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Handbook of Research on Political Activism in the Information Age

Book Description

Technology, and particularly the Internet, has caused many changes in the realm of politics. Mainstream media no longer has a monopoly on political commentary as social media, blogs, and user-generated video streaming sites have emerged as an outlet for citizens and political activists to openly voice their opinions, organize political demonstrations, and network online. The Handbook of Research on Political Activism in the Information Age includes progressive research from more than 39 international experts at universities and research institutions across 15 different countries. Each of the 25 scholarly chapter contributions focus on topics pertaining to the application of information technology, engineering, and mathematics to political activism. Through its analysis of the methods for political activism in the information age, the effectiveness of these methods, as well as emerging analytical tools, this book is designed for use by researchers, activists, political scientists, engineers, computer scientists, journalists, professors, students and professionals working in the fields of politics, e-government, media and communications, and Internet marketing.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1: Political Information, Political Power, and People Power
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. ARAB SPRING AND TRANSNATIONAL PROTESTS
    3. GLOBAL MEDIA, GLOBAL POLITICS, AND GLOBAL PROTESTS
    4. ARAB SPRING, MEDIA, AND NEW POLITICS
    5. CITY, STREET AND THE PUBLIC SPHERE IN THE INFORMATION AGE
    6. CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE ARAB WORLD
    7. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, SOCIAL NETWORKS, AND POLITICAL INFORMATION
    8. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND THE ROLES OF ICTs
    9. CONCLUSION: WILL THE REVOLUTION ERUPT WITHOUT SOCIAL MEDIA?
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Chapter 2: Social Media for Political Change
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ACTIVISTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA: A PROACTIVE INNOVATIVE APPROACH
    4. GOVERNMENTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA: FROM NEUTRALIZATION TO EXPLOITATION
    5. SOCIAL MEDIA FIRMS: BUSINESS-DRIVEN ALLIANCES
    6. DYNAMICS OF THE “ARAB SPRING”: THE TRIANGLE OF POWERS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Chapter 3: The Potential of Political Changes in the Information Age
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. NEW MEDIA AND NEW POLITICS
    4. CIVIL SOCIETY IN SAUDI ARABIA
    5. POLITICAL ACTIVISM IN THE CYBERSPACE
    6. CASE STUDY
    7. SAUDI WOMEN SPRING
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. ENDNOTES
  10. Chapter 4: Identifying Hyperlink Strategies as a Tool to Discover the Connections between Offline and Online Politics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTES
  11. Chapter 5: Cleavages and Links
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    4. REFERENCES
    5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. ENDNOTES
  12. Chapter 6: Information and Communication Technologies, Democracy, and Human Rights in Nigeria
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ICT STATUS IN NIGERIA
    4. THE PUSH-ICT THEORY AND NIGERIA ICTS STATUS
    5. ICTS AND DEMOCRACY
    6. THE NIGERIAN SCENARIO
    7. ICTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS
    8. THE NIGERIAN SCENARIO
    9. CHALLENGES OF ICTS IN PROMOTING DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
    10. RECOMMENDATIONS
    11. CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
    13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Chapter 7: Memory, National Identity, and Freedom of Expression in the Information Age
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. METHOD AND THEORY
    4. UNDERSTANDING FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION, THE CONTEXT OF ZIMBABWE
    5. MEMORY AND HEROES ACRE DEBATES, GRAVE TUSSLES BETWEEN THE ELITE AND THE ORDINARY PEOPLE
    6. GUKURAHUNDI GENOCIDE, A BAD BIRTHMARK
    7. HEROES AND VILLAINS, CONTESTING THE GRAVEYARD
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  14. Chapter 8: The Virtual Parallax
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. MARKING THE TABLET OF TIME AND SPACE: SOCIAL NETWORKS AND THE NEW MEDIA
    4. DIVESTED STRUCTURES OF COMMUNICATION AND THEIR INTERFACE WITH METHODOLOGY
    5. THE INTERNET AND ICTS IN ZIMBABWE
    6. THE “VULNERABLE” POTENTIAL OF ICTS
    7. DISCOURSES ON MTHWAKAZI NATIONALISM
    8. NEW MEDIA AND THE INTERPERSONAL: A REJECTION OF DETERMINISMS
    9. ICTS AND THE NEGATION OF THE PUBLIC SPHERE
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. ENDNOTES
  15. Chapter 9: The Opportunities and Challenges of using Email for Political Communication in Authoritarian States
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ICTS AS CONVIVIAL TOOLS
    4. USE OF ICTS IN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION
    5. THE MMPZ CASE
    6. METHODS AND APPROACH
    7. LESSONS FROM ONLINE MARKETING
    8. FRAMEWORK FOR USING EMAIL FOR POLITICAL MOBILISATION
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. Chapter 10: Alternative Media Bridging the Digital Divide in Malaysia
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE PRESENCE OF SOCIO-POLITICAL BLOGS IN MALAYSIA
    4. ORANG UTAN PRESSURES THE BN
    5. HEGEMONY, PATRONAGE DEMOCRACY AND VANGUARD PARTY
    6. PKR-SNAP-DAP-PAS (A MATRIMONY OF MISCALCULATED CONVENIENCE)
    7. ONE MALAYSIA, THE BIBLE AND TAIB MAHMUD
    8. THE INTERNATIONAL MILIEU AND THE CYBER COUNTERATTACKS
    9. MY 'UBAH' TOY BIRD - EXPLAINING THE SARAWAK STATE ELECTORAL OUTCOMES
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. ENDNOTES
  17. Chapter 11: Politics 2.0 with Facebook
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. APPROACHES TO USING FACEBOOK FOR STUDYING SOCIO-POLITICAL ISSUES
    4. COLLECTING AND ANALYZING DATA FROM FACEBOOK
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  18. Chapter 12: The Wisconsin Spring
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. THE WISCONSIN SPRING
    3. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA
    4. WISCONSIN PROGRESSIVE HISTORY AND POLITICAL CULTURE
    5. A CATALOGUE OF EVENTS
    6. LITERATURE REVIEW
    7. SOCIAL MEDIA IN WISCONSIN
    8. WHAT WE HAVE LEARNED, WHERE DO WE GO?
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  19. Chapter 13: The Language of Threat in our Political Discourse
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
    3. THE FIRST HOURS
    4. THE STREAMS
    5. ONE YEAR LATER
    6. COLLEGE SHOOTINGS
    7. THE LANGUAGE OF THREAT IN OUR POLITICAL DISCOURSE
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  20. Chapter 14: Conceptualizing Network Politics following the Arab Spring
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. NETWORK POLITICS
    4. SCOPE OF NETWORK POLITICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  21. Chapter 15: The India against Corruption Movement
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE BACKDROP: A CASCADE OF CORRUPTION CASES
    4. RISE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ACTIVISM
    5. THE INDIA AGAINST CORRUPTION MOVEMENT
    6. ROLE OF PRINT AND TELEVISION MEDIA IN THE IAC CAMPAIGN
    7. ONLINE AND SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. ENDNOTES
  22. Chapter 16: Corruption in the Public Eye
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. FROM TRANSPARENCY TO PUBLICITY, AND BACK?
