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Handbook of Research on Education and Technology in a Changing Society

Book Description

Technology has become an integral part of our everyday lives. This trend in ubiquitous technology has also found its way into the learning process at every level of education. The Handbook of Research on Education and Technology in a Changing Society offers an in-depth description of concepts related to different areas, issues, and trends within education and technological integration in modern society. This handbook includes definitions and terms, as well as explanations of concepts and processes regarding the integration of technology into education. Addressing all pertinent issues and concerns in education and technology in our changing society with a wide breadth of discussion, this handbook is an essential collection for educators, academicians, students, researchers, and librarians.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
    2. List of Reviewers
  6. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. OBJECTIVE OF THE HANDBOOK
    3. ORGANIZATION AND IMPACT OF THE HANDBOOK
    4. REFERENCES
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. Chapter 1: How Do You Know If It Is Any Good?
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. DIFFERING LITERARY FORMATS
    5. KEY ELEMENTS OF QUALITY LITERATURE
    6. FRAMEWORK CATEGORIES
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Chapter 2: Massive Open Online Courses
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. HISTORY
    3. MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES (MOOCS): DEFINITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS
    4. METHODOLOGY: TWO APPROACHES
    5. KEY ADVANTAGES OF MOOCs
    6. CHALLENGES AND ISSUES
    7. A REVOLUTION IN THE MAKING?
    8. PREDICTING THE FUTURE
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Chapter 3: High Tech, High Touch, High Context
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PROBLEM STATEMENT
    5. LEARNING PODS
    6. FEEDBACK FROM STUDENTS ON LEARNING PODS AND OTHER INTERVENTIONS
    7. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING ONLINE AND HYBRID PROGRAMS
    8. FUTURE TRENDS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Chapter 4: Technology and Design for Inclusion
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. THE DEFINITION OF INCLUSION
    3. CLOSING
    4. REFERENCES
    5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Chapter 5: The Role of Computerized Personality Assessments in Students with Disabilities' School-to-Work Transition
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. SCHOOL-TO-WORK TRANSITION
    5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT
    6. FUTURE TRENDS IN SCHOOL TO WORK TRANSITION AND EMPLOYMENT
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
  13. Chapter 6: Is This Your Best Work?
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PROGRAM BACKGROUND AND STUDY RATIONALE
    4. METHOD
    5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  14. Chapter 7: Creating Collaboration in Global Online Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
    4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    5. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
    6. LEARNER-CENTERED TEACHING
    7. GROUPS IN ONLINE LEARNING
    8. CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN GLOBAL ONLINE LEARNING
    9. RESEARCH ON COLLABORATIVE ONLINE LEARNING
    10. STRATEGIES FOR CREATING COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ONLINE
    11. CASE STUDIES
    12. CONCLUSION: FUTURE RESEARCH
    13. REFERENCES
    14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  15. Chapter 8: Technology
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. TECHNOLOGY: IMPACT ON THE PRACTICE OF STORYTELLING
    3. HISTORICAL CONTEXT
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. TRIBAL: SHARED COMMUNITY
    6. INSTITUTIONAL
    7. EDUCATION
    8. LEADERSHIP
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. FUTURE STUDIES
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. Chapter 9: Citizen Education and Technology
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DEFINITIONS
    4. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON CITIZENS
    5. CONDITIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATION INTO CITIZEN EDUCATION
    6. TECHNOLOGY TOOLS FOR CITIZEN EDUCATION
    7. CURRENT PRACTICES IN TECHNOLOGY’S ROLE IN CITIZEN EDUCATION
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  17. Chapter 10: Building on Trust in a Complex World
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  18. Chapter 11: Incorporating a New Technology for Patient Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. NARRATIVE OF A SURVEY
    3. INITIAL DISCOVERIES
    4. ALL ABOUT GOALS
    5. STORIES OF SURVEY DEVELOPMENT
    6. OLD FASHIONED WRITING MEETS MODERN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
    7. BACKGROUND OF A SURVEY
    8. REFLECTIONS ON FIELD NOTES
    9. ERIC’S REFLECTIONS
    10. JEN’S REFLECTIONS
    11. FUTURE PLANS FOR THE SURVEY
    12. REFERENCES
    13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  19. Chapter 12: Strategies for Online Course Development to Promote Student Success
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  20. Chapter 13: Comparing Learning Organizations with Static Organizations
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PROMOTING LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS
    5. ROOTED IN SYSTEM THINKING
    6. TRANSITION FROM STATIC TO LEARNING
    7. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS IN PRACTICE
    8. CRITIQUES
    9. FUTURE TRENDS
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  21. Chapter 14: Innovative Technologies in Library Science
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LIBRARY SCIENCE AND ITS COMMUNITIES
    4. TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES AND THEIR ACCESS
    5. TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED FACILITIES: NO FIXED CENTER
    6. CURATION
    7. TECHNOLOGY-BASED INNOVATIVE SERVICES
    8. SAMPLE SYSTEMS APPLYING LIBRARY INNOVATION
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  22. Chapter 15: Defining Quality Standards, Guidelines, and Strategies for the Delivery of Successful Online Education in a Changing Society
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. QUALITY STANDARDS, GUIDELINES, AND STRATEGIES
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  23. Chapter 16: Information Technologies for Adolescents
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. WHY SHOULD TEENS CARE ABOUT TECHNOLOGY?
