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Handbook of Research on Civil Society and National Security in the Era of Cyber Warfare

Book Description

As the confluence of networks that is the modern Internet grows to encompass everything from nuclear reactors to home appliances, the affordances offered to the average citizen grow as well—but so, too, do the resources made available to those with malicious intent. Through the rise of Big Data and the Internet of Things, terrorist organizations today have been freed from geographic and logistical confines and now have more power than ever before to strike the average citizen directly at home. This, coupled with the inherently asymmetrical nature of cyberwarfare—which grants great advantage to the attacker—has created an unprecedented national security risk that both governments and their citizens are woefully ill-prepared to face. The Handbook of Research on Civil Society and National Security in the Era of Cyber Warfare addresses the problem of cyber terrorism head-on, first through a review of current literature, and then through a series of progressive proposals aimed at researchers, professionals, and policymakers. Touching on such subjects as cyber-profiling, hacktivism, and digital counterterrorism, this collection offers the tools to begin formulating a ground-up resiliency to cybersecurity threats that starts at the civilian level.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
    1. TARGET AUDIENCE
    2. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    3. CONCLUSION
  7. Section 1: Threats from Cyber Warfare Activities to the Civil Society
    1. Chapter 1: Cyber Warfare, Asymmetry, and Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BRIEF BACKGROUND TO THE CYBER ASYMMETRY PROBLEM
      4. THE CONCEPT OF RADICAL ASYMMETRY
      5. FAIRNESS IN RADICALLY ASYMMETRY CYBER WARFARE
      6. CYBER ASYMMETRY AND EVOKED POTENTIAL/BLOWBACK
      7. RESPONSIBILITY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 2: National Security Policy and Strategy and Cyber Security Risks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY AND CYBER THREATS
      4. CYBER-ATTACKS AND THREAT SOURCES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTE
    3. Chapter 3: Cyber Criminal Profiling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROFILING APPROACHES
      5. CYBER PROFILING APPROACH
      6. A FRAMEWORK FOR CYBER ATTACKER PROFILING
      7. ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES AND DATA SOURCES
      8. CHALLENGES
      9. NEW TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      11. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4: Hacking and Hacktivism as an Information Communication System Threat
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HACKING ETHICS AND TYPES OF HACKERS
      5. HACTIVISM
      6. PHASES OF HACKING
      7. HACKING TOOLS’ METHODS
      8. USE OF HACKING TOOL NMAP (NETWORK MAPPER) 6.25V: EXAMPLE
      9. PROTECTION FROM HACKING ATTACKS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Attack Scenarios Perpetrated by Terrorist Organizations Through the Use of IT and ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CYBER SPACE AS A BATTLEFIELD
      5. TYPES OF ATTACKS
      6. SECURITY DILEMMA AND CYBER SPACE
      7. IT AND ICT TECHNOLOGIES CURRENTLY AVAILABLE THAT CAN BE USED BY TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 6: Analysis of Success of Mobilization to Terror using Tools of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. THE METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS ON MOBILIZATION PROFILING
      6. FINDINGS ON CYBER MOBILIZATION PROSEPECTS PROFILES
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Russian Cyberwarfare Taxonomy and Cybersecurity Contradictions between Russia and EU
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITION OF CYBER-TERMINOLOGY
      4. GOVERNMENTAL CYBER MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES, STRATEGIES AND LEGAL ASPECTS
      5. CHALLENGES IN CYBER WAR MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION
      6. RUSSIAN CYBERWAR METHODS AND ATTACK TAXONOMY
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Access to Information in the Republic of Macedonia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE VERSUS CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE
      4. PROTECTION OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION AS PART OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. MACEDONIAN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
      6. THE NEED FOR BALANCE BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AND NATIONAL INTEREST
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
  8. Section 2: Toward Resilient Society against Cyber War
    1. Chapter 9: Analysis of Possible Future Global Scenarios in the Field of Cyber Warfare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE NEW CYBER SPACE THREATS
