX
        7. Radio Frequency Identification
    6. APPLICATION OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
      1. E-supply Chain Management
      2. M-supply Chain Management
    7. INVESTIGATION INTO ADVANTAGE AND LIMITATION OF MOBILITY IN SCM
      1. Advantages
      2. Limitations
    8. BENEFITS OF MOBILITY TO THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
    9. BENEFITS OF MOBILITY TO THE GLOBAL ENTERPRISE
    10. COLLABORATIVE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN AN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
    11. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    12. REFERENCES
    13. ADDITIONAL READING
  30. XXIV. Influence of Mobile Technologies on Global Business Processes in Global Organizations
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. Mobile Technology
    3. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
      1. Modeling of Existing Processes
      2. Timesheet Operation
      3. Information Gathering
    4. THE COMPANY BACKGROUND
    5. METHODOLOGY: ACTION RESEARCH
    6. ANALYSIS
      1. Timesheet Operation
      2. Information Gathering Process
      3. Mobile Transition Roadmap
      4. Proposed Process Activity Diagrams for Timesheet Process
    7. EFFECT OF MOBILE TRANSFORMATION
      1. Comparison of the Existing Process with the Proposed Process
    8. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
      1. Web Services (WS)
      2. Mobile Web Services (MWS)
      3. Business Process Reengineering with the Global Company Perspective
    9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
  31. XXV. Objects as the Primary Design Principle for International Information Systems
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE LITERATURE
    4. FRAMEWORKS AND ARCHITECTURE OF INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    6. CASE VIGNETTE A: THE LEASING SUBSIDIARY OF AN INTERNATIONAL BANK (LEASING)
    7. CASE VIGNETTE B: AN A USTRALASIAN MERCHANT BANK (BANK)
    8. CASE VIGNETTE C: A NEW ZEALAND COMMODITY EXPORTING BOARD (BOARD)
    9. CASE VIGNETTE D: A DANISH SHIPPING GROUP (SHIPPER)
    10. CASE VIGNETTE E: AN AUSTRALASIAN FOOD PRODUCER'S CO-OP (CO-OP)
    11. CASE VIGNETTE F: AN INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT FORWARDING GROUP15 (FREIGHTER)
    12. ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE CASE VIGNETTES
    13. A FRAMEWORK FOR DESCRIPTION AND UNDERSTANDING
    14. DESIGN ECONOMIES FROM THE MODEL
    15. THE BENEFIT OF "OBJECT" QUALITIES FOR CORE SYSTEMS ELEMENTS
    16. CONCLUSION
    17. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    18. REFERENCES
    19. ADDITIONAL READING
    20. ENDNOTES
  32. About the Contributors