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Handbook of Research on User Interface Design and Evaluation for Mobile Technology

Book Description

"In recent years, mobile technology has been one of the major growth areas in computing. Designing the user interface for mobile applications, however, is a very complex undertaking which is made even more challenging by the rapid technological developments in mobile hardware. Mobile human-computer interaction, unlike desktop-based interaction, must be cognizant of a variety of complex contextual factors affecting both users and technology.

The Handbook of Research on User Interface Design and Evaluation provides students, researchers, educators, and practitioners with a compendium of research on the key issues surrounding the design and evaluation of mobile user interfaces, such as the physical environment and social context in which a mobile device is being used and the impact of multitasking behavior typically exhibited by mobile-device users. Compiling the expertise of over 150 leading experts from 26 countries, this exemplary reference tool will make an indispensable addition to every library collection."

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. ORGANIZATION OF THIS HANDBOOK
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. I. User Interface Design for Mobile Technologies
    1. I. From Ethnography to Interface Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Ethnography and HCI
        2. Ethnography and Interface Design
      4. USING ETHNOGRAPHY IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
        1. Gathering Data
        2. Interpreting Data
        3. Informing Design
      5. A DESIGN CASE STUDY
        1. Process
        2. Gathering and Interpreting Data
        3. Design Sketching
        4. Paper-Based Mock-Ups
        5. Prototyping
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    2. II. Use of Experimental Ethno-Methods to Evaluate the User Experience with Mobile Interactive Multimedia Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. METHODOLOGY
        1. Theatre Workshops: Personas and Scenarios (Phase TWO)
          1. First Scenario: "Paul"
          2. Second Scenario: "Marina"
          3. Third Scenario: "Alex"
        2. Experimental Prototypes (Phase Three)
          1. Handheld
        3. Public interactive Display
          1. Personal Interactive Map
          2. In-Car Multimedia Communication System
          3. Memory Pin
      6. RESULTS ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. III. Problems Rendezvousing: A Diary Study
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Mobile Technology and Human Mobility
        2. Future Technology for Mobility and Rendezvousing
      3. AIM: TO IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE RENDEZVOUSING
      4. A DIARY STUDY OF RENDEZVOUSING
        1. Study Design and Methodology Issues
        2. Method
          1. Participants
          2. Materials
          3. Procedure
      5. RESULTS
        1. Rendezvous Reports
        2. Type and Frequency of Rendezvous and Communication
        3. Performance Deficits: Stress and Lost Opportunity
          1. 'Severe' Events
          2. Individual Sacrifices Amongst 31-45 year olds
          3. Stress and Lost Opportunity at Unfamiliar Rendezvous Points
        4. Performance Deficits: User Experience
      6. DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
        1. Responding to Occasional High Stress and Lost Opportunity: Controlled Disclosure of Position Integrated with Group Communication
        2. Responding to More Individual Sacrifices by 31-45s: Reminder Systems
        3. Responding to Worse Outcomes when Meeting at Unfamiliar Locations: Personal Route Planning, Navigation and Information Seeking
        4. Responding to Impaired Experience en Route: Better Connectivity, Faster-Paced Messaging, Awareness and Negotiation, Systems Fit-For-Contexts
          1. Better Connectivity
          2. Faster-Paced Messaging
          3. Awareness and Negotiation
          4. Devices Fit-for-Context
      7. FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. IV. User Experience of Camera Phones in Social Contexts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. SITUATED USE OF CAMERA PHONES
        1. Camera Phone Use in Different Spaces
          1. Public Space
          2. Private Space
        2. Social Uses of Camera Phones
          1. 'Sharing a Moment Now'
          2. 'Sharing a Moment Later'
          3. Social Interaction with Strangers
        3. Barriers to sharing
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    5. V. Interaction Design for Personal Photo Management on a Mobile Device
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: TECHNOLOGY TREND AND PHOTO MANAGEMENT ON MOBILE
        1. Prints Organized and Captioned in an Album
        2. Prints Scanned and Stored on a PC
        3. Stand-Alone Photoware
        4. Online Photoware for Sharing and Photo-Blogging
        5. Online Photo-Sharing with Automatic Organization
      4. DESIGNING MOBILE INTERFACE FOR PHOTO MANAGEMENT
      5. ENHANCING INTERACTION FOR MOBILE PHOTO MANAGEMENT WITH CONTENT AND CONTEXT
        1. Content-Based Image Analysis
        2. Context-Awareness
          1. Time
          2. Location
          3. Other Context Issues
          4. Mobile Photo Access: An Example
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. VI. Understanding One-Handed Use of Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FIELD STUDY
        1. Field Study Method
        2. Field Study Measures
        3. Field Study Results
        4. Analysis of Field Study
      5. WEB SURVEY
        1. Survey Method
        2. Survey Measures
        3. Survey Results
        4. Survey Summary
      6. THUMB MOVEMENT STUDY
        1. Equipment
        2. Participants
        3. Design
        4. Tasks
        5. Procedure
        6. Measures
        7. Results
          1. Device Size
          2. Target Location
          3. Subjective Preferences
        8. Thumb Movement summary
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    7. VII. User Acceptance of Mobile Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICABILITY OF EARLIER APPROACHES FOR MOBILE SERVICES