      5. THE CYBER THREATS
      6. CYBER WAR AND CYBER WARFARE
      7. CYBER WARFARE AND CYBER DEFENSE CAPABILITIES OF THE MAIN EXTRAEUROPEAN NATIONAL STATES
      8. CYBER WARFARE AND CYBER DEFENSE CAPABILITIES OF THE MAIN EUROPEAN NATIONAL STATES
      9. WHAT IS THE SCENARIO?
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 10: Information Security as a Part of Curricula in Every Professional Domain, Not Just ICT's
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE REASONS FOR INCREASED ATTACKS ON INFORMATION SECURITY
      4. BROADENING THE DOMAIN OF INFORMATION SECURITY TARGETS
      5. NEW ATTACK METHODS
      6. WHO NEEDS TO TAKE CARE ABOUT INFORMATION SECURITY?
      7. THE ROLE OF DOMAIN PROFESSIONALS
      8. DIFFICULTIES IN TRAINING DOMAIN PROFESSIONALS FOR INFORMATION SECURITY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 11: AI-Based Cyber Defense for More Secure Cyberspace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES IN CYBER DEFENSE
      5. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE -BASED CYBER DEFENSE MODEL FOR SUPPORT OF THE GOVERNMENTAL AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 12: Mitigating Unconventional Cyber-Warfare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CONVENTIONAL VS. UNCONVENTIONAL: PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHTS
      4. 3. OPEN INFORMATION SOCIETY: PROS AND CONS
      5. 4. AVANT-GARDE CYBER CRIMINALS
      6. 5. COUNTERING TERRORISM IN CYBERSPACE
      7. 6. ROLE OF SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES
      8. 7. FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS AND PATH FORWARD
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 13: Changing the Approach to Deterrence in Cyberspace while Protecting Civilians from Cyber Conflict
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. CYBER CONFLICT IS REAL AND COMPLEX
      4. 2. APPLYING THE CONCEPT OF DETERRENCE THEORY TO MITIGATE POSSIBILITY OF A CYBER CONFLICT: WILL THE DETERRENCE STRATEGY WORK UNDER CURRENT POLITICAL MILIEU?
      5. 3. PROTECTING CIVILIANS FROM CYBER CONFLICT BY FIXING THE DETERRENCE IN CYBERSPACE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 14: Cyber Threats to Critical Infrastructure Protection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOTIVATE PRIVATE ACTION FOR A PUBLIC GOOD
      5. THE PROBLEM OF SMALLER COUNTRIES AND THE PROTECTION OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE AGAINST CYBER RISK: THE CASE OF SLOVENIA
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 15: Toward More Resilient Cyber Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNET SECURITY, SECURITY ATTACK, AND TYPES OF SECURITY ATTACKS
      4. PRACTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SECURITY ATTACKS USING GNS3 SOFTWARETOOL AND KALI LINUX OS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 16: Novel First Responder Digital Forensics Tool as a Support to Law Enforcement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPUTER FORENSICS INVESTIGATION PROCESS
      4. DISCIPLINES IMPACTED BY DIGITAL FORENSICS
      5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE DIGITAL FORENSICS
      6. TRADITIONAL (DEAD) VS. LIVE DIGITAL FORENSICS
      7. DIGITAL FORENSICS TOOLS
      8. FIRST RESPONDER SCRIPT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 17: Human Factor Role for Cyber Threats Resilience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 18: The Impact of Human Behavior on Cyber Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. UNDERSTANDING COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND BEHAVIORS
      5. BEHAVIORAL CHANGE
      6. LEARNING FROM HISTORY
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 19: International Legal Aspects of Protecting Civilians and Their Property in the Future Cyber Conflict
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGES OF THE BATTLE SPACE IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
      4. 2. PROTECTING CIVILIANS AND THEIR PROPERTY FROM THE FUTURE CYBER CONFLICT UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 20: Right to Life and Cyber Warfare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RIGHT TO LIFE AND CYBER WARFARE: WHY DISCUSSING APPLICABILITY OF DIFFERENT LEGAL REGIMES MATTERS
      4. THE SPECIAL STATUS OF THE RIGHT TO LIFE AND THE SPECIFIC CONTEXTS PROVIDED BY THE CONCEPT OF CYBERWARFARE
      5. A WAY AHEAD
      6. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 21: Israel's Cyber Security Policy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE RISE OF CYBERSECURITY POLICY
      3. THE RISK TO CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE INFORMATION AGE
      4. EVOLUTION OF THE ISRAELI CYBER DEFENCE
      5. DISCUSSION: GLOBAL RISK, LOCAL RESPONSE
      6. CONCLUSION: FROM CYBER SECURITY TO CYBER POWER
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors