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Handbook of Research on Software-Defined and Cognitive Radio Technologies for Dynamic Spectrum Management

Book Description

The inadequate use of wireless spectrum resources has recently motivated researchers and practitioners to look for new ways to improve resource efficiency. As a result, new cognitive radio technologies have been proposed as an effective solution. The Handbook of Research on Software-Defined and Cognitive Radio Technologies for Dynamic Spectrum Management examines the emerging technologies being used to overcome radio spectrum scarcity. Providing timely and comprehensive coverage on topics pertaining to channel estimation, spectrum sensing, communication security, frequency hopping, and smart antennas, this research work is essential for use by educators, industrialists, and graduate students, as well as academicians researching in the field.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DYNAMIC SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT USING SOFTWARE-DEFINED AND COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGIES
    3. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    4. SUMMARY
  8. Acknowledgment
  9. Section 1: Radio Spectrum Sensing
    1. Chapter 1: Hybrid Cooperative Energy Detection Techniques in Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ENERGY DETECTION BASED SPECTRUM SENSING
      5. EXACT TEST STATISTIC DISTRIBUTION FOR ENERGY DETECTION
      6. DETECTION UNDER CHANNEL FADING/SHADOWING
      7. ENERGY DETECTOR BASED COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING
      8. HYBRID DOUBLE THRESHOLD COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING ALGORITHM USING SWARM INTELLIGENCE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Censoring of Cognitive Radios and MRC-Based Fusion in Fading and Shadowing Channels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING
      5. RAYLEIGH FADING
      6. WEIBULL FADING
      7. LOG-NORMAL SHADOWING
      8. HARD DECISION FUSION RULES
      9. SOFT DATA FUSION RULE
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. ENDNOTE
    3. Chapter 3: Tunable RF Front-Ends and Robust Sensing Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Receivers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COGNITIVE RADIO RF ENGINEERING: DESIGN AND CHALLENGES
      4. RF IMPAIRMENTS IMPACT ON RF CR FRONT-ENDS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH PLAN
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Energy-Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SYSTEM MODEL
      4. 3. CONVENTIONAL APPROACH OF COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING
      5. 4. THE PROPOSED APPROACH
      6. 5. SIMULATION RESULTS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 5: Cyclostationary Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios at Low SNR Regimes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NON-COOPERATIVE SINGLE-CYCLE CYCLOSTATIONARY DETECTION
      5. COOPERATIVE CYCLOSTATIONARY DETECTION
      6. DEFLECTION COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DETECTORS IN AWGN CHANNELS
      7. DEFLECTION COEFFICIENTS OF DIFFERENT DETECTORS IN RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNELS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: A Collaborative Approach for Compressive Spectrum Sensing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES
      3. PRINCIPLES OF COMPRESSIVE SENSING
      4. COMPRESSIVE SPECTRUM SENSING
      5. COLLABORATIVE KRONECKER COMPRESSIVE SPECTRUM SENSING APPROACH
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Spectrum Sensing Using Principal Components for Multiple Antenna Cognitive Radios
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PC ALGORITHM
      5. DETECTION PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 8: Spectral Sensing Performance for Feature-Based Signal Detection with Imperfect Training
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: A MODEL FOR TRAINING USING FIELD CHARACTERISTICS
      4. IMPLICATIONS OF IMPERFECT TRAINING ON TRAINING TIME
      5. IMPLICATIONS OF IMPERFECT TRAINING ON DETECTION PERFORMANCE
      6. TRADING OFF DETECTION TIME AND DETECTION PERFORMANCE
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Sensing Orders in Multi-User Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODEL: COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. CENTRALIZED SENSING ORDER
      6. DECENTRALIZED SENSING ORDERS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX A
      13. APPENDIX B
      14. APPENDIX C
  10. Section 2: Radio Spectrum Management and Access
    1. Chapter 10: On Fuzzy Logic-Based Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
      4. SOLUTION APPROACH