      5. TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL FOR MOBILE SERVICES (TAMM)
      6. DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
        1. Perceived Value
          1. Successful Service Content is Comprehensive, Topical, and Familiar
          2. The Service Should Provide Personal and User-Generated Content
          3. The Users Appreciate Seamless Service Entities Rather than Separate Services
          4. The Services Need to Provide Utility, Communication or Fun
        2. Perceived Ease of Use
          1. Clear Overview of the Service Entity
          2. Fluent Navigation on a Small Screen
          3. Smooth User Interaction with the Service
          4. Personally Relevant Services and Information without Expending Effort on Personalization Set-up
          5. Easy Access to Situationally Relevant Information and Services
          6. Facilitating Momentary Usage Sessions on the Move
          7. Design for Device and Network Variety
        3. Trust
          1. The User should be able to Rely on the Service in Intended Contexts of Use
          2. Measurement without Estimated Accuracy is of no Use
          3. The Privacy of the User must be Protected Even if the User would not require it
          4. The User Needs to Feel and Really be in Control
        4. Perceived Ease of Adoption
          1. Real Values of the Services Need to be Emphasized in Marketing
          2. Disposable Services for Occasional Needs
          3. The Service has to Support Existing and Evolving Usage Cultures
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    8. VIII. Transgenerational Designs in Mobile Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Method
          1. Independent and Dependent Variables
          2. Experimental Tasks
          3. Apparatus and Materials
          4. Participants
          5. Assessing Users' Characteristics Interacting with Navigation Performance
          6. Assessing Spatial Abilities and Verbal Memory
          7. Assessing Previous Experience with Technical Devices
        2. Results
          1. User Characteristics of Participants
          2. Previous Experience with Technical Devices
          3. Verbal Memory and Spatial Ability
          4. Menu Navigation Performance
        3. Learnability Effects: Comparison of Navigation Performance in the First vs. Second Trial
        4. User Characteristics and their Effects on Menu Navigation Performance
        5. Implications for Design
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    9. IX. Learning-Disabled Children: A Disregarded User Group
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Method
          1. Participants
          2. Apparatus
            1. Key Description
          3. Procedure
          4. Independent and Dependent Variables
        2. Results
          1. The Participants' Experience with Technology
          2. Performance Using the Two Phones
            1. Effects of Key Solutions on Students
            2. Effects of Key Solutions on Average Children
            3. Effects of Key Solutions on Learning-Disabled Children
            4. Which Keys Lead to the Difficulties?
            5. Performance Differences between the User Groups in other Variables
          3. What is so Special About Learning-Disabled?
            1. Memory
            2. Locus of Control
            3. Mental Models
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    10. X. Human Factors Problems of Wearable Computers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FORM-FACTOR AND PHYSICAL ATTACHMENT
        1. Physical Effects of Wearing Computers
        2. Energy Expenditure, Muscle Activity and Using Wearable Computers
        3. Reducing Size and Separating Components
        4. Perceptual Impacts of Wearing Computers
        5. Computer Response to Physical Activity
      4. USING WEARABLE COMPUTERS
        1. Supporting Memory
        2. Navigation and Way-Finding
        3. Finding and Retrieving Information
        4. Impact on User Performance
      5. SMART CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
      6. EMOTIONAL IMPACT OF WEARING COMPUTERS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
    11. XI. The Garment as Interface
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ELECTRONIC TEXTILES
        1. H2: Dynamic Garment Interface
        2. Multidisciplinary Character
      3. EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Inputs
        2. The Visual (Dynamic) Surface as Output
        3. Microprocessors
        4. Issues Around Networks
        5. Power, Radiation, and the Environment
      4. ERGONOMICS OF INTELLIGENT CLOTHING
        1. The Cut, Connectors, and Material
        2. Aesthetics vs. Function
      5. THE FUTURE OF INTERACTION
        1. The User Experience and its Considerations
        2. Applications
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    12. XII. Context as a Necessity in Mobile Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. What is Context
        2. Context Modeling in Context-Aware Applications
        3. Context Utilisation in Mobile Applications
        4. Perils of Context-Awareness
      4. WHAT IS CONTEXT FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS?
      5. AN ONTOLOGY-BASED CONTEXT MODEL FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS
      6. HOW CONTEXT CAN SUPPORT USER INTERACTION IN MOBILE APPLICATIONS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    13. XIII. Context-Awareness and Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. What is Context-Awareness
        2. Relevance to HCI
        3. Relevance to Mobile HCI
      3. BUILDING MOBILE CONTEXT-AWARE APPLICATIONS
      4. USABILITY OF MOBILE CONTEXT-AWARE APPLICATIONS
        1. Support for Interaction Design
        2. Usability Risks for Mobile Context-Aware Applications
        3. Design Guidelines for Mobile Context-Aware Applications
      5. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    14. XIV. Designing and Evaluating In-Car User-Interfaces
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TYPES OF IN-CAR COMPUTING SYSTEMS
      4. OVERALL HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES
      5. THE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN PROCESS
        1. Users
        2. Tasks
        3. Equipment
        4. Environments
      6. METHODS FOR USE IN DESIGN AND EVALUATION
        1. Field Trials
        2. Road Trials
        3. Simulator Trials
        4. Occlusion
        5. Peripheral Detection Task
        6. Lane Change Task
        7. 15 Second Rule
        8. Keystroke Level Model (KLM)
      7. CASE STUDY: VEHICLE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
        1. What Information Should a Navigation System Provide?
        2. How Should Information be Presented?
        3. How Should Drivers Interact with a Navigation System?
        4. Underload for Vehicle Navigation Systems
      8. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    15. XV. Speech-Based UI Design for the Automobile
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR SPEECH-BASED AUTOMOTIVE UIS
        1. General Design Goals for Automotive Speech Interfaces
        2. Design Recommendations
      4. EVALUATION OF RECENT AUTOMOTIVE SPOKEN USER INTERFACES
        1. Model A
          1. User Pacing
          2. Grammar Consistency and Modality
          3. Other Usability Issues
        2. Model B
          1. User Pacing
          2. Grammar Consistency and Modality
        3. Model C
          1. User Pacing
          2. Grammar Consistency and Modality
        4. Summary of Evaluation of Current Interfaces
      5. A SPEECH-IN LIST-OUT APPROACH TO IN-CAR SPOKEN USER INTERFACES
        1. Selection from a Set
        2. Experimental Evaluation of the SILO Interface
        3. Results
        4. Experimental Discussion
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    16. XVI. Design for Mobile Learning in Museums
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERACTION DESIGN FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS
      4. MOBILE DEVICES AS MUSEUM GUIDES
      5. DESIGNING MUSEUM MOBILE EDUCATIONAL ADIVITIES
      6. AN EXAMPLE OF MOBILE ACTIVITY DESIGN FOR INDOOR MUSEUM VISIT
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    17. XVII. Collaborative Learning in a Mobile Technology Supported Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGN FRAMEWORK
        1. Cognitive Elaboration
        2. Cognitive Conflict
        3. Collaborative Learning
        4. Mobile Learning
      4. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
      5. DESIGN OF A COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT
        1. A Mobile Technology Supported Classroom
        2. A Model of Affordances for Teaching Fraction Equivalence
          1. First Space: Learner-Controlled Animation of Partitioning
          2. Second Space: Comparison of the Equivalence of Fractions
          3. Third Space: Time-Keeping Hypothesis-Testing Competition
          4. Pedagogical Design: TWO Situations for Reflection and Cognitive Elaboration
        3. Pedagogical Design: Encouraging Reciprocal Tutoring
        4. Generating Procedural Knowledge of Adding Fractions with Unlike Denominators
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    18. XVIII. Design of an Adaptive Mobile Learning Management System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE LEARNING
        1. Mobile Learning Environment
        2. Research Trends in Mobile Learning
      4. LEARNING STYLES
        1. Index of Learning Styles
        2. Four Dimensions of Learning style
          1. Active and Reflective Learners
          2. Sensing and Intuitive Learners
          3. Visual and Verbal Learners
          4. Sequential and Global Learners
        3. Index of Learning Style Questionnaire
        4. The Classification of Learning Style for Adaptation
        5. User Interface for Mobile Learning
      5. STRUCTURE OF THE ADAPTIVE MOBILE LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
        1. Analyzing Learning Style
        2. Analysis Module
        3. Managing and Adapting Mobile Contents
        4. Flow of Adaptive Mobile Learning
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    19. XIX. Adaptive Interfaces in Mobile Environments: An Approach Based on Mobile Agents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. User Interface Abstraction
        2. Abstract User Interface Adaptation
        3. Adaptation to Devices
          1. Design-Time Adaptation
          2. Run-Time Adaptation
          3. Mobile Agent Adaptation
        4. Adaptation to Users
      4. ADUS: AN APPROACH BASED ON MOBILE AGENTS
        1. Adaptive User Interface Generation in ADUS
          1. Option 1: The Visitor Agent Generates the GUI
          2. Option 2: The User Agent Generates the GUI and Delegates Event Handling to the Visitor Agent
          3. Option 3: An Intermediate Agent Generates the GUI and Handles the Events
        2. Indirect Generation of GUIs
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. NOTE
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    20. XX. Intelligent User Interfaces for Mobile Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOME REFLECTIONS ON CONTEXT
        1. User Profile
        2. Device Characteristics
        3. Prevailing Environment
        4. Social Situation
      5. ARTIFICAL INTELLIGENCE IN MOBILE COMPUTING
      6. STRATEGIES FOR HARNESSING AI TECHNIQUES IN MOBILE APPLICATIONS
        1. Network-Based Approach
        2. Distributed Approach
        3. Embedded Approach
        4. Deployment Considerations
      7. THE INTELLIGENT AGENT PARADIGM
        1. Intelligent Agents for Mobile Computing
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    21. XXI. Tools for Rapidly Prototyping Mobile Interactions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Prototyping with Storyboards
        2. Testing Using WOz Approaches
        3. A Case Study
          1. Iteration #1
          2. Iteration #2
        4. Building a High Fidelity Prototype
        5. Lessons Learned
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    22. XXII. Modelling and Simulation of Mobile Mixed Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Designing Mixed Systems
          1. Definition and Classification
          2. Implementation Support
          3. Modelling Approaches
        2. 3-D Simulation Environment
      4. ASUR: A MIXED SYSTEM MODELLING APPROACH AND AN EXTENSION
        1. ASUR Basic Principles
          1. ASUR Components
          2. ASUR Relationships
          3. ASUR Characteristics
          4. ASUR Outcomes
        2. ASUR Extension
          1. Combining ASUR and a Virtual Environment Domain Model
          2. ASUR Model Refinement
            1. Split in the S Component
            2. An Additional Relationship
      5. SIMBA: AN ASUR-BASED 3-D SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT
        1. SIMBA Overall Process
          1. Loading the Required Information
          2. Starting and Using the Simulation
        2. SIMBA Element Model
          1. Interaction Between SIMBA Entities
          2. Additional Functionalities
        3. A Concrete lllustration
          1. Aeronautical Maintenance Context
          2. ASUR Modelling of the Aeronautical Maintenance Situation
          3. Simulation with SIMBA
          4. Practice and Experience Feedback of the Use of SIMBA
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. In Terms of the ASUR Model
        2. In Terms of SIMBA
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    23. XXIII. Engineering Emergent Ecologies of Interacting Artefacts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Bio-Inspired Approaches, Complexity, and Emergent Behaviours
