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Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education

Book Description

The Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education presents a framework for understanding games for educational purposes while providing a broader sense of current related research. Compiling over 50 groundbreaking research studies from leading international authorities in the field, this advanced and uniquely comprehensive reference is a must-have.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Contributors
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THE NEED FOR A STRONGER RESEARCH FOUNDATION
    3. THE ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
  6. About the Editor
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. Reviewer Acknowledgment
  9. I. A Review of Research on Educational Gaming
    1. I. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of Computer Games as Learning Tools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Definition of Terms
          1. Computer Game
          2. Learning
        2. Computer Games for Learning
          1. Theoretical Perspectives on Computer Games for Learning
          2. Findings of Previous Gaming Reviews/Meta-Analysis
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Method
          1. Data Collection
          2. Data Coding and Analysis
        2. Results
        3. Discussion
          1. Game Research Purpose and Methodology
          2. Studies on the Effects of Instructional Gaming
          3. Studies on Instructional Game Design
          4. Studies on Game-Based Pedagogy
          5. Studies on Learner Characteristics
          6. Studies on Game-Based Cognitive or Motivation Processes
          7. Learning
          8. Learners
        4. Intervention: Game Genre and Features
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Implications on Future Instructional Gaming Policy and Practice
        2. Implications on Future Gaming Research
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. NOTE
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    2. II. Games, Claims, Genres, and Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. The Claims of Games
        2. Physiological Scheme
        3. Psychological Scheme
          1. Practical Skills
          2. Cognitive Skills
          3. Motivation
          4. Social Skills
        4. The Claims of Games: Identifying Problems
        5. Research and Theoretical Support for the Claims for Games
        6. Games as Monolithic Entity (i.e., Ignoring Game Genres)
        7. The Content-Neutral Nature of Many of These Claims
        8. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Games for Learning
        9. Games and Learning Assessment Framework: An Example
      3. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      6. ENDNOTES
    3. III. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Play Games for Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS ONLINE GAMING?
        1. Standalone Games
        2. Local and Wide Network (LAWN) Games
        3. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG)
      4. ONLINE GAMING: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
      5. EXAMPLES OF HOW MMORPGS ARE CURRENTLY BEING USED TO SUPPORT LEARNING AND TRAINING
        1. Multiplayer Online Games for School Education
        2. Online Multiplayer Role-Play Games for Post-16 Learning
        3. MMORPGs for Military Training
        4. MMORPGs for Leadership Training
      6. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    4. IV. An Investigation of Current Online Educational Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
        1. Game Taxonomies
        2. Core Elements of True Games
      4. MAJOR PROVIDERS OF CURRENT ONLINE EDUCATIONAL GAMES
        1. Category 1: Educational Media Companies
        2. Category 2: Educational Publishers
        3. Category 3: Professional Organizations
        4. Category 4: Academic Research Organizations
        5. Category 5: Non-Profit Educational Groups
        6. Category 6: Broadcasting Networks
      5. CURRENT STATE OF ONLINE EDUCATIONAL GAMES
        1. Grade Levels, Subject Areas, and Cognitive Skills
        2. Game Genres
        3. Game Types and Characteristics
      6. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    5. A. APPENDIX A: LIST OF MAJOR EDUCATIONAL GAME WEB SITES
    6. V. Augmented Reality Gaming in Education for Engaged Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REVIEW OF AUGMENTED REALITY GAMES FOR LEARNING
        1. Savannah
        2. Environmental Detective
        3. Virus
        4. Outbreak
        5. Newtoon and Mission Simulators
        6. Astroversity and Debating the Evidence
        7. HandLeR and Mobimissions
        8. Middle Rhine Eduventure
      5. IMPLICATIONS OF AR GAMES FOR EDUCATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    7. VI. Mobility, Games, and Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EDUCATING DIGITAL NATIVES AND NOMADS
      4. TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGY, PEDAGOGY, AND LEARNING
        1. Dynamic Knowledge Creation and Social Computing
        2. Mobile and Personal Technologies as Primary Platforms for Delivery
        3. Individualized Experiences, Open Access
      5. ISSUES OF POLICY, STRATEGY, AND DEVELOPMENT
        1. Policy Issues
        2. Strategic Issues
        3. Instructional Development Issues
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    8. VII. Game Interfaces as Bodily Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Techniques of the Body
        2. Conceptualizing Electronic Games
      4. MAIN FOCUS
        1. Bodily Interfaces
        2. Aspects of Bodily Interfaces
          1. Mode of Capture
          2. Haptics
          3. Remapping
      5. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      7. ENDNOTES
    9. VIII. A Window on Digital Games Interactions in Home Settings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      3. THE MAIN GOAL AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Data Collection
        2. Data Analysis
      5. MAIN FINDINGS
        1. Individual Digital Game Skills Acquisition
        2. Small-Group Interactions in Digital Games
      6. CONCLUSION, FUTURE TRENDS, AND IMPLICATIONS
        1. The Social Interactions Perspective
        2. The Instructional Design and the Educational Perspective
        3. The Game Design Perspective for People with Special Needs
        4. The Methodological Perspective
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    10. B. APPENDIX A: AN INTERVIEW WITH SHEY ABOUT PLAYING RUNESCAPE
    11. IX. Enhanced Interaction in Mixed Social Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT
      3. GAMES IN EDUCATION
      4. VIRTUAL WORLD ENVIRONMENTS AND GAME-LIKE CHARACTERISTICS
      5. SECOND LIFE AS A VIRTUAL WORLD ENVIRONMENT
      6. WELCOME TO OUR ISLAND: BACKGROUND AND PROCESS
      7. RAPID PROTOTYPING IN A MIXED SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
      8. SOCIAL INTERACTION AND ENTROPY: A NOVEL FORM OF RAPID PROTOTYPING
      9. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE WORK
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
    12. X. Electronic Gaming in Germany as Innovation in Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. EMPIRICAL SITUATION
      5. DISCUSSION OF POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS
      6. OUTLOOK AND FURTHER RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
  10. II. Educational Gaming in K-12 or Teacher Education Contexts
    1. XI. A Guide to Integrating COTS Games into Your Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PART I: THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR DESIGNING COTS GBL
        1. Introduction
        2. The Use of Commercial Games
        3. Theoretical Background
        4. Situated Learning and Cognition
          1. What It Is
          2. What It Means for COTS GBL
        5. Intrinsic Motivation
          1. What It Is
          2. What It Means for COTS GBL
        6. Objectives and Assessment
          1. What They Look Like in Games
          2. What They Have to Do with COTS GBL
        7. The NTeQ Model
        8. Final Thoughts on COTS GBL and NTeQ
          1. Integration vs. Use
          2. Problem-Based Learning
          3. Authentic Learning
          4. Collaborative Learning
          5. Projects and Roles
      3. PART II: PUTTING THEORY INTO PRACTICE
        1. Know Your Audience
        2. Know Your Environment
        3. Finding a Game
        4. Evaluating a Game
        5. Design the Lesson
        6. Preparing for Implementation
        7. Evaluate the Lesson
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      6. ENDNOTES
    2. XII. Productive Gaming and the Case for Historiographic Game-Play
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SIMULATION IN WORLD HISTORY
        1. Modding With Civ3
        2. Connecting Indigenous and Designed Gaming Practices
        3. Expert Use of Civilization III for Creating Historical Simulations
      4. DESIGNING LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS FOR HISTORIOGRAPHIC GAMING
        1. Expertise in Socially Contextualized Gaming
          1. Making Knowledge Public
          2. Collaborative Troubleshooting as Exploration of Game Concepts
        2. Creating a Playful, Lucid Mood
        3. From Newcomer to Expert Participation
        4. Developing Multiple Trajectories of Expertise
          1. Systemic Approaches to Gaming
          2. Historical Inquiry in Game-Play
          3. Mod-Making
      5. DISCUSSION: HISTORIOGRAPHIC GAMING
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    3. XIII. Game-Based Historical Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Definitions
        2. Viewpoint
      4. GAME-BASED HISTORICAL LEARNING
        1. Types of Games
        2. Selection Issues
        3. Learning Issues
        4. Evaluation Issues
        5. Controversies
        6. Future Trends
        7. Solutions and Recommendations
        8. Implications for Designers, Teachers, and Researchers
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    4. XIV. The Role of MMORPGs in Social Studies Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE SOCIAL STUDIES AS EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP
        1. Basic Knowledge
        2. Dispositions that Support Democracy
        3. Democratic Participation Skills
      4. BEYOND DIRECT CIVIC INSTRUCTION: MMORPGS AND THE SOCIAL STUDIES
        1. Civic Participation on a Global Scale
        2. Economic Education
        3. Participation Skills
        4. Decision-Making Skills
      5. IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    5. XV. Video Games, Reading, and Transmedial Comprehension
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Comprehension in the Wild vs. Comprehension in School—the Problem Defined
        2. Traditional Views on Literacy
        3. Reading and Comprehension in Schools Today
        4. Why Games?
        5. What Teachers Need to Know
        6. Learning and Play Are Inseparable
        7. Games, Play, and Learning are Inseparable
        8. The Take-Home Message
        9. A Model for Comprehension
        10. But How Does This Help Decoding?
        11. Genre Expectation
        12. The Site, the Students, and Observations on their Play
        13. Session 1
        14. Connections to Reading Comprehension
        15. Often a Well-Designed Game Will Force the Player to Use New Tools and Tactics
        16. Session 2
        17. Reflection
        18. Why Was Darius in Remedial Reading?
        19. Darius had Disengaged
        20. Implications
        21. Games and Comprehension
        22. Transmediality
        23. Games in the Classroom
        24. Video Games as Learning Tools
      3. REFERENCES
      4. KEY TERMS
    6. XVI. COTS Computer Game Effectiveness
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GAME THEORY
        1. Intelligent Tutoring Systems
        2. COTS Educational Computer Games
      5. COTS GAME EFFECTIVENESS
        1. Math Blaster Algebra and Studies
        2. First Study Data and Results
        3. Second Study Data and Results
        4. Future Studies
      6. FUTURE OF GAME EFFECTIVENESS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    7. XVII. Teacher Gamers vs. Teacher Non–Gamers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Population
        2. Survey Design
        3. Data Analysis
        4. Demographics
        5. Gaming Experience
        6. Research Question 1
        7. Research Question 2
        8. Research Question 3
        9. Research Question 4
      5. IMPLICATIONS
        1. Is Education Willing to Keep Pace?
        2. Are College and Professional Development Programs Making Progress Preparing Teachers?
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    8. C. APPENDIX
    9. XVIII. Using Online Simulation to Engage Users in an Authentic Learning Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SIMULATION AS A 'GAME'
      4. OVERVIEW OF THE KEY IDEAS PRESENTED IN CLASSSIM
      5. REPRESENTING THE KEY IDEAS IN
        1. ClassSim
      6. SITUATING THE DESIGN WITHIN A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
        1. Provision of Authentic Contexts that Reflect the Way that Knowledge Is Used in Real Life
        2. Access to Expert Performance or Advice
        3. Expert Performances and Modeling of Process
        4. Multiple Roles and Perspectives
        5. Support for the Collaborative Construction of Knowledge
        6. Reflection So that Abstractions and Generalizations Can Be Formed
        7. Tools that Enable Tacit Knowledge to Be Clearly Articulated
        8. Scaffoldings and Coaching by the Teacher at Critical Times
        9. Authentic Assessment of Learning Within the Tasks
      7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      8. RESEARCH FINDINGS
        1. Specific Examples from Our Research
          1. Observations
          2. Analysis of 'Thinking Space' Entries
          3. Interview Data
      9. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
    10. XIX. Pre-Service Computer Teachers as 3D Educational Game Designers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
        1. Subjects of the Study
        2. Procedures
        3. Data Collection and Analysis
      4. RESULTS
        1. Descriptive Results
        2. Interview Results
          1. Motivation and Attention
          2. Retention and Transfer
          3. Student Centeredness
          4. Realistic Focus
          5. Assessment
          6. Problems Faced
        3. Formative Evaluation Results
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    11. XX. Adolescents Teaching Video Game Making—Who is the Expert Here?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETTING
      4. THEORETICAL EXPERTISE INFORMING THIS STUDY
        1. Cultural Capital: Transferring Playing Expertise to Teaching Expertise
      5. EMERGENT THEMES
        1. Knowledge of Content
        2. Issues of Management
        3. Teaching Roles, Teacher Identity
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
  11. III. Educational Gaming in Other Learning Contexts
    1. XXI. Online Games as Powerful Food Advertising to Children
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: HISTORICAL INTEREST IN ADVERTISING TO CHILDREN
      4. BLENDING PRODUCT PLACEMENTS WITH ONLINE CHILDREN'S GAMES EQUALS ADVERGAMES
      5. PREVALENCE OF FOOD IN ONLINE ADVERGAMES AND CONSOLE VIDEOGAMES
      6. PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING AND BRANDING
      7. HOW ADVERTISING WORKS
      8. WHAT GETS ADVERTISED TO KIDS
      9. THE CENTRAL POLICY QUESTION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
    2. XXII. Changing Health Behavior Through Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. GAMES AS MORE THAN JUST ENTERTAINMENT
      3. THE RIGHT TIME FOR GAMES
        1. A Country in Need of Behavior Change
        2. Trends in E-Health
      4. HEALTH COMMUNICATION THEORIES: APPLICATIONS IN PUBLIC HEALTH AND GAMES
        1. Understanding Health Communication
        2. Elaboration Likelihood Model
          1. Elaboration Likelihood Model: Examples in Public Health
          2. Elaboration Likelihood Model: Examples in Games
        3. Social Cognitive Theory
          1. Social Cognitive Theory: Examples in Public Health
          2. Social Cognitive Theory: Examples in Games
        4. Stages of Change Theory
          1. Stages of Change Theory: Examples in Public Health
          2. Stages of Change Theory: Examples in Games
        5. Addressing the Negative Effects of Games
      5. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Implications for Game Designers
        2. Future Trends in Games for Behavior Change
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    3. XXIII. An Overview of Using Electronic Games for Health Purposes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF HEALTH-RELATED ELECTRONIC GAMES
        1. Disease and Risk-Prevention Games
        2. Self-Management Games
        3. Therapeutic and Fitness Games
        4. Attention Distraction Games
        5. Medical Education
      4. RESEARCH SYNTHESIS
      5. IMPLICATIONS
        1. For Healthcare Providers and Researchers
        2. For Serious Game Designers
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      7. ENDNOTES
    4. XXIV. MMORPGs and Foreign Language Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOWARDS OPTIMAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
        1. Ideal Foreign Language Learning Environments
          1. Conditions and Teaching Approach from Cognitive Perspective