      5. IDLE TIME STATISTICS
      6. COMPETITION AMONG SECONDARY USERS
      7. CHANNEL SELECTION
      8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 11: Routing through Efficient Channel Assignment in Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN CRNs
      4. 3. CHALLENGES OF ROUTING IN CRNs
      5. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT STRATEGIES IN CRNs
      6. 5. CHALLENGES OF CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT IN CRNs
      7. 6. ROUTING WITH EFFICIENT CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT IN CRNs
      8. 7. GUIDELINES FOR EFFICIENT ROUTING IN CRNs
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 12: Dynamic Spectrum Management Algorithms for Multiuser Communication Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DYNAMIC SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT PROBLEM FORMULATION
      5. DSM ALGORITHMS UNDER CONSIDERATION
      6. COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY COMPARISON
      7. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
      8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 13: Performance Studies for Spectrum-Sharing Cognitive Radios under Outage Probability Constraint
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM MODEL
      4. PERFORMANCE OF THE SECONDARY USERS
      5. PERFORMANCE OF THE PRIMARY USER
      6. GENERAL SYSTEM MODEL
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 14: Distributed Mechanisms for Multiple Channel Acquisition in a System of Uncoordinated Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHANNEL ACQUISITION MECHANISMS
      5. CHANNEL SELECTION SCHEME
      6. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CHANNEL ACQUISITION MECHANISMS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 15: Asynchronous Channel Allocation in Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUZZY LOGIC IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
      5. CHANNEL QUALITY ESTIMATION
      6. CHANNEL QUALITY ESTIMATION
      7. NEIGHBORHOOD DISCOVERY PROTOCOLS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEYS TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 16: Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CONCLUDING REMARK
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 17: Throughput-Efficient Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THROUGHPUT EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS: BASIC APPROACH
      5. NETWORK MODEL
      6. OPTIMAL BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION
      7. COALITION FORMATION GAMES
      8. COORDINATED COALITION FORMATION
      9. CONVERGENCE, THROUGHPUT EFFICIENCY AND STABILITY OF FINAL NETWORK PARTITION RESULTING FROM THE COORDINATED CF ALGORITHM
      10. DISTRIBUTED COALITION FORMATION
      11. CONVERGENCE AND STABILITY OF FINAL NETWORK PARTITION RESULTING FROM THE DISTRIBUTED CF ALGORITHM
      12. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. ADDITIONAL READING
      17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 18: Advanced Cognitive Radio-Enabled Spectrum Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BASICS OF COGNITIVE RADIO AND SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT
      3. ADVANCED COGNITIVE RADIO-ENABLED SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT
      4. OTHER ADVANCED SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT SCHEMES
      5. FUTURE WORK AND CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 3: Software-Defined Radio and Antennas for Cognitive Radio Networks
    1. Chapter 19: Fundamentals of Software Defined Radio and Cooperative Spectrum Sensing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO (SDR)
      4. GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF SDR ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CHALLENGES
      5. COGNITIVE RADIO
      6. BACKGROUND OF COGNITIVE RADIO
      7. TERMINAL CAPABILITIES OF CR NETWORKS (CRNS)
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX: REVIEW QUESTIONS
    2. Chapter 20: Future Reconfigurable Radio Frontends for Cognitive Radio and Software Defined Radio
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RECONFIGURABLE FRONTENDS: A SMARTER AIR INTERFACE BETWEEN COGNITIVE RADIOS
      4. ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES AND MATERIALS
      5. RECONFIGURABLE ARCHITECTURES: TASKS AND CHALLENGES
      6. IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR RECONFIGURABLE TRANSCEIVERS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 21: Precoder Design for Cognitive Multiuser Multi-Way Relay Systems Using MSE Criterion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRECODING DESIGN ALGORITHMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 22: Compact and Efficient Reconfigurable Antennas for Flexible Radio Front-End in Cognitive Radio Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNAS CHARACTERISTICS
