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Handbook of Research on Geoinformatics

Book Description

Geoinformatics is the science and technology of gathering, analyzing, interpreting, distributing, and using geospatial information. It encompasses a broad range of disciplines brought together to create a detailed but understandable picture of the physical world and our place in it. The Handbook of Research on Geoinformatics is the first reference work to map this exciting interdisciplinary field, discussing the complete range of contemporary research topics such as computer modeling, geometry, geoprocessing, and geographic information systems. This expansive reference work covers the complete range of geoinformatics related issues, trends, theories, technologies, and applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Contributors
  4. Preface
  5. I. Spatial Databases
    1. I. GML as Database: Present and Future
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPROACHES
        1. LegoDB. 1st Approach
        2. Monet. 2nd Approach
        3. Xparent. 3rd Approach
      5. QUERY PROCESSING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    2. II. Querying GML: A Pressing Need
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. XML AS A DATABASE: QUERYING XML
      4. QUERYING GML
        1. GML-Specific Query Language
      5. GML-QL
        1. CXQuery (Constraint XML Query Language)
        2. Gquery
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    3. III. Image Database Indexing Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    4. IV. Different Roles and Definitions of Spatial Data Fusion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TERMINOLOGY
      4. TECHNOLOGIES WITHIN SPATIAL DATA FUSION
      5. CHALLENGES IN SPATIAL DATA FUSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    5. V. Spatial Data Infrastructures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SDI ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS
    6. VI. Geoportals and the GDI Accessibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. GEOPORTALS: MAKING DATA DISCOVERABLE AND ACCESSIBLE
      4. 3. GEOPORTALS: CONNECTING USERS TO THE GDI POTENTIALS
        1. 3.1. Taking into Account Users in Designing Metadata Presentations
        2. 3.2. Enhancing Semantic Interoperability and Content Integration
        3. 3.3. Facilitating Geocollaboration
      5. 4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      6. 5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      7. ENDNOTES
    7. VII. Real-Time Extraction of the Road Geometry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHALLENGES OF MOBILE MAPPING
      3. INCURSION INTO REAL-TIME MAPPING
      4. DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVING REAL-TIME MAPPING
      5. REAL-TIME GEOREFERENCING
      6. FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
  6. II. Mapping and Visualization
    1. VIII. Cognitive Maps
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES
        1. Knowledge Acquisition
        2. Hierarchical Structuring
        3. Schematization of Geographic Knowledge
      4. ALTERNATE FRAMEWORKS
        1. Naïve Geography
        2. Synergetic Inter-Representation Network
        3. Geocognostics
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    2. IX. Map Overlay Problem
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Applications
      3. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
      4. STATE OF THE ART
        1. A Brief History
        2. Vector Algorithms
        3. Raster Algorithms
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    3. X. Dealing with 3D Surface Models: Raster and TIN
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Creating and Interpolating a Raster Surface
        2. Creating a TIN Surface
      4. RASTER AND TIN: PROS AND CONS
      5. ANALYZING 3D SURFACES
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    4. XI. Web Map Servers Data Formats
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RASTER FORMATS
      4. VECTOR FORMATS
      5. WEB MAP SERVICE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    5. XII. Overview, Classification and Selection of Map Projections for Geospatial Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MAP PROJECTION PROCESS
      4. CLASSIFICATION OF MAP PROJECTIONS BY FAMILIES
        1. Conical Projection
        2. Cylindrical Projection
        3. Azimuthal Projection
        4. Pseudoconic and Polyconic Projections
        5. Pseudocylindrical Projection
      5. DISTORTION GENERATED DURING THE PROJECTION PROCESS
        1. Distortion Indexes
        2. Angular Distortion
        3. Distance Distortion
        4. Areal Distortion
        5. The Indicatrix of Tissot
      6. GEOMETRIC FEATURES
        1. Spacing of The Parallels
        2. The Aspect of the Map
        3. The Choice of the Central Meridian
        4. The Outline of the Map
        5. Representation of the Poles
        6. Ratio of the Axes
        7. Continuity
        8. Correct Azimuth
      7. SELECTION OF SUITABLE MAP PROJECTIONS FOR GEOSPATIAL APPLICATIONS
        1. Data Transfer in GIS Among Supported Projections
        2. Map Projection Selection
        3. Considerations for an Objective Approach
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
  7. III. Analysis
    1. XIII. About the Point Location Problem
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POINT LOCATION PROBLEMS IN SIMPLE CASES
      4. A QUICK POINT LOCATION ALGORITHM
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    2. XIV. Classification in GIS Using Support Vector Machines
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLASSIFICATION PROBLEMS ON SPATIAL DATA
      4. THE SVM APPROACH AND CRITICAL ISSUES
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    3. XV. Network Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GRAPH THEORY FOR NETWORK MODELING
        1. Network Descriptions and Measures
        2. Network Indices
      5. NETWORK MODELS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
        1. Topological Network Data Models
        2. Linear Referencing on Networks
      6. ANALYSIS WITH NETWORK MODELS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEYWORDS
    4. XVI. Artificial Neural Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    5. XVII. Spatial Interpolation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPATIAL INTERPOLATION METHODS
        1. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW)
        2. Kriging
        3. Triangulation
        4. Thiessen Polygons (or Voronoi Polygons)
        5. Radial Basis Functions
        6. Minimum Curvature
        7. Trend Surface
      4. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING AN INTERPOLATOR
        1. Global Accuracy
        2. Local Accuracy
        3. Visual Pleasantness and Faithfulness
        4. Sensitivity
        5. Computational Intensity
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    6. XVIII. Spatio-Temporal Object Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW
      3. PARAMETRIC POLYMORPHISM FOR SPATIO-TEMPORAL EXTENSIONS
        1. The Spatial<T> Type
        2. The Temporal<T> Type
        3. The ST<T> Type
        4. An Example Utilizing Parameterized Types
      4. SPATIO-TEMPORAL QUERY LANGUAGE
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    7. XIX. Challenges and Critical Issues for Temporal GIS Research and Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CRITICAL ISSUES
        1. Database Representation and Management
        2. Analysis and Modeling
        3. Geovisualization and Communication
      4. MAJOR RESEARCH CHALLENGES
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS
    8. XX. Rough Sets and Granular Computing in Geospatial Information
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. GRANULAR COMPUTING
      3. GRANULATION IN SPATIAL INFORMATION
      4. ROUGH SET THEORY
      5. APPLICATION OF ROUGH SET AND GRANULAR COMPUTING IN GIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
  8. IV. Ontologies
    1. XXI. Geospatial and Temporal Semantic Analytics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Ontology
        2. The Semantic Web
        3. Semantic Analytics
      4. GEOSPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SEMANTIC ANALYTICS
        1. Modeling Space, Time, and Theme
        2. Spatiotemporal Thematic Contexts: Inter-Dimension Connections
        3. Related Approaches
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      7. ENDNOTES
    2. XXII. Geospatial Image Metadata Catalog Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. REVIEW OF GEOSPATIAL IMAGE CATALOG SERVICES
        1. 2.1 Pilot Catalog Service Systems
        2. 2.2 Conceptual System Architecture
        3. 2.3 Metadata Generation
          1. 2.3.1 Base Metadata Standard
          2. 2.3.2 Automatic Generation of Metadata
        4. 2.4 Metadata Ingestion
          1. 2.4.1 Metadata Distribution
          2. 2.4.2 Ingestion Type
        5. 2.5 Conceptual Schema
        6. 2.6 Transfer Protocol
        7. 2.7 System Distribution
        8. 2.8 Review Summaries
      4. 3. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS
    3. XXIII. Geospatial Semantic Web: Critical Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GEOSPATIAL ONTOLOGY
      4. GEOSPATIAL SEMANTIC REASONING
      5. APPLICATIONS
        1. GEON Intelligent Geologic Data Integration
        2. Intelligent Geospatial Web Services
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
  9. V. Distributed Geoprocessing
    1. XXIV. Geospatial Web Service Chaining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHAINING GEOSPATIAL SERVICES
      4. CHALLENGES IN SERVICE CHAINING
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    2. XXV. Multi-Agent Systems for Distributed Geospatial Modeling, Simulation and Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AGENT VS. WEB SERVICE
      4. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS FOR GEOSPATIAL DATA INTEGRATION
      5. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS FOR GEOSPATIAL MODELING AND SIMULATION
      6. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS FOR GEOSPATIAL DATA MINING
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    3. XXVI. Towards Automatic Composition of Geospatial Web Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART: AUTOMATIC SERVICE2 COMPOSITION
      4. KEY CONSIDERATIONS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      7. ENDNOTES
    4. XXVII. Grid Computing and its Application to Geoinformatics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GEOSPATIAL DATA SERVING AND SERVICES OFFERING