          2. Conditions from Sociocultural Perspective
          3. Conditions from the Consideration of Motivation
        2. Challenges for Foreign Language Education
      4. WHAT MMORPGS HAVE TO OFFER TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION
        1. Features and Educative Values of MMORPGs
        2. The Potential of MMORPGs for Foreign Language Education
        3. Infrastructure of MMORPGs for Foreign Language Education
      5. DESIGNING MMORPGS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING
        1. Game-Play and Narrative
          1. Reality and Immersion
          2. Player Control
          3. Player Type
          4. A Newbie-Friendly Learning Curve
        2. Game Sociability
        3. Language and Culture Learning Opportunities
          1. Sources of Language and Cultural Input
          2. Opportunities for Language and Culture Use
          3. Tools for Language and Culture Learning
          4. Instructional Context
      6. DISCUSSION
        1. For the Designers
        2. For the Educators
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. XXV. A Video Game, a Chinese Otaku, and Her Deep Learning of a Language
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. The Research
        2. The Subject
        3. Preparatory Measures
        4. Research Material
      3. SOCIOCULTURAL THEORIES OF LEARNING
        1. The Zone of Proximal Development
        2. Deep Learning
        3. Flow
        4. The Interview
        5. Tripartite Identities
        6. Interview Continued: Provoking Zoe's ZPD
          1. There seems to be considerable bottled-up emotion. I persist.
      4. CONCLUSION
        1. Video Games in Educational Use
        2. Video Games in Employment
        3. Video Games in Life
      5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS (FROM THE 36 LEARNING PRINCIPLES PROPOSED BY GEE, 2003)
      6. ENDNOTES
    6. XXVI. Developing a Serious Game for Police Training
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND CURRENT TRAINING ISSUES
      5. DEVELOPMENT
        1. Using Instructional Design to Integrate the Learning Objectives
        2. Experiential Learning Principles
        3. Instructional Principles
        4. Simulation Elements
        5. Pedagogical Elements
        6. Game Elements
      6. SGTAI
      7. EVALUATING SGTAI WITH REAL POLICE OFFICERS
      8. HAS THE INTEGRATION OF LEARNING INTO SGTAI WORKED?
        1. Learning Effectiveness
        2. Effectiveness at Addressing the Current Training Issues
        3. Instructional Principles
        4. What Went Right
        5. What Went Wrong
      9. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      13. ENDNOTES
    7. XXVII. Game-Based Learning in Design History
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      4. SIGNIFICANCE
      5. RELATED LITERATURE
      6. METHOD
      7. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
        1. Learning Styles in the Sample Population
        2. Relationship of Quiz Scores to Times Played and Learning Styles
        3. Survey Responses
        4. Games as Learning Tools
        5. Games, Learning, and Assessment
        6. Preferred Learning Activities
        7. Learning Styles and Preferred Activities
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
        1. Implications
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
    8. XXVIII. A Policy Game in a Virtual World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIDEO AND COMPUTER GAMES AS PEDAGOGICAL TOOLS
      4. VIRTUAL WORLDS
      5. SAMPLE POLITICS GAME FOR A VIRTUAL WORLD
      6. SELECTING A VIRTUAL WORLD
      7. EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS OF GAMES IN VIRTUAL WORLDS
        1. Active and Reflective Learning
        2. Context-Oriented Learning
        3. Transfer of Knowledge
        4. Learning Through Practice
        5. Learning Through Achievement
        6. Self-Learning
        7. Content
        8. Social Learning
      8. CHALLENGES FOR EDUCATORS USING GAMES IN VIRTUAL WORLDS
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
    9. XXIX. Teaching OOP and COP Technologies via Gaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOPICS COVERED IN GAME DEVELOPMENT
        1. Visualizing a Single Object
        2. Animating the Single Object
        3. Add Another Object
        4. Some Challenging Questions
        5. Theoretical Principles
        6. The Abstract Class AbsGamePanel
        7. The Abstract Class AbsSprite and Sprite Inheritance Hierarchy
        8. Separate Painting from Updating
        9. Collision Detections
        10. Player Controls
      4. A THREE-LAYER GAMING FRAMEWORK
      5. CASE STUDIES
        1. The Game Breakout
        2. The Game Othello
        3. Applying Gaming Technology for Other Applications
      6. IMPLICATIONS, CONCLUSION, AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    10. XXX. Using Games to Teach Design Patterns and Computer Graphics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE USE OF GAMES IN EDUCATIONAL PROPOSALS
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Case Study #1: Design Patterns and Software Metrics
        2. Case Study #2: Computer Graphics
      5. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTES
    11. XXXI. A 3D Environment for Exploring Algebraic Structure and Behavior
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. REPRESENTATION
      5. RELATED WORK
      6. EXPERIMENTS IN ALGEBRAIC REPRESENTATION
        1. The Distributive Property
        2. Experiment 1: 2D and 3D Representations of the Distributive Property
        3. Experiment 2: Algebraic Functional Machines
      7. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    12. XXXII. Surviving the Game
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CYBERSURVIVOR MODULE
        1. Tribal Formation
        2. Weekly Tribal and Individual Assignments
        3. Immunity and Reward Challenges
        4. Voting
        5. Shuffling the Tribes
        6. Cyber Technology
      5. STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF LIFE ON CYBER ISLAND
      6. PERCEPTIONS OF THE SURVIVOR THEME
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      10. ENDNOTE
  12. IV. Educational Gaming Research Tools and Methods
    1. XXXIII. Wag the Kennel: Games, Frames, and the Problem of Assessment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GRAMMAR OF ASSESSMENT
      4. THE GRAMMAR OF INNOVATION
      5. A NEW GRAMMAR OF LEARNING
      6. ONE WAY
      7. NEW TAILS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. XXXIV. Character Attachment in Games as Moderator for Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTERTAINMENT EDUCATION: A NEW WAY TO EDUCATE?
      4. VIDEO GAMES AND TODAY'S LEARNERS
      5. LEARNING IN ROLE-PLAYING GAMES
      6. CHARACTER ATTACHMENT IN ROLE-PLAYING GAMES AS MODERATOR FOR LEARNING
        1. Parasocial Interaction
        2. Identification
        3. Social Cognitive Theory
        4. Control and Responsibility: Self-Efficacy
        5. Suspension of Disbelief
      7. MEASURING CHARACTER ATTACHMENT
      8. EXAMPLES, FUTURE TRENDS, AND IMPLICATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
    3. XXXV. Visual Analysis of Avatars in Gaming Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. A Review of MMORPGs
          1. Networked
          2. Persistent
          3. Online
          4. Real-Time
          5. Expansive
        2. A Review of Second Life
      4. AN OVERVIEW OF PROPOSED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
        1. Characteristic or Category Selection
        2. Rationale for Selection
        3. Imaging the Participant
        4. Participant Recruitment
        5. Narrative Vignettes
        6. Examples of Situated Vignettes
          1. Vignette: Hero
          2. Vignette: Villain
          3. Vignette: Ideal Self
          4. Vignette: Actual Self
        7. Imaging the Avatar
      5. ANALYSIS
        1. Potential for Bias Within Research
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    4. XXXVI. Interpreting Game-Play Through Existential Ludology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Boot Camp 101
        2. Towards Existential Ludology
          1. Player Freedom and Game Intentionality
          2. In-Game Affordances
          3. Intentional Arc and Maximum Grip
          4. Pre-Reflective Flow vs. Replay Consciousness
          5. Video Game as a Multistable Text
      5. FUTURE TRENDs AND IMPLICATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTES
    5. XXXVII. On Choosing Games and What Counts as a "Good" Game
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHY DO WE STUDY GAMES?
      4. HOW DO RESEARCHERS CHOOSE GAMES FOR STUDY?
      5. TOWARDS A SOLUTION
      6. MEASURES OF CRITICAL SUCCESS
      7. MEASURES OF COMMERCIAL SUCCESS
      8. COMBINING DATA
      9. DATA FUSION METHODOLOGIES FOR COMBINING DATA
        1. Coordinating Decisions Using Many Data Sources
        2. Data Fusion Methods
        3. Types of Decisions
        4. Using More Than One Voting Strategy
        5. A Specific Example
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      12. ENDNOTE
    6. D. APPENDIX: SOURCES OF GAME REVIEWS AND OTHER DATA
      1. Professional Industry Organizations
      2. Press and Gamer Review Sites
    7. XXXVIII. Descriptors of Quality Teachers and Quality Digital Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT ARE DYNAMIC RESOURCES?
      4. WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT QUALITY TEACHING?
      5. WHAT ARE THESE DESCRIPTORS OF QUALITY DYNAMIC RESOURCES?
        1. High Expectations
        2. Purpose
        3. Content Credibility
        4. Flexible
        5. Inclusive
        6. Contextual Learning
        7. Multiple Approaches
        8. End-to-End Planning
        9. Intertextual Resources
        10. Positive Feedback
      6. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DESCRIPTORS?
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
  13. V. The Psychological Impact of Educational Gaming (Part 1): Cognition, Learning, Play, and Identity
    1. XXXIX. Designing a Computational Model of Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INITIAL UNDERSTANDINGS
      4. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LEARNER
        1. Psychological Characteristics
        2. Physical Characteristics
        3. Cognitive Characteristics
      5. NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE
      6. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION
      7. UNDERSTANDING AND LABELS
      8. HIERARCHY, TEMPORALITY, AND AGENCY
      9. ULTIMATE KNOWLEDGE: HOW TO LEARN
      10. APPLYING THE KNOWLEDGE FRAMEWORK
      11. COMMUNITY = ENVIRONMENT
      12. FEEDBACK AND ASSESSMENT
        1. Data Mining and Automated Learning
        2. Data Relevance
        3. Attribution
        4. Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS
    2. XL. Social Psychology and Massively Multiplayer Online Learning Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORY AND MMOG GROUP LEARNING DESIGN
        1. Collaborative Learning Environments
        2. Propositions Based on Theories of Collaborative Learning
        3. Guidelines for MMOG Design Based on Collaborative Learning
        4. Social Learning Theory
        5. Propositions Based on Social Learning Theory
        6. Guidelines for MMOG Design Based on Social Learning Theory
        7. Social Presence
        8. Propositions Based on Social Presence Theory
        9. Guidelines for MMOG Design Based on Social Presence
        10. Self-Organizing Social Systems
        11. Propositions Based on Self-Organizing Social Systems Theory
        12. Guidelines for MMOG Design Based on Self-Organizing Social Systems Theory
        13. Social Exchange Theory
        14. Propositions Based on Social Exchange Theory
        15. Guidelines for MMOG Design Based on Social Exchange Theory
        16. Social Support
        17. Propositions Based on Theories of Social Support
        18. Guidelines for MMOG Design Based on Theories of Social Support
      4. RESEARCH NEEDS IN MMOG-BASED GROUP LEARNING
        1. Collaborative Learning
        2. Social Learning Theory
        3. Social Presence
        4. Self-Organizing Social Systems
        5. Social Exchange Theory
        6. Social Support
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    3. XLI. Evaluating and Managing Cognitive Load in Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE FOR LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE IN EDUCATIONAL GAMES
      4. COGNITIVE LOAD IN LEARNING
      5. MANAGING COGNITIVE OVERLOAD IN EDUCATIONAL GAMING APPLICATIONS
      6. EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF COGNITIVE LOAD FACTORS IN EDUCATIONAL GAMING APPLICATIONS
      7. METHODS FOR EVALUATING COGNITIVE LOAD
      8. FUTURE TRENDS: TOWARDS ADAPTIVE EDUCATIONAL GAMING
      9. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      10. AUTHOR NOTE
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
    4. XLII. Self-Regulated Learning in Video Game Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SELF-REGULATED LEARNING
      4. INTEREST, INTENT, AND APTITUDE
      5. MOTIVATION
      6. GOAL ORIENTATION AND TASK ORIENTATION
      7. METACOGNITION
      8. AFFECT AND EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION
      9. AUTHENTIC LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      10. CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTHENTIC LEARNING IN VIDEO GAME ENVIRONMENTS
        1. Provide an Authentic Real-Life Context
        2. Authentic Activities
        3. Expert Performances and Modeling
        4. Multiple Roles and Perspectives
        5. Collaborative Construction of Knowledge
        6. Coaching and Scaffolding
      11. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS
    5. XLIII. (Self-) Educational Effects of Computer Gaming Cultures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING VS. "SELF EDUCATION"
      4. COMPUTER GAMES AS CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL SPACES
      5. SINGLE-PLAYER GAMES AS "STRUCTURAL GENERATORS" OF INFORMAL LEARNING AND SELF-EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES
        1. Tutorials
        2. Ironic Play with In-Game Elements
        3. Tension Between Rules and Fiction
        4. Questioning Conventional Ways of Perception
      6. THE EDUCATIONAL IMPACTS OF MULTI-PLAYER GAMES: FINDINGS OF A CASE STUDY OF THE COUNTERSTRIKE COMMUNITY
        1. Social Organization of the Counterstrike Subculture
        2. Deeply Involved: The Emergence of Community Values and Cheating as a Taboo
        3. Seeing Things Differently: The Subcultural Construction of the Game's Imagery
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. XLIV. Experience, Cognition, and Video Game Play
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODS
        1. Materials
        2. Participants
        3. Procedure
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
        1. Skill Acquisition
        2. Judgments
        3. Strategy
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
        1. Implication #1: The Use of Cognitive Skills
        2. Implication #2: Experientially-Based Variations in the Use of Cognitive Skills
        3. Implication #3: Instructor Must Prepare for Encounter
        4. Implication #4: Designers Need to Accommodate
        5. Implication #5: The Design of Educational Video Games should be consistent with those that are Non-Educational
        6. Implication #6: Embed Content in Design
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    7. XLV. Intertextuality in Massively Multi-Player Online Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTIPLE TEXT COMPREHENSION
      4. INTERTEXTUALITY AND MMOGS
      5. METHODS AND PROCEDURES
        1. Participants
        2. Instrumentation
      6. RESULTS
        1. Research Question One
        2. Research Question Two
        3. Research Question Three
        4. Research Question Four
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    8. E. APPENDIX A
    9. XLVI. Development, Identity, and Game-Based Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAME-BASED LEARNING WITH SPACE STATION LEONIS
      4. ADOPTING A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH TO CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
      5. DEVELOPING NOTIONS OF SELF AND IDENTITY
      6. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH AND FINDINGS
        1. Situation A: A Boy Falls into the Water
        2. Situation B: Meiling's Tiring Climb
        3. Situation C: That Same Boy Wants My Game Console
        4. Situation D: What Does it Mean to Trust Somebody?
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
    10. XLVII. Play Styles and Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Play Style and Player Types
        2. Learning Orientations and Learning Styles
          1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Achievement Orientation
          2. Mindset and Self Theories
          3. Inhibiting or Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation
          4. Learning Style Theories
          5. Individual Traits
          6. Competition and Other Social Impacts on Play Style and Learning
        3. A Palette of Play Styles and Learning
      4. RESEARCH ON PLAYER TYPES, EDUCATIONAL GAME DESIGN, AND CLASSROOM GAME USE
        1. Manipulating Play Style Through Reward Structure
        2. Play Styles and Learning in Solo vs. Paired Play
      5. IMPLICATIONS OF THE PLAY STYLES AND LEARNING PALETTE
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    11. XLVIII. Playing Roles in the MMORPG Kingdom of Loathing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. "AN ADVENTURER IS YOU!" PLAYING KINGDOM OF LOATHING
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS: ROLES AND THEIR CREATION
        1. Class as Role
        2. The Good Citizen
        3. Bad Citizen
        4. Clan Leader
        5. Beneficent Demigod
        6. Mall Trader
        7. Virtuoso Player
        8. Distinctive Character
        9. Bugfinder and Tester
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. IMPLICATIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
    12. XLIX. Exploring Personal Myths from The Sims
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Experiencing The Sims
      3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. METHODS
        1. Data Collection
        2. Data Selection
        3. Data Analysis
      6. RESULTS
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      11. ENDNOTES
  14. VI. The Psychological Impact of Educational Gaming (Part 2): Violence, Emotion, Race, Gender, and Culture
    1. L. Learning Processes and Violent Video Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. LEARNING PROCESSES AND VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES
        1. What Do Video Games Teach?
          1. Positive Effects
          2. Negative Effects
        2. What Makes Video Games Effective Teachers?
        3. How Do Video Games Influence Learning?
          1. Input Variables
          2. Present Internal State
          3. Immediate Outcomes
          4. Long Term Effects
        4. Where Do We Go From Here?
          1. Apply Effective Teaching Principles of Video Games
          2. The Issue of Video Game Violence
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      5. ENDNOTE
    2. LI. Harnessing the Emotional Potential of Video Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Background and Motivation for the Study
        2. User-Centred Approaches to Improve Educational Games Design
          1. Students Have Different Needs and Abilities
          2. ICT Should Accommodate Different Learning Styles
      3. ADAPTING CONTENT TO USERS' PERSONALITIES CAN IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES
        1. Players' Personalities Affect Their Behaviour in Video Games
          1. New Understanding of the Relation between Games and Personalities
          2. Profiling Players
        2. About Personality Traits
        3. Introduction to the 5-Factor and MBTI Models
        4. Learning Styles
        5. Users' Emotions Can Affect Learning
          1. Emotions and Memory
          2. Positive and Negative Emotions
          3. Using Emotional Intelligence to Increase Cognitive Efficiency
          4. A Review of Educational Models Based on Emotions
          5. Video Games as Sound Emotional Experiences
        6. Consequences for Game Design: Guidelines for User-Centred Educational Games
          1. Using Emotions to Improve the Cognitive Process
          2. Customizing Information Content and Structure to Players
          3. Customizing the Game Play Using Linear and Open-ended Content
        7. A Case Study on the Effects of Users' Personalities in Educational Games
          1. Conducting the Study
          2. Results of the Study
          3. Discussion
      4. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
        1. General Implications
        2. Consequences for Researchers
        3. Consequences for Policy Makers
        4. Consequences for Developers
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS
    3. LII. Gamers, Gender, and Representation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. GAMERS, GENDER, AND REPRESENTATION
      3. GAMING CULTURE AND GAMES IN THE CLASSROOM
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      6. ENDNOTES
    4. LIII. Gender and Racial Stereotypes in Popular Video Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STEREOTYPICAL PORTRAYALS IN VIDEO GAMES
        1. Stereotype
        2. Gender Stereotypes in Video Games
        3. Racial Stereotypes in Video Games
      4. A SMALL-SCALE CONTENT ANALYSIS STUDY
        1. Game Sample
        2. Unit of Analysis
        3. Coder Training and Reliability
        4. Results
        5. Game Characters in Official Trailers
        6. Game Characters in Introductory Sequences
        7. Game Characters on Covers
      5. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    5. F. APPENDIX: CODING SCHEME
    6. LIV. Can the Subaltern Play and Speak or Just be Played With?1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION2
      3. DENIAL AND ERASURE: VIDEO GAMES AND THE PROFESSION OF COLORBLINDNESS
      4. LEADING BY EXAMPLE: TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF OUTLAW VOLLEYBALL
      5. OUTLAW SEXUALITY: MAINSTREAM, NOT EXTREME
      6. CONCLUSION: IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. LV. Culturally Responsive Games and Simulations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURE AND LEARNING
      4. FOUNDATIONS OF CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE TEACHING
        1. Definition and Characteristics of Culturally Responsive Teaching
        2. General Caution: Stereotype Threat
      5. RATIONALE FOR USING CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE STRATEGIES IN GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
      6. CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE STRATEGIES FOR ELECTONIC GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
        1. General Instructional Strategies for Culturally Responsive Teaching
        2. High Expectations for All Learners
        3. Making Connections to Learners
        4. Cooperative Learning
        5. Differentiating Instruction
        6. Opportunities for Practice
        7. Using Avatars and Guides as Culturally Responsive Agents
      7. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    8. LVI. Saving Worlds with Video Game Activism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. SAVING WORLDS WITH VIDEO GAME ACTIVISM
        1. Three Modes of Video Game Activism
        2. Video Game Rhetoric
        3. Original Design: Darfur is Dying
        4. Engine Appropriation: Super Columbine Massacre RPG
        5. Machinima: The French Democracy
      3. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATORS
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS
  15. VII. Educational Game Design
    1. LVII. Conceptual Play Spaces
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CONCEPTUAL PLAY SPACES
      3. ILLUMINATIVE EXAMPLES
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. IMPLICATIONS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTE
    2. LVIII. The Design, Play, and Experience Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MDA FRAMEWORK
      5. THE DPE FRAMEWORK
        1. Learning Layer
        2. Storytelling Layer
        3. Game Play Layer
        4. User Experience Layer
        5. Influence Between Layers
        6. Technology Layer