        2. Dealing with Symbiotic Ami Spaces
        3. Interaction
      4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
        1. An Example: Virtual Residence
      5. ENGINEERING APPROACH
        1. Basic Building Blocks and Emergent Behaviour
        2. Ami Spheres and Collective Behaviour
        3. Awareness and Presence
      6. INTERACTING WITH AMI SPHERES
        1. The GAS Approach
        2. Supporting Tasks and Metatasks
        3. The Subsumption Architecture
        4. The GAS Symbiotic Interaction Metaphor
      7. AN EXAMPLE SCENARIO
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  7. II. Novel Interaction Techniques for Mobile Technologies
    1. XXIV. The Design Space of Ubiquitous Mobile Input
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXAMINING THE DESIGN SPACE OF INPUT DEVICES
        1. Position
        2. Continuous Indirect Interactions
        3. Continuous Direct Interactions
        4. Discrete Indirect Interactions
        5. Discrete Direct Interactions
        6. Evaluating Positioning Techniques
        7. Orient
        8. Continuous Indirect Interactions
        9. Continuous Direct Interactions
        10. Discrete Direct Interactions
        11. Select
        12. Continuous Indirect Interactions
        13. Continuous Direct Interactions
        14. Discrete Indirect Interactions
        15. Discrete Direct Interactions
        16. Path
        17. Quantify
        18. Text
          1. Keyboard
          2. Speech Recognition
          3. Stroked Character Recognition
          4. Menu Selection
      4. SPATIAL LAYOUT OF THE DESIGN SPACE
        1. Supported Subtasks
        2. Dimensionality
        3. Relative vs. Absolute
        4. Other Relevant Attributes of Interaction Devices
          1. Designing for Serendipity
        5. Social Acceptance
      5. DESIGN SPACES IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. XXV. Text Entry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KEYBOARDS
        1. Unambiguous Keyboards
        2. Ambiguous keyboards
        3. Disambiguation
      4. STYLUS-BASED TEXT ENTRY
        1. On-screen Keyboards
        2. Handwriting
        3. Gesture-Based input
      5. EVALUATION
        1. Technical Evaluation
        2. User Studies
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      7. PROJECTS AND DISCUSSION TOPICS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      11. ENDNOTES
    3. XXVI. Improving Stroke-Based Input of Chinese Characters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHINESE CHARACTERS
      4. MOBILE INPUT SOLUTIONS
        1. Handwriting Recognition
        2. Pinyin Method
        3. Structure-Based Methods
      5. MOTOROLA ITAP™ STROKE INPUT METHOD
      6. PRELIMINARY COMPARISON
        1. Participants
        2. Task
        3. Results
      7. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      8. REDESIGNING THE GRAPHICS
      9. INITIAL EVALUATION OF NEW KEYPAD GRAPHICS
        1. Participants
        2. Tasks
        3. Results
      10. HANDS-ON TEST
        1. Participants
        2. Tasks
        3. Results
      11. CONFIRMATION TEST
        1. Participants
        2. Results
      12. SIMPLIFICATION TEST
        1. Participants
        2. Tasks
        3. Results
      13. FINAL EFFECTIVENESS TEST
        1. Participants
        2. Tasks
        3. Results
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      16. REFERENCES
      17. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    4. XXVII. Voice-Enabled User Interfaces for Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE PROTOTYPE
        1. The Underlying Speech Technology
          1. Speech Recognition
          2. Speech Synthesis
        2. Managed Applications
          1. Contacts
          2. Location
          3. Weather
          4. Shopping
          5. Stocks
          6. Appointments and Reminders
        3. Program Manager
          1. Graphical User Interface
      5. EVALUATION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    5. XXVIII. Speech-Centric Multimodal User Interface Design in Mobile Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A GENERIC MUI ARCHITECTURE
      4. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SPEECH MODALITY
        1. Resource Constrained Speech Recognition
        2. Noise Robust Speech Front End
        3. Modality Switching
        4. Context-Aware Language Model
      5. LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING
      6. MODALITY FUSION
        1. Semantic representation and Unification
        2. Semantic Fusion with Uncertain Inputs
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
        1. Microphone Array Processing
        2. Error Handling Techniques
        3. Adaptive Multimodal Architectures
        4. Mixed Initiative Multimodal Dialog
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    6. XXIX. Model-Based Target Sonification in Small Screen Devices: Perception and Action
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Novel Interaction and Continuous Control
        2. Control Theory and Fitts' Law
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODEL-BASED SONIFICATION
        1. Quickening
        2. Doppler Effect
      5. EXPERIMENT
        1. Goals
        2. Apparatus
        3. Experiment I
        4. Task and Stimuli
        5. Design
        6. Visualisation
          1. Audio and exploration Density Plots
          2. Distance to the Target
        7. Results
          1. Search Patterns Observed
          2. Chosen Songs
        8. Discussions
        9. Experiment II
        10. Design
        11. Visualisation
        12. Results
          1. Proportion of Distance to the Target
          2. Search Patterns and Covered Space
        13. Discussions
        14. Human Operator Modeling
        15. Design
      6. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY
        1. Outlook for Mobile Interface Designers
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    7. XXX. Unobtrusive Movement Interaction for Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SENSOR INTERACTION COVER
      5. INTERACTION CUSTOMIZATION
      6. USE CASES AND USABILITY
      7. CONTINUOUS DETECTION RELIABILITY: EXPERIMENTS
        1. Data Collecting
      8. EXPERIMENT RESULTS
        1. Pilot Test
        2. Stationary Conditions
        3. False Positives - Multiple Users
        4. Summary of Results
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    8. XXXI. EMG for Subtle, Intimate Interfaces
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Electromyographic (EMG) signal
        2. Electrodes, Recording, and Applications
        3. EMG for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
      4. SUBTLE GESTURES AND THE INTIMATE COMMUNICATION ARMBAND
        1. Hardware
        2. User-Centred Definition of Subtle Gestures
        3. Subtle Gesture Model
        4. Two Gestures: Long and Short
      5. EVALUATION
        1. First Study: Learning and Recognition Rate
        2. Results and Discussion
        3. Second Study: Multimodal Realistic Interaction
        4. Results and Discussion
        5. Third Study: Assessing Noticeability
        6. Results and Discussion
        7. General Discussion
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      11. ENDNOTE
    9. XXXII. Mobile Camera-Based User Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING COMPUTER VISION TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Markerless Tracking
        2. Tagging-Based systems
