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Handbook of Research on Applied Learning Theory and Design in Modern Education

Book Description

The field of education is in constant flux as new theories and practices emerge to engage students and improve the learning experience. Research advances help to make these improvements happen and are essential to the continued improvement of education. The Handbook of Research on Applied Learning Theory and Design in Modern Education provides international perspectives from education professors and researchers, cyberneticists, psychologists, and instructional designers on the processes and mechanisms of the global learning environment. Highlighting a compendium of trends, strategies, methodologies, technologies, and models of applied learning theory and design, this publication is well-suited to meet the research and practical needs of academics, researchers, teachers, and graduate students as well as curriculum and instructional design professionals.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
    2. List of Reviewers
  6. Foreword
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
    1. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE HANDBOOK
    2. CONCLUSION
  9. Acknowledgment
  10. Section 1: Learning Theory: Conceptual Frameworks
    1. Chapter 1: Education from the Enlightenment to the Globalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBALISATION AND PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE
      4. SIX SITUATIONS OF IMPASSE IN MODERN EDUCATION
      5. SOLUTIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Innovation and Creativity in Applied Learning Theory and Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY IN TEXTBOOK THEORY AND DESIGN
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CLUSTER ANALYSIS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Education for Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE EXTENT OF ESD AROUND THE WORLD
      5. CONCEPTUALIZING ESD: CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: The Theory of Artistic-Aesthetic Education versus Didactics of Arts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HUMAN KNOWLEDGE, DIDACTICS, AND EDUCATION
      4. ARTISTIC-AESTHETIC EDUCATION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Digital Pedagogy from the Perspective of Early Childhood Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 2: Constructivist Theory and Networking
    1. Chapter 6: Constructivism in Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CONSTRUCTIVIST RESEARCH PROGRAMME IN SCIENCE EDUCATION
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 7: Instructional Technologies of the XXI Century
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH AS A TYPE OF MODELLING
      5. OPEN AND CONFINED INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
      6. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AND ITS TRIAD FORM: THE MAIN PRACTICAL PROBLEMS
      7. THE MAIN FOCUIS OF THIS CHAPTER
      8. MODERN UNIVERSAL CURRICULUM CORE
      9. DETERMINATION OF NECESSARY SET OF KSAS:
      10. RANKING SKILLS ON THE FINAL LIST
      11. NEW INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IN TRAINING LABORATORY PRACTICE
      12. COMPUTER ASSISTED STRATEGIY IN THE PRE-GRADUATION PERIOD
      13. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      16. REFERENCES
      17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 8: Utilizing Adaptive and Intelligent Systems for Collaborative Online Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM FORMULATION
      3. BASICS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING
      4. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. PROPOSED MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING IN THE CONTEXT OF QUR’AN
      6. IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 9: START Model in Science Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 10: Self-Organization Technologies in Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 3: Cognitive Theories, Models, and Practical Applications
    1. Chapter 11: The Role of Social Cognitive Flexibility in Effective Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 12: Using Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Framework to Design Support Systems for Education and Special Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND MAIN FOCUS
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS (SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS)
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 13: Possibilities and Challenges in a One-to-One Initiative from a School Leader Perspective
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. METHOD
      6. THE MODEL FOR ANALYSIS
      7. RESULTS: CURRENT POSSIBILITIES AND CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      8. DISCUSSION: CURRENT POSSIBILITIES AND CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      9. CONCLUSION: POSSIBILITIES, CHALLENGES, AND TRANSITIONS IN SUMMARY