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    5. XXVIII. Sharing of Distributed Geospatial Data through Grid Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SHARING OF GEOSPATIAL DATA THROUGH GRID TECHNOLOGY
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
  10. VI. Location-Based Services
    1. XXIX. Cognitively Ergonomic Route Directions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF ROUTE DIRECTIONS
      3. APPROACHES TO REPRESENTING ROUTE KNOWLEDGE
      4. CORE ASPECTS OF COGNITIVELY ERGONOMIC ROUTE DIRECTIONS
        1. Conceptualization of Directions at Decision points
        2. Enriching Route Directions with Landmarks
        3. Spatial Chunking: Hierarchies and Levels of Granularity
      5. THE MULTIMODAL PRESENTATION OF ROUTE KNOWLEDGE
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    2. XXX. Multicast Over Location-Based Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MULTICASTING
      5. THE LOCATION-AWARE MULTICAST
      6. LBM GEOCASTING AND IP MULTICASTING
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    3. XXXI. Routing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEMS
        1. Vehicle Routing Problems
        2. The Traveling Salesman problem
      5. SOLUTION PROCEDURES FOR ROUTING PROBLEMS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS IN ROUTING RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    4. XXXII. Location Privacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRIVACY IN LOCATION-AWARE ENVIRONMENTS
      4. PROTECTING LOCATION PRIVACY
      5. FUTURE OF LOCATION PRIVACY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    5. XXXIII. Location-Based Performance Tuning in Mobile Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MOBILE SENSOR NETWORKS
      3. PERFORMANCE TUNING IN MOBILE SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. ALGEBRAIC OPTIMIZATION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    6. XXXIV. Location-Based Services: A Taxonomy on Theory and Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UBIQUITOUS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
      4. LOCATION-ADAPTED SERVICES
        1. Physical and Symbolic Location
        2. Location Distance and Mobility
      5. LOCATION-ADAPTED TECHNOLOGY
        1. Location Tracking and Location Awareness
        2. Location Data Interpretation
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    7. XXXV. Coupling GPS and GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Need for GPS Data in GIS
        2. The GPS Technology
        3. Data Limitations and Accuracy Level
      4. INTEGRATION OF GPS AND GIS
        1. Data Acquisition
        2. Data processing and Transfer
        3. Data Maintenance
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    8. XXXVI. Modern Navigation Systems and Related Spatial Query
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODERN NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
        1. Positioning Signal Transmission Systems
        2. Global Positioning System
        3. GPS Accuracy
        4. GLONASS and Galileo Positioning System
        5. Positioning Signal Receivers
      4. NAVIGATION RELATED SPATIAL QUERY ALGORITHMS
        1. Location-Based Query Algorithms
        2. Shortest Path Search Algorithms
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    9. XXXVII. Location Privacy in Automotive Telematics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. How Positioning Systems Can be Privacy Invasive?
      4. PRIVACY ATTACKS
        1. ACME Rent a Car Company
        2. Location-Based Spam
        3. Profiling Driving Behavior
        4. Electronic Toll Collection
      5. PRIVACY DEFENSES
        1. Legislation and Regulation
        2. Policy-Based and Rule-Based Protection
        3. Identity and Location Decoupling
        4. Anonymous Access
        5. Obfuscation
        6. Privacy Aware Designs
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    10. XXXVIII. Map Matching Algorithms for Intelligent Transport Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGIES USED IN MAP MATCHING ALGORITHMS
        1. Geometric Map Matching Algorithms
        2. Topological Map Matching Algorithms
        3. Advanced Map Matching Algorithms
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
  11. VII. Management
    1. XXXIX. A Package-Based Architecture for Customized GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW
        1. Corporate Needs in GIS
        2. General Structure
        3. Application Composition
      5. FURTHUR FEATURES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    2. XL. Virtual Environments for Geospatial Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GEO-VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: EVOLUTION OVER THE YEARS
        1. 3D Geospatial Data Visualization: Tools and Techniques
      4. APPLICATIONS OF GEO-VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
        1. Static Geo-Virtual Environments
        2. Dynamic Virtual Environments
        3. Critical Issues in the Design and Implementation of Geospatial Virtual Environments
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    3. XLI. Managing Uncertainty in Geospatial Predictive Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. SPATIAL PREDICTION AND CLASSIFICATION
      3. 2. UNCERTAINTY IN SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION
      4. 3. TYPOLOGIES OF CLASSIFICATION UNCERTAINTY
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. 5. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    4. XLII. Geographic Visual Query Languages and Ambiguities Treatment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VISUAL QUERY LANGUAGES FOR SPATIAL DATABASES
      4. QUERY'S AMBIGUITY PROBLEM
      5. VISUAL SPATIAL QUERY LANGUAGES AND THE AMBIGUITY PROBLEM
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
  12. VIII. Selected Readings
    1. XLIII. GeoCache: A Cache for GML Geographical Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
        1. Cache Replacement Policy
        2. Spatial Cache Replacement Policy
        3. Cache Structure for Geographical Queries in GML
        4. Non-Spatial Part of the Cache
        5. Cache Insertion Algorithm
        6. Cache Deletion Algorithm
      4. GEOGRAPHICAL QUERY PROCESSING
        1. Spatial Operators with Inference Rules
        2. Spatial Operators and Predicates
          1. Spatial Predicate Inference Rules
        3. Query Processing
        4. General Query Processing Scheme
          1. Cache-Based Query Processing and Optimizations
        5. Cache Replacement Policy: B&BGDSF
      5. PROOF
      6. EXPERIMENTATIONS
        1. The Geographical Data Warehouse Architecture
        2. The Experimentation Parameters and Results
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. XLIV. Cognitive Mapping and GIS for Community-Based Resource Identification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Cognitive Mapping: Origin and Uses
      3. ADAPTATION OF MAPPING METHODS FOR RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION
      4. GIS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
        1. Technical Capacity for the Project
        2. Structure of the GIS for the Project
      5. GIS ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES
      6. SELECTED RESULTS
      7. LESSONS LEARNED
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
      13. APPENDIX
    3. XLV. Collaborative Mapping and GIS: An Alternative Geographic Information Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Free Geographic Data
        2. Positioning Technology
        3. Location Awareness
        4. Online Communities
        5. Open Source GIS
      4. COLLABORATIVE MAPPING
        1. Collection of Base Map Data and GPS Tracks
        2. Editing Waypoint Data
        3. Annotation of Geometry with Real-world Semantics
        4. Distribution
        5. Challenges and Opportunities
        6. Future Trends
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    4. XLVI. Semantic Interoperability of Geospatial Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GIS SERVICES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF E-GOVERNMENT
      4. EPISTEMOLOGY OF INTEROPERABLE AGENTS IN BUSINESS PROCESSES
      5. ONTOLOGY FOR SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
      6. CRAFTING ONTOLOGY-SEMANTIC WEB INITIATIVES
      7. ONTOLOGY-BASED SPATIAL RESOURCES INTEGRATION SERVICES (OSIRIS)
      8. MULTI-AGENT AGENT ARCHITECTURE OF OSIRIS
        1. Models and Databases
        2. OSIRIS Model Manager
        3. Ontology Agent
        4. Ontology Repository
        5. Ontology Collaboration Agent (OCA)
        6. User Interface Agent (UIA)
        7. Agent Platform Security Manager
        8. Internet platform Message Transport
      9. MULTI-AGENT COLLABORATION: AN EVENT FLOW SCENARIO
        1. Composing Custom Models by collaborative Modeling: Example of Logical Inference
        2. semantic Matching of spatial Features in OSIRIS
        3. Domain Ontology for Spatial Application: An Example
        4. Explorative Land Use Change Analysis: Simulations of Multi-Agent Interaction
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTE
    5. XLVII. Biometric Authentication in Broadband Networks for Location-Based Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOMETRIC ID
        1. A. Requirements for Biometric ID usage
      4. BIOMETRICS IN ATHLETICS
        1. BioApI™ and BSP Implementation
      5. EXPANDING THE CAPABILITIES OF VERIEASY™
      6. MULTIFUNCTIONAL BSPS
        1. Biometrics Authetication in Broadband Networks and Location-Based Services
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    6. XLVIII. Design and Implementation Approaches for Location-Based, Tourism-Related Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
        1. Wireless and Mobile Data Services
        2. Location-Based Services
        3. Positioning
          1. The GPS
          2. GSM-Positioning
          3. WLAN
          4. Other Methods
          5. Summary
          6. Positioning Standards
        4. Content Technologies
          1. Mobile Terminals That Support LBS
          2. Multi-Channel Content Delivery
          3. Content Types
          4. The Semantic Web
        5. Software in Control
      5. MOBILE TOURISM SERVICES
        1. System Concepts
          1. Service Interactions
          2. Service Access Point
          3. Homogenisation of Positioning
          4. Push & Pull Services
          5. User Authentication and Identification
          6. Content Structure
          7. Presentation
          8. Application Gateways
          9. Pricing/Billing
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. APPENDIX: ACRONYMS
  13. About the Contributors