      6. APPLYING THE DPE FRAMEWORK
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. LIX. Revealing New Hidden Curriculum and Pedagogy of Digital Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HIDDEN CURRICULUM OF DIGITAL GAMES
      4. HIDDEN CURRICULUM OF DIGITAL GAMES VIEWED FROM TEACHING AND LEARNING PERSPECTIVE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    4. LX. Game Design as a Compelling Experience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. GAME DESIGN AS A COMPELLING LEARNING EXPERIENCE
      3. GAME DESIGN AS LEARNING EXPERIENCE
        1. Mini Game Design Project
          1. Mini Game Project
          2. Mini Games
      4. DESIGN FRAMEWORK
        1. Design-Based Research (DBR)
        2. Assumptions of Learning
          1. Authentic Learning
          2. Distributed Learning
          3. Discovery Learning
          4. Interactive and Reflective Learning
          5. Individualized Learning
        3. Design of the Learning Experience
          1. Goal
          2. Task
          3. Learning Environment
          4. Assessment
      5. LEARNING OUTCOMES
        1. Cognitive Growth
          1. Perceptive Capacity
          2. Subject Matter Knowledge
        2. Meta-Learning Skills in Globalization
          1. Distributed Learning
          2. Individualized Learning
          3. Raising Questions
          4. Meta-Cognitive
        3. Emotional Growth
          1. Passionate Expression
          2. Frustration Management
        4. Self-Discovery
          1. Personal Interests and Potentials
          2. Connections
      6. LESSONS LEARNED AND IMPLICATIONS
        1. Conditions that Facilitate Design for Learning
          1. Authenticity
          2. Dialogue
          3. Reflection Trigger
          4. Balance between Concept and Design
          5. Technical Issues
        2. Implications for Teaching and Learning
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. LXI. Gaming Ethics, Rules, Etiquette, and Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. ENDNOTES
    6. LXII. Designing Games-Based Embedded Authentic Learning1 Experiences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CRITICAL FACTORS FOR SUCCESS
      4. A BOTTOM-UP GAME DESIGN ARCHITECTURE FOR SERIOUS GAMES
      5. GENRE
      6. GAME PLAY MECHANICS
      7. GAME RULES
      8. THEME
      9. ICONS
      10. SCENES
      11. STORY
      12. IMPLEMENTATION OF EASLE
      13. CONSTRUCTION OF A SERIOUS GAME IDEA
      14. SPOTFIRE: A SIMPLE SERIES GAME
      15. IMPLICATIONS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ENDNOTE
      19. KEY TERMS
    7. LXIII. Bridging Game Development and Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT GOALS
      4. DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    8. LXIV. GaME Design for Intuitive Concept Knowledge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DESIGNING GAMES FOR INTUITIVE CONCEPT KNOWLEDGE
      3. EMBODIED KNOWLEDGE CAN MAKE SCIENCE COUNTERINTUITIVE
      4. MEANINGFUL LEARNING
      5. CONSTRUCTING SOUND METAPHORS THROUGH APPLIED STRUCTURE MAPPING THEORY
      6. CONSTRUCTING SOUND METAPHORS THROUGH GAME-BASED TECHNOLOGIES
      7. THE CHALLENGE FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNERS
      8. LEARNING CONCEPTS THROUGH GAME PLAY BY DESIGN
      9. PRINCIPLED DESIGN
        1. GaME Design Principle 1: Specify Relational Structure
        2. GamE Design Principle 2: Design Pragmatic Constraints
        3. GamE Design Principle 3: Connect the GaME to the Flow State
        4. GamE Design Principle 4: Design Reflective Tools
      10. DESIGN PRINCIPLES AS APPLIED WITHIN SELENE
        1. Selene and Relational Structure
        2. Selene and Pragmatic Constraints
          1. Accretion
        3. Selene and Connecting the GaME to the Flow State
        4. Selene and Design of Reflective Tools
      11. BALANCING REFLECTIVE AND EXPERIENTIAL COGNITION
      12. CONSTRUCTING MENTAL MODELS THROUGH GAME LEARNING
      13. IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL GAME DESIGN, RESEARCH, POLICY, AND PRACTICE
        1. Expertise
        2. Judicious Selection of Target Domains
        3. GaMEs Are a Component of a Larger Instructional System
        4. National STEM Education Learning Objects Repository as a Coordinated Effort
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. AUTHOR NOTE
      16. REFERENCES
      17. KEY TERMS
    9. LXV. Leveraging the Affordances of an Electronic Game to Meet Instructional Goals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORECTICAL FRAMEWORK
        1. Components of Electronic Games
        2. Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model
        3. Cognitive Apprenticeship
        4. Intrinsic Motivation
      4. CONQUEST OF THE COASTLANDS AND THE GLIM QUEST
      5. INSTRUCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF THE GLIM QUEST
        1. Learning Tasks
        2. Supportive Information
        3. Part-Task Practice
        4. JIT Information
      6. LEVERAGING THE AFFORDANCES OF THE GAME TO PROMOTE LEARNING BY DOING
        1. Designing the Story and the Game play to Present the Learning Task
        2. Delivering Supportive Information, Part-Task Practice, and JIT Information by Characters and Tools
        3. Implementing Cognitive Apprenticeship Strategies via Characters and Tools
      7. LEVERAGING THE AFFORDANCES OF THE GAME TO ENHANCE MOTIVATION
        1. Developing a Meaningful Challenge with Optimal Levels of Difficulty
        2. Enhancing Sensory and Cognitive Curiosity
        3. Providing Choices and Personalization Opportunities
        4. Developing an Endogenous Fantasy that is Emotionally Appealing
      8. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    10. LXVI. Instructional Game Design Using Cognitive Load Theory
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. What Are Games
          1. Games Create Experiences
          2. Rules and Interactions in Games
          3. Games Are Complex
          4. Games Are Representations Models
        2. Gaming Characteristics
          1. Challenge
          2. Competition
          3. Rules
          4. Goals
          5. Fantasy and Changed Reality
          6. Story or Representation
          7. Engagement and Curiosity
          8. Control
          9. Role Playing
          10. Multimodal Presentation
          11. Task
      4. PROBLEM
      5. SOLUTION
        1. Cognitive Load Theory
        2. 4C/ID-model (Four Components/Instructional Design Model)
      6. USING 4C/ID FRAMEWORK FOR GAMING DESIGN
        1. Game Characteristics and Cognitive Learning
        2. 4C/ID-model Design Components and Game Characteristics
        3. Challenge
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Challenge Characteristic
        4. Competition
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Competition Characteristic
        5. Rules
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Rules Characteristic
        6. Goals
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Goals Characteristic
        7. Fantasy, Changed Reality, and Role Playing
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Fantasy, Changed Reality, and Role-Playing Characteristic
        8. Story and Representation
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Story and Representation Characteristic
        9. Engagement and Curiosity
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Engagement and Curiosity Characteristic
        10. Control
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Tertiary Design Component
          4. Game Design Guideline for Control Characteristic
          5. Multimodal Presentation
          6. Game Design Guideline for Multimodal Presentation Characteristic
        11. Task
          1. Primary Design Component
          2. Secondary Design Component
          3. Game Design Guideline for Tasks Characteristic
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
    11. LXVII. Motivation, Learning, and Game Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING
      4. COMPUTER GAMES AND LEARNING
      5. USING ENTERTAINMENT GAMES IN EDUCATION
      6. GAME DESIGN
        1. 1. Learning Features
        2. 2. Structural Features
        3. 3. Technical Features
        4. 4. Individual Features
        5. 5. Social Features