      4. MAPPING CAMERA MOTION TO USER INTERACTION
        1. Using camera as a Pointing Device
        2. Using Camera as a Primitive for Gestural Interaction
        3. Using Camera for Ubiquitous Computing and Augmented Realities
      5. CAMERA-BASED UI PROTOTYPE
        1. High-Level Algorithm Description
        2. Applications
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    10. XXXIII. 3-D Visualization on Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LOCAL COMPUTATION
      4. REMOTE COMPUTATION
      5. GUI DESIGN REMARKS
      6. HIGH-PERFORMANCE MOBILE 3-D REMOTE VISUALIZATION
          1. Remote Rendering Subsystem
        1. Mobile visualization client
        2. Experimental Results
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    11. XXXIV. Navigation Support for Exploring Starfield Displays on Personal Digital Assistants
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SMOOTH-ZOOMING
        1. Interface
        2. Evaluation Abstract
      4. OVERVIES+DETAIL
        1. Interfaces
        2. Evaluation Abstract
      5. FISHEYE
        1. Interfaces
        2. Evaluation Abstract
      6. OUTLOOK
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    12. XXXV. Projected Displays of Mobile Devices for Collaboration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. PROJECTING AND RECOGNIZING DISPLAYS OF MOBILE DEVICES
        1. Design Requirement
        2. Recognition of 3-D position and Orientation
        3. Projecting Displays of Mobile Devices
        4. Recognition of projected Displays
        5. Identifying Projected Displays of Mobile Devices
      5. INTUITIVE MANIPULATION TECHNIQUES
        1. Manipulation Techniques by Fingers
        2. Examples of Intuitive Manipulation on Projected Displays
          1. Annotation
          2. Rotation
          3. File Transfer by Overlapping Projected Displays
      6. USER STUDIES
        1. Overview
        2. Experiment 1
        3. Experiment 2
      7. RESEARCH ISSUES TO BE INVESTIGATED
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  8. III. Assistive Mobile Technologies
    1. XXXVI. Designing Mobile Technologies for Individuals with Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Challenges of working with Target users
        2. Challenges of Working with Domain Experts
      4. GUIDELINES FOR INCLUSIVE DESIGN OF ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Work with Existing Support Organizations
        2. Assess Target users' and Domain Experts' Needs, Abilities, and Expectations
        3. Choose a Design/Evaluation Technique and Analyze its Requirements
        4. Adapt the Chosen Approach to be Sympathetic to the Target users' Abilities
        5. Clearly Communicate the Nature of participants' Involvement
        6. Attempt and Refine the Approach
        7. Evaluate the Technology in Different Contexts
      5. GUIDELINES IN USE: REFLECTIONS ON A CASE STUDY
        1. Work with Existing Support Organizations
        2. Assess Target users' and Domain Experts' Needs, abilities, and Expectations
        3. Choose a Design/Evaluation Technique and Analyze its Requirements
        4. Adapt the Chosen Approach to be Sympathetic to the Target Users' Abilities
        5. Clearly Communicate the Nature of Participants' Involvement
        6. Attempt and Refine the Approach
        7. Evaluate the Technology in Different Contexts
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    2. XXXVII. Mobile Design for Older Adults
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Older People and Traditional Computers
        2. Older People and Information Appliances
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Recruiting Older Target Populations
        2. Meeting with Older Adults
        3. Physical Interfaces
        4. Virtual Interfaces
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      9. ENDNOTE
    3. XXXVIII. Designing Mobile Applications to Support Mental Health Interventions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Mental Health: A sensitive situation
        2. Why Mobile Phones?
      3. SUPPORTING MENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS
        1. Design Under Ethical and User Access Constraints
        2. Designing for Adolescents
        3. Designing for Therapists
        4. Mobile Software to Support Psychotherapy
      4. RECOMMENDATIONS
        1. Interaction Design Methodologies
        2. Data Collection
        3. Information Gathering Methods
        4. Mobile Design Recommendations
        5. Adaptable systems
        6. Therapists and Designers work in Parallel
        7. Multistage Prototyping
          1. Stage One: Focus Group
          2. Stage Two: Peer Group User Study
        8. Stage Three: Clinical End-User Evaluation
      5. CASE STUDY: "MOBILE MOOD CHARTING"
        1. Design of the Mobile Chart
        2. Stage One: Focus Group User Study
        3. Stage Two: Peer Study
        4. Stage Three: Clinical End-user Evaluation
        5. Discussion
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    4. XXXIX. Widely Usable User Interfaces on Mobile Devices with RFID
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MADE SUPPORT OF RFID TECHNOLOGY
        1. Location-Aware Computing
        2. RFID Application Fields
        3. MADE Architecture
        4. Integration of RFID Subsystem
      4. THE EUROFLORA GUIDE
        1. Design Methodology
        2. Structure of the Interface
      5. FIELD EVALUATION
        1. Experimental Framework
        2. Preexhibition Tests
        3. Ecological tests
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND VISION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    5. XL. Toward a Novel Human Interface for Conceptualizing Spatial Information in Non-Speech Audio
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WORK'S NOVELTY
      4. ADVANTAGES OF USING OUR EARS
      5. ECOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY APPROACH TO AUDITORY EVENT PERCEPTION
      6. BENEFITS OF NONSPEECH AUDIO
      7. VIRTUAL 3-D ACOUSTIC SPACE
      8. SOUND LOCALIZATION PROCESS
        1. Apparatus
        2. Experimental Process
        3. Training Session
        4. Testing Session
        5. Experimental Results
          1. Experiment with the Fixed Z-Coordinate
          2. Experiment with the Variable Z-Coordinate
          3. Experiment Including Reverberation Effect on Sound Source
          4. Experiment Including Reflection Effect on Sound Source
        6. Discussion
      9. SPATIAL CONCEPTUALIZATION PROCESS
        1. Apparatus
        2. Virtual Courses
        3. Experiments
        4. Experimental Results
        5. Discussion
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. FUTURE TRENDS
      12. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    6. XLI. A Navigational Aid for Blind Pedestrians Designed with User-and Activity-Centered Approaches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NAVIGATIONAL AIDS FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEDESTRIANS
      4. A USER-AND ACTIVITY-CENTERED APPROACH FOR DESIGNING A NAVIGATIONAL AID FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEDESTRIANS
      5. SPECIFICATION PROCESS FOR A VERBAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM FOR BLIND PEDESTRIANS: CASE STUDIES
        1. User-Centered Approach
        2. Activity-Centered Approach
      6. CONCLUSION, OUTCOMES, AND PERSPECTIVES
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. XLII. Trends in Adaptive Interface Design for Smart Wheelchairs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS A SMART WHEELCHAIR?