      4. FREQUENCY RECONFIGURABLE ULTRA–WIDEBAND ANTENNA
      5. PATTERN RECONFIGURABLE ULTRA–WIDEBAND ANTENNA
      6. POLARIZATION RECONFIGURABLE ULTRA–WIDEBAND ANTENNA
      7. ULTRA–WIDEBAND ANTENNA WITH MULTIPLE DEGREES OF RECONFIGURATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 23: Complexity Issues within Eigenvalue-Based Multi-Antenna Spectrum Sensing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SYSTEM MODEL
      5. EIGENVALUE BASED SPECTRUM SENSING
      6. REDUCED COMPLEXITY MME-LIKE SPECTRUM SENSING
      7. COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 24: Dual-Hop and Multi-Hop Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with an Improved Energy Detector and Multiple Antennae-Based Secondary Users
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MOTIVATION
      4. COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING WITH AN IMPROVED ENERGY DETECTOR OVER IMPERFECT REPORTING CHANNELS
      5. MULTIPLE ANTENNA BASED COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING USING AN IMPROVED ENERGY DETECTOR
      6. PERFORMANCE OF AN IMPROVED ENERGY DETECTOR IN MULTI-HOP COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS
      7. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 25: Cognitive Radio Programming Survey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COGNITIVE RADIO
      4. SURVEY OF HARDWARE PLATFORMS FOR SDR
      5. COGNITIVE RADIO PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK SURVEY
      6. OPEN ISSUES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 26: Cross-Layer Optimization and Link Adaptation in Cognitive Radios
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHMS
      5. EXPERT SYSTEMS
      6. MULTI-ALGORITHMS
      7. CHALLENGES AND OPEN ISSUES
      8. CROSS LAYER OPTIMIZATION FOR EFFICIENT SPECTRUM UTILIZATION
      9. THE OPTIMIZATION OBJECTIVES
      10. THE ARQ-ADPSO ALGORITHM
      11. SIMULATION SCENARIOS AND RESULTS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 27: Interference Statistics and Capacity-Outage Analysis in Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND MODELING
      5. BEACON TRANSMITTER AT THE PRIMARY USER RECEIVER
      6. BEACON TRANSMITTER AT THE PRIMARY USER TRANSMITTER
      7. BEACON TRANSMITTER PLACEMENT COMPARISON
      8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 4: Models, Security, and Other Related Topics
    1. Chapter 28: Modeling and Performance Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. QUEUING THEORY/MARKOV CHAIN BASED ANALYSIS
      4. NETWORK CALCULUS BASED ANALYSIS
      5. NETWORK CALCULUS BASED MODELING
      6. EXAMPLE COMPARISON BETWEEN QUEUING THEORY AND NETWORK CALCULUS
      7. FURTHER DISCUSSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 29: Nonparametric Bayesian Prediction of Primary Users' Air Traffics in Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SYSTEM MODEL
      5. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN PAYLOAD IDENTIFICATION ALGORITHMS
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 30: Risk Engine Design as a Key Security Enhancement to the Standard Architecture for Cognitive Radio
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRESENCE OF RISK IN COGNITIVE RADIO
      5. ASSESSMENT OF RISK
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 31: Towards Security Issues and Solutions in Cognitive Radio Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. DETECTION AND MITIGATION OF SECURITY THREATS IN CRN
      5. 4. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 32: Heterogeneous Service-Oriented Spectrum Trading
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SPECTRUM TRADING MODELS
      4. MATCH ISSUES IN SPECTRUM TRADING
      5. CONSTRUCTION OF SERVICE SPACE AND THE BIPARTITE GRAPH
      6. HETEROGENEOUS SERVICE ORIENTED SPECTRUM TRADING
      7. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 33: Exploiting Polarization for Spectrum Awareness in Cognitive Satellite Communications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. 4. COMBINING TECHNIQUES
      6. 5. NUMERICAL RESULTS
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 34: Competitive Spectrum Pricing under Centralized Dynamic Spectrum Allocation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
      4. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND PROBLEM FORMULATION
      5. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 35: Cognitive Radio Techniques for M2M Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COGNITIVE M2M COMMUNICATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Compilation of References
  14. About the Contributors