        6. 6. Emotional Features
      7. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH, POLICY, AND PRACTICE
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS
    12. LXVIII. Designing Games for Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Design Process and Challenges of Two Games for Learning
        2. A Process for Designing Games for Learning
        3. Analysis Phase
        4. Design and Development Phases
        5. Implementation and Research Phases
            1. Evaluation Phase
      5. IMPLICATAONS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    13. LXIX. Interaction with MMOGs and Implications for E-Learning Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-LEARNING DESIGN AND THE NEW CHALLENGES
      4. GAMES AND LEARNING
      5. THE CASE OF MMOGs
      6. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES IN MMOGs
      7. IMPLICATIONS FOR DESIGNING E-LEARNING EXPERIENCES
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
      12. KEY TERMS
    14. LXX. Narrative Development and Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
        1. The Art of Narrative
        2. Role of Interactive Drama in Electronic Games
        3. Importance of Narrative in Game Genres
        4. Narrative Structure
      4. CONQUEST OF THE COASTLANDS
      5. INTEGRATION OF NARRATIVE DEVELOPMENT AND INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
        1. Employing Episodes
        2. Hero's Journey: Call to Adventure/Refusal of the Call
        3. Hero's Journey: Mentor Provides Support
        4. Hero's Journey: Crossing the Threshold
        5. Hero's Journey: Road of Trials
        6. Hero's Journey: Ultimate Trial
        7. Hero's Journey: The Prize
        8. Hero's Journey: The Journey Home
        9. Hero's Journey: Bestowing the Prize
        10. Story Devices
      6. IMPLICATIONS
        1. Conceptualize Game Narrative in Quests
        2. Begin Quests with a Call to Adventure
        3. Develop Non-Player Characters that Act as Mentors
        4. Provide for a Series of Challenges/Ultimate Challenge
        5. Utilize Plot Device to Drive Narrative Forward and Focus Player on Clear Goals
        6. Design Narrative to Provide Opportunities for Reflection and Articulation
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    15. LXXI. Children as Critics of Educational Computer Games Designed by Other Children
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
        1. Participants
        2. Procedures
        3. Data Collection
          1. Game-Exploration Sessions and Surveys
          2. Final Survey
      4. QUANTITATIVE RESULTS
      5. INTERVIEWS
        1. Challenge
        2. Control
        3. Cooperation
        4. Competition
        5. Achievement
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. KEY TERMS
    16. LXXII. Video Game Creation as a Learning Experience for Teachers and Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM AND VIDEO GAMES
      5. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM AND SCHOOLS
      6. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM, SCHOOLS, AND CRITICAL THINKING
      7. CONTEXT
      8. ACCESSING THE STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE
      9. WHAT STUDENTS ARE LEARNING THROUGH VIDEO GAME DESIGN
        1. Social Skills
        2. Learning Transfers: Multi-Literacy Skills
        3. Critical Thinking Skills
      10. IMPLICATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS
  16. VIII. The Future of Educational Gaming
    1. LXXIII. The Future of Digital Game-Based Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HOW CAN WE GET THERE?
        1. Adaptation
        2. The Interactive Story Architecture for Training (ISAT)
          1. Evaluation
          2. Authoring Tools
          3. Accessibility in New Domains
      4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS
    2. LXXIV. Artists in the Medium
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE IMPENDING BACKLASH TOWARD GAMES
      3. FUTURE TRENDS IN EDUCATIONAL GAMING
        1. A Proliferation of Educational Game Genres
          1. New Input Devices
          2. Mobile Gaming Platforms
          3. New Forms of Multi-Player Gaming
        2. Creative Production within Game Worlds
        3. Games that Span the Real and Virtual
        4. Bite-Sized Gaming
        5. Integrating Assessments into Game Play (Embedded Assessments)
      4. CREATING COMPELLING MEDIA
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS
    3. LXXV. The Positive Impact Model in Commercial Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PREAMBLE
        1. Game Structures and Opportunity
          1. The Designer's Role
          2. Message & Impact
        2. Actions, Choices, Consequences, and Outcomes: What We Do and Why It Matters
        3. Keeping Players Motivated: Obstacles, Puzzles, Challenges, and the Pressure Factor
        4. Context: Stories, Events, Characters, and Dialog
          1. Stories and Events
          2. Characters and Dialog
      3. GRAPHICS AND ANIMATION
        1. The Power of Emotion
        2. Deceiving Appearances
        3. Game Genres
      4. SUMMARY
      5. KEY TERMS
    4. LXXVI. Education and Exploitation Off the Virtual Trail to Oregon
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INFORMATION PRESENTATION
      4. INFORMATION ACCESS
      5. INFORMATION INTERNALIZATION
      6. CONNECTION TO OTHERS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
  17. IX. Appendix: Glossary of Terms
    1. A. An Overview of Gaming Terminology: Chapters I - LXXVI
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. 1. Advergames
        2. 2. Alignment
        3. 3. Alternate reality game (ARG)
        4. 4. Asynchronous
        5. 5. Attributes
        6. 6. Augmented reality game
        7. 7. Avatar
        8. 8. Backstory
        9. 9. Blog
        10. 10. Boss
        11. 11. Branching Story
        12. 12. Character and character attachment
        13. 13. Complex games
        14. 14. Cut scenes
        15. 15. Digital divide
        16. Digital immigrants / Digital natives
        17. 16. Educational simulation
        18. 17. Edugames / Edutainment
        19. 18. Endogenous educational games
        20. 19. ESRB (Entertainment Software Rating Board)
        21. 20. Extended reality game
        22. 21. Fantasy
        23. 22. First person shooter
        24. FPS interface
        25. FPS systems
        26. 23. Flow
        27. 24. Game-based models
        28. 25. Heads up display (HUD)
        29. In Sims
        30. 26. Health
        31. 27. Hero
        32. In Sims
        33. 28. Interactive narrative
        34. 29. Interactive spreadsheets
        35. 30. Inventory
        36. 31. Isometric
        37. 32. Maps
        38. Maps as levels
        39. Maps in big skills
        40. Conceptual maps
        41. Layers
        42. Saving locations
        43. Abstractions
        44. 33. Microcosms
        45. 34. Mini games
        46. 35. Massive multiplayer online game (MMOG)
        47. MMOs as educational
        48. 36. Massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG)
        49. 37. Mods
        50. The culture of modding
        51. Modding and the future of learning
        52. A backlash against modding
        53. 38. Movement
        54. 39. Multiplayer
        55. In a sim
        56. 40. Multi-user virtual environments (MUVE)
        57. 41. Newbie
        58. 42. Overhead view
        59. 43. Point of view (POV)
        60. 44. Power-ups
        61. 45. Practiceware
        62. Role of practiceware
        63. 46. Role-playing game (RPG)
        64. 47. Serious games
        65. 48. Seven types of simulation in a sim
        66. The Invisible Layer
        67. 1. Pure Mathematical System
        68. 2. Units on maps as system
        69. 3. State based system
        70. 4. Artificial intelligence as system
        71. 5. Work process as system
        72. 6. Middle and big skills as system
        73. 7. Community as System
        74. 49. Simulation or sims
        75. 50. Single-player game
        76. 51. Units
        77. 52. Work processes
      3. REFERENCES
      4. ENDNOTE
  18. X. Appendix: Selected Readings
    1. B. Games and Simulations: A New Approach in Education?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAMES AND SIMULATIONS: WHAT ARE THEY?