        1. Smart Wheelchair Structure
        2. Smart Wheelchair User Interface
      4. USER INTERFACE DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
        1. Disability and Rehabilitation
        2. Price
        3. Shared Control
        4. Shared Control Schemes
          1. Adjustable Autonomy
        5. Human-robot Interface Design Guidelines
      5. ADAPTABILITY
        1. User Modelling
        2. Task Modelling
        3. Context Modelling: Maps and Paths
          1. Internal Structures for Navigation
          2. Sharing Navigational Information with the User
        4. System Behaviour
      6. THE PHYSICAL INTERFACE
        1. Input Devices
        2. Enhancing Communication Speed
        3. Word Prediction
        4. Scanning Time Adaptation
      7. ALTERNATIVE NAVIGATION MODELS AND THEIR INTERFACES
        1. Two Approaches to Navigation and Interface Design
        2. Behaviour-Based Interaction
        3. The Interface
        4. Discussion
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      11. ENDNOTES
  9. IV. Evaluation Techniques for Mobile Technologies
    1. XLIII. Evaluating Mobile Human-Computer Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Defining Evaluation Targets
        2. Why Conduct Evaluation?
        3. Defining Referent Models
      3. MAKING SENSE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY WITH MOBILE TECHNOLOGY
        1. Interacting with Mobile Technology while walking
        2. Using Mobile Technology while On-the-Move
      4. SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGY
        1. Subjective Response to the Device
        2. Subjective Responses to Using the Device To Perform an Activity
      5. DESIGNING AN EVALUATION PROTOCOL
        1. Initial Concept Development
        2. Prototyping
        3. Specification and Build
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTES
    2. XLIV. Usability Evaluation Methods for Mobile Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USABILITY EVALUATION METHODS FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS
        1. Framework for Current UEMs
          1. User Testing
          2. Inspection
          3. Inquiry (Adapted Methods)
          4. Cultural Probes
          5. User Experience Sampling
          6. Analytical Modeling
        2. Case Study: Towards a Real World Lab
          1. Shortcomings of Traditional Usability Testing
          2. The Role of Context
          3. The "Real World" Lab
      4. DISCUSSION AND OUTLOOK
      5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    3. XLV. Evaluating Context-Aware Mobile Interfaces for Professionals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Application Domain
        2. Case Study: Evaluating a Mobile Support System for Police Officers
        3. Mobile use Context
      3. FRAMEWORK OF EVALUATION CONSTRAINTS
        1. Stage in the Development Process
        2. Purpose of Evaluation
        3. Complexity of Design
        4. Participants
        5. Setting of Evaluation
        6. Duration of Evaluation
        7. Evaluation Cost
        8. Conclusion
      4. APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK
        1. Focus Group Evaluation
          1. Selection and Application of Method
          2. Combination of Techniques
          3. Tuning of Techniques
          4. Benefits and Limitations
        2. Designing the Context-Aware System
        3. Wizard of Oz Evaluation
          1. Selection and Application of Method
          2. Combining and Tuning of Techniques
          3. Benefits and Limitations
        4. Game-Based Evaluation
          1. Selection and Application of Method
          2. Combining and Tuning of Techniques
          3. Benefits and Limitations
        5. Field Evaluation in the Professional Domain
          1. Selection and Application of Method
          2. Combining and Tuning of Techniques
          3. Benefits and Limitations
      5. EVALUATION GUIDELINES
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    4. XLVI. Appropriating Heuristic Evaluation Methods for Mobile Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE DEVICES, APPLICATIONS, AND THEIR CONTEXT
        1. Limits Posed by the Device
        2. Limits Posed by Context and Interaction
      4. HEURISTIC EVALUATION
        1. Introduction to Heuristic Evaluation
        2. Strengths of Heuristic Evaluation
        3. Limitations of Heuristic Evaluation
      5. APPROPRIATING USABILITY HEURISTICS
        1. Methodology for Realizing Mobile Issues
          1. Mobile Usability Issues
        2. Methodology for Realizing Mobile Heuristics
          1. Toward a Set of Heuristics
            1. Phase 1
            2. Phase 2
            3. Phase 3
          2. Assessing Heuristics Performance
            1. Experimental Design
              1. Participants and Materials
              2. Experimental Conditions
              3. Procedure
            2. Data Analysis
              1. Number of Flaws and Variation Among Experts
              2. Severity of Flaws and Distribution
              3. Usability Flaws and Heuristics
              4. Time Taken to Evaluate
      6. REFLECTIONS TOWARD DEEPER PRINCIPLES
        1. The Nature of Mobile Devices
        2. The Environment of Mobile Infrastructure
        3. The Context of Mobile Use
        4. The Purpose of Mobile Tasks
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. XLVII. Using Wizard of Oz to Evaluate Mobile Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE WIZARD OF OZ METHOD
        1. Wizard of Oz in the Development Lifecycle
      4. WIZARD OF OZ STUDIES FOR MOBILE TECHNOLOGY
        1. Variability in Wizard of Oz Studies
      5. PLANNING A WIZARD OF OZ STUDY
        1. Case Study: Runaround
        2. Guidelines for WOz Studies for Mobile Applications
        3. Cautions for Wozzing
          1. Technology Related Problems
          2. Ethical Concerns with the Method
          3. The Wizard is a Human
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    6. XLVIII. Cognitive Models as Usability Testing Tools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. USEFUL AND USABLE?