    4. RECONSTRUCTING CONCEPTUALLY TRANSPARENCY AND PUBLICITY
    5. PIONEERING A MORE TRANSPARENT INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM: THE ROLE OF PUBLICITY IN THE NEGOTIATION OF THE OECD ANTI-BRIBERY CONVENTION
    6. PIONEERING A MORE TRANSPARENT SYSTEM AT THE LEVEL OF THE NATION STATE: THE DYNAMICS OF IDENTIFICATION AND THE LIMITS OF RATIONAL DEBATE
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
  23. Chapter 17: Civic Cultures and Skills in European Digital Rights Campaigning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. POLITICAL AGENCY IN THE DIGITAL AGE
    4. DIGITAL RIGHTS ACTIVISM
    5. METHODS
    6. THE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF EUROPEAN DIGITAL RIGHTS CAMPAIGNING
    7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING REMARKS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
  24. Chapter 18: Protesting in a Cultural Frame
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. POLITICAL CULTURES, SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, AND WEB 2.0
    4. THE PROTESTS AND THE M12M MOVEMENT IN CONTEXT
    5. CONTINGENT EVENTS, ALLIES, AND THE ORGANIZATIONAL “RÉSEAU”
    6. FRAMINGS AND IDEOLOGIES: FROM THE MARCH PROTESTS CONSENSUAL STAND TO M12M AS A PROTO-REVOLUTIONARY WATCHDOG
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS (7):
    10. ENDNOTES
  25. Chapter 19: Two Models of Online Petitioning in the United Kingdom
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT
    3. POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT
    4. FUNCTIONALITY
    5. USE
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  26. Chapter 20: Googling Democracy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. IDENTIFYING E-ACTIVENESS
    4. CASE SELECTION AND DATA
    5. MEASURING E-ACTIVENESS
    6. USAID
    7. CONTROL FRACTORS: INFLUENCING E-ACTIVENESS
    8. CROSSING CAUSES AND EFFECT
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. ENDNOTES
    14. APPENDIX
  27. Chapter 21: A New Republic of Letters?
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND: THE IDEAL OF A REPUBLIC OF LETTERS
    4. THE INTERNET AND A NEW REPUBLIC OF LETTERS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTES
  28. Chapter 22: From Politics to E-Politics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ICTs AND COMMUNICATION IN THE INFORMATION AGE
    4. THE GAME CHANGING EFFECT OF GLOBALISATION
    5. SAUL ALINSKY’S COMMUNITY ORGANISING MODEL
    6. COMMUNITY ORGANISING IN A CHANGING WORLD
    7. RELEVANCE OF USING ICTs FOR UPDATING EARLIER MODELS TO THE INFORMATION AGE
    8. A FRAMEWORK FOR MIGRATING TRADITIONAL POLITICAL MODELS TO E-POLITICS
    9. ADAPTING THE TRADITIONAL SOLUTION TO THE INFORMATION AGE
    10. ADAPTING ALINSKY MODEL TO INFORMATION AGE
    11. ALINSKY’S APPROACH TO COMMUNICATION
    12. ELECTRONIC ONE-TO-ONES/ E-ONE-TO-ONES
    13. E-HOUSE MEETINGS
    14. E-RALLIES
    15. E-EVALUATIONS
    16. E-TRAINING SESSIONS
    17. BUILDING THE FUTURE ON FOUNDATIONS OF THE PAST
    18. DISCUSSION
    19. CONCLUSION
    20. REFERENCES
    21. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  29. Chapter 23: The Internet, National Citizenship, and the “Sovereignty Paradox”
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION: THE RELATIONS BETWEEN NATIONAL CITIZENSHIP & STATE SOVEREIGNTY
    3. WHY ASYLUM-SEEKING MIGRANTS AND ‘FORTRESS BRITAIN’?
    4. THE STUDY
    5. ASYLUM AND ‘CITIZENSHIP-SOVEREIGNTY’ CONUNDRUM
    6. THE INTERNET AND THE ‘SOVEREIGNTY PARADOX’
    7. ‘TECHNOLOGIZED’ CITIZENSHIP VS. SOVEREIGNTY
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. ENDNOTES
  30. Chapter 24: Interaction of Incivility and News Frames in the Political Blogosphere
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. METHODS
    4. RESULTS
    5. DISCUSSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  31. Chapter 25: How [Not] to Caffeinate a Political Group
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. FINDINGS
    6. DISCUSSION AND APPLICATION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
    11. APPENDIX 1
    12. APPENDIX 2.
    13. APPENDIX 3.
    14. APPENDIX 4.
  32. Compilation of References
  33. About the Contributors