      10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. SCHOOL LEADERSHIP FOR 1:1: FUTURE RESEARCH
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 14: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation within the Context of Modern Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODERN EDUCATIONAL CONTEXTS AND SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
  13. Section 4: Open Education, Open Pedagogy and Open Access
    1. Chapter 15: Learning in the Digital Age with Meaning Equivalence Reusable Learning Objects (MERLO)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 16: Concept Science Evidence-Based MERLO Learning Analytics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 17: Knowledge in the Shrinking Commons
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HISTORIES AND THE PRESENT
      5. LIBRARIES AND THE MARKET
      6. OPEN ACCESS AND THE MARKET
      7. SHARED FATES/POSSIBILITIES
      8. FUTURES: RELEVANCE, SUSTAINABILITY, AND ALLEGIANCE
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 18: Exploring the Development of Pre-Service Teachers' ICT-TPACK using a Cognitive Stimulation Tool
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX 1: COGNITIVE STIMULATION TOOL (CST)
      10. APPENDIX 2: SELF-REPORT SURVEY
      11. APPENDIX 3: QUESTIONNAIRE OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ ICT-TPACK
      12. APPENDIX 4: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ELEMENTARY TEACHERS’ TPACK (CITED FROM JANG & TSAI, 2012, P. 335)
    5. Chapter 19: Developing Soft Skills by Applying Problem-Based Learning in Software Engineering Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
      4. CLASS DESCRIPTION
      5. EXPERIENCES
      6. IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIENCES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  14. Section 5: Design of New Learning Environments
    1. Chapter 20: Collaborative Design in School
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING PRODUCTIVE COLLABORATION TO LEARN: A REVIEW
      4. FIRST EMPIRICAL CASE: DESIGNING ARGUMENTATIVE TOOL-BASED COLLABORATION IN ASTRONOMY
      5. SECOND EMPIRICAL CASE: DESIGNING MUSICAL CREATIVE COLLABORATION IN THE CLASSROOM
      6. CONCLUSION: LEARN TO COLLABORATE CREATIVELY IN CLASSROOM
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 21: ePortfolios as a Tool for Integrative Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEVELOPING ePORTFOLIOS THAT PROMOTE INTEGRATIVE LEARNING
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 22: Does the Method of Schooling Impact Students' Perceptions of Scientists?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HOME SCHOOLING MOTIVATIONS
      4. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY
      5. PROCEDURES
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 23: Dynamic Electronic Textbooks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION
      4. ENHANCING CLASSROOM LEARNING
      5. E-BOOK FORMATS AND APPS
      6. THE LEARNING OF TODAY’S LEARNERS
      7. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 24: Understanding How Images and Attitudes toward Scientists and Science Contribute to Science Identities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ATTITUDES TOWARD SCIENCE
      4. PARENTAL INFLUENCE
      5. INFLUENCE OF MEDIA
      6. SCHOOL AND TEACHER INFLUENCES
      7. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SCIENTISTS
      8. SCIENCE IDENTITY
      9. RESEARCH DESIGN
      10. INSTRUMENTATION
      11. RESULTS OF THE STUDY
      12. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY
      13. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
      14. FUTURE STUDIES
      15. REFERENCES
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  15. Section 6: Technology for Learning
    1. Chapter 25: The Growth of Learning Colleges Including a Case Study from 2008 Revisited in 2015
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 26: Technology-Enabled Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES OF LEARNING ENVIRONMENT DESIGN
      4. ROLE OF IT IN LEARNING
      5. PLANNING INFRASTRUCTURES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENABLED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      6. ROLE OF COMMUNITIES OF LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY-ENABLED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      7. LEADERSHIP FOR LEARNING
      8. ROLE OF TEACHER IN TECHNOLOGY-ENABLED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      9. EDUCATION POLICY AND TECHNOLOGY-ENABLED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      10. SOME EXAMPLES OF TECHNOLOGY-ENABLED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 27: Instructors as End-User Developers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES WITH INVERTED CLASSROOM TASKS
      5. IMPROVING INVERTED CLASSROOM TASKS WITH EUD PRACTICES