        1. Models Without Adequate Theories: The ISO Quality Models
        2. Some Problems with the Qualitative Methods
      5. COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURES
        1. Descriptive Vs. Generative Cognitive Models
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Specification of the Existing Architectures
        2. An Integrative Approach to UI Design
        3. Promoting Flexible Design
        4. From Usability to Reusability
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    7. XLIX. Assessing Human Mobile Computing Performance by Fitts' Law
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ASSESSING INPUT PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE DEVICES
        1. Mobility and HCI: Two Concurrent Tasks
        2. Mobile Input Performance
        3. Applying Fitts' Law for Assessing HCI Performance
        4. Experiment on Mobile Input Performance on the Move
        5. Hypothesis
        6. Participants
        7. Apparatus
        8. Procedure
        9. Statistical Analysis
      4. RESULTS
        1. Subjective Workload
        2. Error Rate
        3. Input Time and Fitts' Law
      5. DISOUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    8. L. Multilayered Approach to Evaluate Mobile User Interfaces
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USER INTERFACE EVALUATION FOR MOBILE DEVICES
      4. THE MULTILAYERED EVALUATION APPROACH
        1. Standard Conformity Assessment
        2. User Satisfaction Measurement
        3. User Performance Measurement
        4. The Experiment: Comparing Field and Laboratory Use of a PDA
        5. Experiment Design
        6. Test Environment
          1. Participants
          2. Materials
            1. Laboratory Test Materials
            2. Field Test Materials
        7. Camera Apparatus
        8. The WebQuest Tool
        9. Experiment Procedure
        10. Results
          1. Standard Conformity Assessment Results
          2. User Satisfaction Measurement Results
          3. Performance Measurement Results
            1. The User Sample Profile
            2. User Performance Data Analysis
          4. Overlaying Results
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    9. LI. Theory and Application of the Privacy Regulation Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS PRIVACY RESEARCH
      4. THE PRIVACY REGULATION MODEL
      5. MODEL EVALUATION CASE STUDY: PRIVACY PERCEPTION OF THE PEPE SYSTEM
        1. Participants
        2. The PePe System
          1. Privacy Regulation Features
        3. Procedure
        4. Results: Privacy Regulation Practices in Using the PePe System
          1. Content
          2. Relationship
          3. Relevance
          4. Risk of Information Misuse
          5. Context of Use
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    10. LII. Framework and Model of Usability Factors of Mobile Phones
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Mobile Phones and Tasks
          1. User Interface of Mobile Phones
          2. Interacting with Mobile Phones
        2. Research Problems
      3. DEVELOPING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
        1. Conceptual Framework
      4. HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF IMPACT FACTORS
        1. Linking Different Groups of Usability Factors
          1. Usability Indicator
          2. Usability Property
          3. Usability Criteria
        2. Overall Hierarchical Model
        3. Use of Hierarchical Model
          1. Interpreting Evaluation Items
          2. Analysing Usability Problems
      5. CASE STUDIES
        1. The 1st Case Study
        2. Extended Model
        3. The 2nd Case Study
        4. A Set of Checklists
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    11. LIII. Will Laboratory Test Results be Valid in Mobile Contexts?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MOBILE CONTEXT
        1. Mobility is More than Just being on the Move
          1. Mobility on a Larger Scale
        2. The Challenges of Mobility
          1. Active Participation
          2. The Competition for Cognitive Resources
      4. USABILITY TESTING
        1. The Principles of Usability Testing
        2. Usability Testing in Industry
        3. Usability Testing in the Field and in the Laboratory
          1. Modern Testing Equipment
          2. Comparative Field and Laboratory Studies
          3. Our Study
      5. SUGGESTIONS FOR FIELD TESTING
        1. Choosing a Location for Out-of-Laboratory Testing
        2. The Logistics of Field Testing
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    12. LIV. Mobile Evaluations in a Lab Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE EVALUATION
      4. DISTRACTIONS
      5. EVALUATION 1: COMPARISON OF AUDIO AND VISUAL NAVIGATIONAL CUES
        1. Background
        2. Experimental Design
        3. Experimental Procedure
        4. Results
        5. Discussion
      6. EVALUATION 2: COMPARISON OF WEARABLE DISPLAYS
        1. Background
        2. Experimental Design
        3. Experimental Procedure
        4. Results
        5. Discussion
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
      12. ENDNOTE
    13. LV. Instrumented Usability Analysis for Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSTRUMENTED USABILITY ANALYSIS
        1. Example: Mobile Text Entry
      4. DETAILED CASE STUDY OF WALKING AND TAPPING
        1. Experiment
          1. Introduction
          2. Equipment
          3. Task
          4. Metrics
          5. Gait Detection
        2. The Hilbert Transform
          1. Standard Usability Results
            1. Time to Tap
            2. Tap Accuracy
          2. Instrumented Usability Analysis Results
            1. Tap Phase
            2. Left-Right Step Analysis
            3. Walking Speed Analysis
            4. Other Analysis
        3. Discussion
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    14. LVI. Three Eye Movement Studies of Mobile Readability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE READING PROCESS
        1. Physiological Limitations
        2. Cognitive Processing
        3. Measuring Readability
      4. READABILITY ON MOBILE DEVICES
        1. Reading on Small Screens
        2. Text Presentation Formats
          1. Scrolling
