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Handbook of Research on Citizen Engagement and Public Participation in the Era of New Media

Book Description

New media forums have created a unique opportunity for citizens to participate in a variety of social and political contexts. As new social technologies are being utilized in a variety of ways, the public is able to interact more effectively in activities within their communities. The Handbook of Research on Citizen Engagement and Public Participation in the Era of New Media addresses opportunities and challenges in the theory and practice of public involvement in social media. Highlighting various communication modes and best practices being utilized in citizen-involvement activities, this book is a critical reference source for professionals, consultants, university teachers, practitioners, community organizers, government administrators, citizens, and activists.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. Preface
    1. SECTION 1: THE NEW SPACE FOR CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION – HISTORY AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
    2. SECTION 2: USING SOCIAL MEDIA AND MASS MEDIA FOR CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION – NEW CONNECTIONS, NEW QUESTIONS
    3. SECTION 3: ENGAGEMENT AND PARTICIPATION USING SOCIAL MEDIA AS AN ADJUNCT TO FACE-TO-FACE GATHERINGS – FROM PUBLIC DEMONSTRATIONS TO CITIZEN JURIES
    4. SECTION 4: CASES IN CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION – INTEGRATING SOCIAL MEDIA, MASS MEDIA, AND PERSONAL OUTREACH
    5. CONCLUSION: THE CITIZEN, THE SCREEN, AND A NEW SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
    6. REFERENCES
  7. Section 1: The New Space for Citizen Engagement and Public Participation: History and Recent Developments
    1. Chapter 1: Citizen Engagement in Local Environmental Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MULTIPLE MEDIA IN HUMAN INTERACTION: ONLINE AND OFFLINE
      5. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 2: Integrating Multiple Channels of Engagement in Democratic Innovations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CHALLENGES OF INTEGRATING MULTIPLE CHANNEL OF ENGAGEMENT IN PB PROCESSES
      4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 3: Public Engagement and Policy Entrepreneurship on Social Media in the Time of Anti-Vaccination Movements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A POSTMODERN UNDERSTANDING OF ONLINE ANTI-VACCINATION MOVEMENTS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: ENGAGING WITH THE VACCINE HESITANT ON WEB 2.0
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERM AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Old Media, New Media, and Public Engagement with Science and Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. #askSENSEI: AN INTERACTIVE FORUM FOR CYBERSECURITY EXPERT QUESTION AND ANSWER EVENT
      4. MEDIA AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT
      5. MASS MEDIA AND AUDIENCE ENGAGEMENT
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Social Media and Public Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 6: Youth Engagement in the Era of New Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT (PYD) AND SOCIAL JUSTICE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT (SJYD)
      4. INTERSECTIONALITY: DIVERSITY OF YOUTH POPULATIONS AND THEIR MEDIA USAGE
      5. BUILDING GLOBAL SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AND SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CAPITAL THROUGH YOUTH’S MEDIA USAGE
      6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  8. Section 2: Using Social Media and Mass Media for Citizen Engagement and Public Participation: New Connections, New Questions
    1. Chapter 7: Organically Modified News Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORIZING MODELS OF GATEKEEPING IN AN EMERGENT MEDIA ENVIRONMENT
      4. METHODS
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 8: Citizen Engagement and News Selection for Facebook Pages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FACEBOOK AND THE ALGORITHM OF ARRANGING THE NEWS IN THE FEED. MARKETING STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE NEWS CONTENT
      4. USERS’ METRICS AND FACEBOOK ALGORITHM
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 9: A Comparative View of Citizen Engagement in Social Media of Local Governments from North American Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN NORTH AMERICAN SOCIETY
      4. SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR ENHANCING CITIZEN´S ENGAGEMENT
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX 1
      13. APPENDIX 2
      14. APPENDIX 3
    4. Chapter 10: Information Hubs or Drains?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MASS MEDIA AND POLITICAL KNOWLEDGE
      4. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF ONLINE SOURCES
      5. DATA AND METHODS
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 11: Occupy Rhetoric
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 12: Citizen Journalism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CONCEPT
      3. TYPES OF CITIZEN JOURNALISM
      4. EVOLUTION OF CITIZEN JOURNALISM
      5. CITIZEN JOURNALISM IN INDIA
      6. SIGNIFICANCE OF CITIZEN JOURNALISM
      7. CITIZEN JOURNALISM VS. MAINSTREAM JOURNALISM
      8. REFERENCES
  9. Section 3: Engagement and Participation Using Social Media as an Adjunct to Face-to-Face Gatherings: From Public Demonstrations to Citizen Juries
    1. Chapter 13: Social Media as Public Political Instrument
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE POLITICAL CONSTRUCTION OF PUBLIC
      4. FIGHTING FOR PUBLIC EXISTENCE THROUGH CITIZENSHIP
      5. TECHNOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT OF PUBLIC
      6. THE SIMPLICITY IS THE POWER
      7. COMPETING INTERESTS IN MEDIA
      8. SOCIAL MEDIA AS A SOCIAL SPHERE
      9. PRACTICING CITIZENSHIP THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA
      10. CRITIQUES AGAINST SOCIAL MEDIA
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 14: A Gradual Political Change?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 15: A Comparative View of Censored and Uncensored Political Discussion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNET CENSORSHIP IN CHINA
      4. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
      8. LIMITATION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 16: Smartphones and their Increased Importance in U.S. Presidential Elections
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SMARTPHONES INTERFACE WITH GOVERNMENT
      4. POLITICAL CANDIDATES FIND SMARTPHONES STRATEGIC
      5. EMPIRICAL MODEL
      6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX
    5. Chapter 17: The Dutch Participation Society Needs Open Data, but What is Meant by Open?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE PUBLIC AGENDA OF AN OPEN STATE
      3. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS
      4. DISCOURSE ON ACTIVE CITIZENS
      5. BUDGET CUTS AND INCREASED EFFICIENCY OR MORE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION?
      6. DEMOCRATIC INNOVATIONS
      7. GOVERNMENTAL OPEN DATA POLICY AND PLANNING TRANSPARENCY
      8. THE RISK ON BEING OPEN ABOUT PARTICIPATION
      9. CONTINGENCY IN CITIZENS’ DISCOURSES ON PARTICIPATION AND OPEN DATA
      10. DOUBLE CONTINGENCY EFFECTS ON OPENNESS AND TRUST
      11. CONCLUSION: HOW OPEN IS OPEN IN OPEN DATA
      12. REFERENCES
  10. Section 4: Cases in Citizen Engagement and Public Participation: Integrating Social Media, Mass Media, and Personal Outreach
    1. Chapter 18: Alternative Tweeting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH BACKGROUND
      4. CONTEXT OF STUDY: THE CRITICAL CONTEST IN ALJUNIED GRC
      5. METHOD
      6. FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    2. Chapter 19: Building a New State from Outrage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KEY EVENTS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN THE CATALAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT
      4. A SINGULAR SOCIAL MOVEMENT BUILT UPON A REMARKABLE TYPE OF NATIONALISM
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 20: Social Media, Political Mobilization, and Citizen Engagement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      8. THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 21: Measuring Enclosures and Efficacy in Online Feminism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE ONLINE ACTIVISM OF REWIRE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. APPENDIX 1
      10. APPENDIX 2
    5. Chapter 22: Social Media and the Public Sphere in China
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. REFERENCES
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Contributors