      4. EFFECTS OF GAMES AND SIMULATIONS ON LEARNING
      5. EDUCATIONAL USE OF GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
      6. INSTRUCTIONAL (SYSTEMS) DESIGN/DEVELOPMENT (IDD)
      7. WHAT IS AN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN/DEVELOPMENT MODEL (IDDM)?
      8. CRITICISMS ABOUT THE CURRENT STATE OF IDD AND IDDMS
      9. NEW TRENDS IN IDD AND IDDMS
      10. DESIGN MODELS FOR EDUCATIONAL USE OF GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    2. C. Developing Enjoyable Second Language Learning Software Tools: A Computer Game Paradigm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL REVIEW ON GAMING
        1. Gameplay and Ludology
        2. Narratives and Narratology
      4. A GAME MODEL OF GAMEPLAY AND NARRATIVES
      5. THE GAME MODEL AND LEARNING IN COMPUTER GAMES
        1. Gameplay-Oriented Learning
        2. Narrative-Oriented Learning
      6. LANGUAGE LEARNING AS EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC GAMES
        1. Extrinsic Game Learning
        2. Narrative-Oriented Intrinsic Game Learning
        3. Gameplay-Oriented Intrinsic Game Learning
      7. AN ANALYSIS OF GAME-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING WITH THE GAME MODEL
        1. Case Study: Slime Forest
        2. Case Study: Alien Language
        3. Cross-Case Analysis
      8. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE DIRECTION
      9. SUMMARY
      10. REFERENCES
    3. D. Game Mods: Customizable Learning in a K16 Setting
      1. ABSTRACT
        1. What Do Computer Games Have to Do With Learning?
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODS: RULES OF THE GAME AND TERMS OF ENGAGEMENT
        1. Tools for the Classroom
      4. BUILDING A PLANTATION
        1. Reactions: The Learner
        2. Reactions: The Classroom Teacher
        3. Contextualizing the Mod in the Classroom
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    4. E. Online Games for 21st Century Skills
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING IN THE 21ST CENTURY
      4. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND 21ST CENTURY SKILLS
        1. Competencies for the 21st Century
      5. LEARNING IS A 21ST CENTURY COMPETENCY
        1. 21st Century Skills: KnowledgeSharing and Collaboration
        2. 21st Century Skill: Thriving on Chaos
        3. The Opportunity: Online Games as a Practice Arena for 21st Century Skills
          1. Collaborate with Diverse Teams of People
          2. Create, Share, and Master Knowledge
          3. Thrive on Chaos
        4. Preparing Ourselves for the Future
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    5. F. Game-Based Instruction in a College Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
        1. Design
        2. Participants
        3. Group Equivalence
        4. Course Content
        5. Instruments
        6. Procedures
        7. Limitations
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      8. APPENDIX A
      9. APPENDIX B
    6. G. Creative Remixing and Digital Learning: Developing an Online Media Literacy Learning Tool for Girls
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TARGETING ADOLESCENT GIRLS
      4. AN ONLINE CREATIVE PLAY EXPERIENCE FOR MEDIA LITERACY
      5. BALANCING PLAY AND LEARNING THROUGH CREATIVE REMIXING
      6. METACOGNITION AND IMMERSION IN ONLINE LEARNING
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    7. H. Learning While Playing: Design Implications for Edutainment Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Qualities of an Edutainment Artifact
      3. THE EDUTAINMENT GAME PROTOTYPE
      4. EVALUATION METHOD
        1. Participants
        2. Expert Walkthrough
        3. Focus Group
      5. USABILITY PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED
        1. Expert Walkthroughs
        2. Empirical Usability Evaluations
      6. DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
        1. Earning and Losing Points
        2. Scoring and Performance Feedback
        3. Differences in Valuable Objects
        4. Task Performance and Feedback
        5. Promoting exploration
        6. Game Objects' Characteristics
        7. Real World Inheritance
        8. Understandable Menus
        9. Supporting Tools and Their Layout
        10. Game Instructions
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    8. I. Reliving History with "Reliving the Revolution": Designing Augmented Reality Games to Teach the Critical Thinking of History
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Overview of RtR
        2. Augmented Reality (AR) Games for Education?
      3. DESIGNING RTR
        1. Iterative Design
      4. RESULTS AND FINDINGS
        1. Overall Results
        2. Goals and Motivations
        3. Game Play Constraints
        4. Collaboration and Social Interaction
        5. Role-Playing
        6. Integration of Physical and Virtual Worlds
        7. Reflection and Debate
        8. Nonlinearity and Control
        9. Mobility and Discovery
        10. Authenticity
      5. DESIGN SUMMARY
      6. NEXT STEPS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    9. J. Insights into the Impact of Social Networks on Evolutionary Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAME DETAILS
        1. Impact of Social Networks
        2. Social Network Type
      4. PLAYER REASONING
        1. Information Available to Player
        2. The Reasoning Algorithm
      5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
  19. About the Contributors