          2. Paging
          3. Leading
          4. Rapid Serial Visual Presentation
          5. Previous Evaluations
        3. Evaluation Methodology
      5. EYE MOVEMENT STUDIES
        1. Study One: Reading on a PDA
        2. Study Two: Verifying the Results
        3. Study Three: Reading on a Mobile Phone
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    15. LVII. Did You See That?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLASSIFYING DISTRACTIONS
      4. A TALE OF THREE STUDIES
        1. Study 1
          1. Observations
        2. Study 2
          1. Observations
        3. Study 3
          1. Observations
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    16. LVIII. A Field Laboratory for Evaluating in Situ
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CLOSE-UP VIDEO AND IMPROVED SOUND
        1. Using the First Field Laboratory in Practice
        2. Lessons Learned From Using Field Lab #1
      5. SMALL CAMERAS AND MULTIPLE VIDEO SOURCES
        1. Using the Second Field Laboratory in Practice
        2. Lessons Learned From Using Field Lab #2
      6. MINIMIZING EQUIPMENT AND INCREASING BATTERY LIFETIME
        1. Using the Third Field Laboratory in Practice
        2. Lessons Learned from using field Lab #3
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
    17. LIX. Field Evaluation of Collaborative Mobile Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Data Collection Techniques
        2. Data Analysis
          1. Data Analysis through ActivityLens
      4. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
        1. Preparing the Study
        2. Recording Activity Phase
          1. (a) Screen Grabbing on the Mobile Device
          2. (b) Audio Recording with Wearable Devices
          3. (c) Discrete/Unobtrusive Video Recording
          4. (d) Interviews and Questionnaires
        3. Analysing Activity Phase
      5. EVALUATING USABILITY OF A COLLABORATIVE CONTEXT AWARE EDUCATIONAL GAME
        1. Preparation of the Evaluation Study
        2. Collecting Data
        3. Analysing Data with ActivityLens
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
        1. Glossary
  10. V. Case Studies
    1. LX. UI Design for Mobile Technology in a Closed Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM AND THE USAGE CONTEXT
      4. CURRENT STATUS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING
      5. COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS
      6. GENERATING USER—AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
      7. STRATEGIC USER NEEDS ANALYSIS (SUNA)
        1. Steps in SUNA
          1. SUNA Modified
      8. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN
      9. EVALUATION
        1. The PMU and the Harness
        2. The Central Monitor (Base station)
        3. The PDA
        4. Alarms
      10. FUTURE USABILITY EVALUATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    2. LXI. Designing a Ubiquitous Audio-Based Memory Aid
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
        1. Similar Audio-Based Memory Applications and Technologies
        2. Relevant Legal Cases and Policies
      4. FORMATIVE EVALUATIONS OF PAL
        1. Laboratory Study: Developing a Usable Mobile Interface
          1. The Initial Prototype
          2. Method
          3. Results
        2. Diary Study: Determining the Usefulness of PAL
          1. Method
          2. Results
      5. SUMMATIVE EVALUATIONS OF PAL
        1. Deployment Study: In Situ Evaluation of Real Life PAL Use
          1. The Final Prototype
          2. Method
          3. Results
        2. Contextualized Survey Study: The Experience of the Conversation Partners
          1. Method
          2. Results
      6. CRITICAL FEATURES FOR USE
        1. Making PAL Useful
        2. Making PAL Ubiquitous
        3. Making PAL Usable
        4. Making PAL Socially and Legally Acceptable
      7. FUTURE TRENDS IN DESIGNING FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. LXII. Visualisation of Meeting Records on Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. VISUALISING MEETING RECORDINGS ON SMALL SCREENS
        1. Media Neighbourhoods and content Mapping
          1. Design of a Meeting Browser for Mobile Devices
          2. An Overview plus Detail Interface for Temporal Navigation
      5. EVALUATION
        1. Methodology
        2. Results
        3. Discussion of the Usability Evaluation
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      9. ENDNOTE
    4. LXIII. A Proposed Tool for Mobile Collaborative Reading
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
        1. Mobile Collaboration in Learning Environments
        2. Question-answer Relationships
        3. Speech Recognition in Mobile Environments
      4. OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
        1. Discussion of Paper Prototype Testing
        2. Participants in Paper Prototype Test
        3. Apparatus
        4. Test Design
        5. Test Results
        6. System Overview
        7. System Design
        8. Collaboration Components
          1. Chat Service
          2. Speech Recognition Strategy
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
    5. LXIV. Evaluating Learner Satisfaction in a Multiplatform E-Learning System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Content Adaptation
        2. W3C Device Independence Activities
      4. MULTIPLATFORM E-LEARNING SYSTEMS
        1. Multiplatform E-learning Systems Framework
        2. Content Dimension
        3. Competency Principle 1
        4. Learner Dimension
        5. Competency principle 2
        6. Device Dimension
        7. Competency principle 3
        8. Communication Dimension
        9. Competency principle 4
        10. Coordination Dimension
        11. Competency principle 5
      5. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY
        1. Evaluation Objectives
        2. Instrument
        3. Evaluations Scenarios
      6. PARTICIPANTS INFORMATION
      7. EVALUATION
        1. Overall Learner Satisfaction Score
        2. Gain in Multiplatform E-Learning System
        3. Degree of Influence and Relationships
        4. Grouping Behaviour in Factors
        5. Qualitative Data
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
  11. About the Contributors