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 28: Virtual Activities to Promote Multiculturalism and Sustainability of International Partnerships
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. METHODS
      7. RESULTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 29: Using Theory-Based Research in Supporting Creative Learning Environment for Young Children
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF CREATIVITY THEORY
      4. CREATIVITY THEORY AND THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
      5. REGGIO EMILIA AND CREATIVITY
      6. OBSERVING CREATIVITY-BASED SCHOOLS IN ITALY
      7. CREATING THE RIGHT ENVIRONMENT: A UNIVERSITY INITIATIVE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. Section 7: Innovative Approaches, Systems, and Tools for Learning
    1. Chapter 30: Applied Learning Educators Searching for a Pedagogical Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLIED LEARNING EDUCATORS’ LEARNING NEEDS
      5. APPLIED LEARNING PEDAGOGY AS A BOUNDARY OBJECT
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 31: Adaptable Learning Theory Framework for Technology-Enhanced Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPONENTS OF THE FRAMEWORK
      5. TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 32: Augmented Reality as a New Media for Supporting Mobile-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUGMENTED REALITY
      4. CREATING LEARNING ACTIVITIES USING MARKER-BASED AR TECHNOLOGIES
      5. CREATING LEARNING ACTIVITY USING MARKER LESS AR TECHNOLOGIES
      6. CREATING AN AUGMENTED REALITY BOOK
      7. AUGMENTED 3D MODELS TO IMPROVE ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS LEARNING
      8. THE STORYTELLER, THE READING ENVIRONMENT AND AUGMENTED REALITY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 33: Paired Multiple Choice Questionnaires
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PAIRED MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  17. Section 8: Media Literacy and Artistic Education
    1. Chapter 34: Learning Inclusion in Thailand
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 35: Artistic Education Areas
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. VALUES OF ART EDUCATION FROM A POSTMODERNIST PERSPECTIVE
      5. WHAT IS AN ARTISTIC EXPERIENCE?
      6. ATTITUDES FOR ARTS AS ATTITUDES FOR LIFE
      7. DIMENSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES OF INTEGRATION OF THE ARTISTIC EDUCATION AREAS IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION PROCESS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 36: Combating the “Gimme More” Mindset in Modern Classrooms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GETTING TO THE HEART OF THE ENTITLEMENT MINDSET
      5. FROM WHERE DOES ENTITLEMENT STEM?
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 37: Perceptions of Teacher Candidates' Experiences in Paired Placements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FINDINGS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  18. Section 9: Semantic E-Learning Theory, Security, and Plagiarism
    1. Chapter 38: Semantics and Pragmatics in Mathematical Events
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
      5. A LOOK AT CONCEPTUALIZATION OF MATHEMATICAL IDEAS
      6. TWO CASES
      7. CHANGE AS IT HAPPENS, AND APPEARS IN THE CONTEXT
      8. COSTING AS IT HAPPENS, AND APPEARS IN CONTEXT
      9. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 39: The Roles of E-Learning, Organizational Learning, and Knowledge Management in the Learning Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROLES OF E-LEARNING, ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING, AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 40: Pervasive Cyberinfrastructure for Personalized Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ONTOLOGIES
      5. SOFTWARE AGENTS
      6. CONTEXT-BASED RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. PHILOSOPHY
      8. TRADITIONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      9. EXTENDING THE TRADITIONAL VIEW
      10. DESIGN
      11. ENTITIES
      12. THE MODULAR COURSE HIERARCHY
      13. BUILDING CONTEXT
      14. CONTEXT-BASED RECOMMENDATIONS
      15. CONTEXT SHARING
      16. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
      17. MASTERY
      18. THE DATABASE
      19. AUTHENTICATION AND AUTHORIZATION
      20. USER EXPERIENCE
      21. VISUALIZING PROGRESSION
      22. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      23. CONCLUSION
      24. REFERENCES
      25. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 41: Strategies and Technologies for Preventing Plagiarism in Modern Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PLAGIARISM: DEFINING THE PROBLEM
      4. UNDERSTANDING PLAGIARISM BY STUDENTS
      5. WHAT IS AND WHAT IS NOT PLAGIARISM
      6. WHY STUDENTS PLAGIARIZE
      7. HOW TO PROTECT STUDENTS FROM PLAGIARISING
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  19. Compilation of References
  20. About the Contributors