    3. TEEN ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGIES
    4. TEENS’ TECHNOLOGY-BASED INFORMATION BEHAVIORS
    5. TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES
    6. A REPRESENTATIVE ISSUE: TECHNOLOGY FOR HEALTH INFORMATION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  24. Chapter 17: Social Media and Use of Technology in Higher Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE TRENDS AMONG HIGHER EDUCATION FACULTY
    5. BENEFITS OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY TO COLLEGE STUDENTS AND FACULTY
    6. CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE IN HIGHER EDUCATION
    7. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    8. RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE STUDIES
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  25. Chapter 18: The Impact of Technology on PK-12 Teacher Preparation Programs
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. TECHNOLOGY AND THE INTEGRATION INTO PK-12 TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAMS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS/RECOMMENDATIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  26. Chapter 19: K. Patricia Cross's Chain-of-Response (COR) Model for Widening Participation at Higher Levels of Lifelong Learning in a World of Massification
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. WIDENING PARTICIPATION
    5. LIFELONG LEARNING
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  27. Chapter 20: Economic Impact of Information and Communication Technology in Higher Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GLOBAL CONNECTIVITY
    4. ACCESS THROUGH CLOUD COMPUTING
    5. ICT AND ONLINE EDUCATION
    6. ICT AND MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES
    7. ICT AND INFORMATION OVERLOAD
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  28. Chapter 21: Can Technologies Advance the Integration of Restorative Pedagogy into Teacher Education Curricula?
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. RELATIONAL ECOLOGY AND THE PRINCIPALS OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
    4. THE CALL FOR RESTORATIVE APPROACHES IN TEACHER EDUCATION
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  29. Chapter 22: Design and Evaluation of Mobile Learning from the Perspective of Cognitive Load Management
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. A MOBILE LEARNING DESIGN FRAMEWORK FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COGNITIVE LOAD
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  30. Chapter 23: Literacy and Technology
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. WHAT IS LITERACY?
    3. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON LITERACY
    4. CONDITIONS FOR INCORPORATING TECHNOLOGY INTO LITERACY EDUCATION
    5. TECHNOLOGY TOOLS TO SUPPORT LITERACY EDUCATION
    6. TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LITERACY EDUCATION FOR SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  31. Chapter 24: Pedagogy vs Andragogy Organizations
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. ANDRAGOGY OR PEDAGOGY?
    5. WANG’S GRAPH
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  32. Chapter 25: Building Education and Technology Competencies for a Changing Society
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. USING TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
    4. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATORS
    5. TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  33. Chapter 26: Spontaneity
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. DIVERGENCE AND CONVERGENCE OF (SPONTANEOUS) LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN REAL-WORLD SITUATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. APPENDIX
  34. Chapter 27: Social Simulation and its Process in Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PROCESS OF SIMULATION IN THE SOCIAL CONTEXT
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  35. Chapter 28: Empirical Study Using Alternative Early Warning Systems to Address Fire in the Homes of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Individuals
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. METHODOLOGY AND SCOPE OF STUDY
    4. RESULTS AND FINDINGS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  36. Chapter 29: Digital Recording Platforms and Integrated Performance Assessments in Second/Foreign Language Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FREE AND OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE RECORDING TOOLS
    5. CURRICULAR AND PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS
    6. RESEARCH USING AUDACITY AS A DIGITAL TOOL FOR ORAL ASSESSMENT
    7. BEST PRACTICES FOR USING AUDACITY IN INTEGRATED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS
    8. CONCLUSION AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  37. Chapter 30: Self-Directed Learning in Organizations and Institutes of Higher Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. APPLICATION OF SDL IN SOCIETY
    5. ANTICIPATED
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  38. Chapter 31: Aligning Educational Outcomes to Boost Employment and Workforce Employability
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. JOB-EDUCATION MATCH INITIATIVES
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. END NOTES
  39. Chapter 32: What College Students Gained Serving on Hiring Committees for Student Job Openings
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT PLAN
    4. NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION PLAN: ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT SELECTORS
    5. BACKGROUND
    6. THEORIES RELATED TO STUDENT ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES CO-CURRICULAR EXPERIENCES
    7. GOOD MOMENTUM AND VALIDATION FOR UNIVERSITY CO-CURRICULAR STUDENT EXPERIENCES
    8. RESULTS
    9. TRANSFER OF LEARNING WITH 2012 JUNE AND AUGUST GRADUATES
    10. RESULTS
    11. FUTURE TRENDS
    12. CONCLUSION
    13. REFERENCES
    14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  40. Chapter 33: Involving Employers in Training Low-Skilled Workers for Technology Jobs
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE NEED FOR A HIGHLY SKILLED TECHNOLOGY WORKFORCE
    4. LOW-SKILLED WORKERS: DEFINITIONS AND CHALLENGES
    5. SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF LOW-WAGE, LOW-SKILL WORK: EMPLOYER INVOLVEMENT
    6. EMPLOYER BENEFITS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  41. Chapter 34: Analyzing Classrooms with Video and Structured Observation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. FOUNDATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATION
    4. HOW WAS THE SIVOS CREATED?
    5. WHAT ARE THE PROCEDURES FOR USING THE SIVOS?
    6. CODING DATA IN SIVOS
    7. RESULTS OF TIMSS DATA ANALYSIS
    8. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. APPENDIX A: SOFTWARE CREDITS
  42. Chapter 35: Self-Directed Learning Facilitation among At-Risk Adult High School Learners
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IN ADULT HIGH SCHOOLS
    5. TECHNOLOGY AS A TOOL FOR THE FACILITATION OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING
    6. APPRAISING CURRENT TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS IN ADULT EDUCATION
    7. CONSIDERATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR STAKEHOLDERS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  43. Chapter 36: Second Life
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SECOND LIFE
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  44. Chapter 37: Leadership in the Third Wave
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. CASE STUDY: “WHO SANK THE YELLOW SUBMARINE”
    5. EXAMINING LEADERSHIP IN THE NEW ERA
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  45. Chapter 38: Teacher Technology Leadership
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  46. Chapter 39: Addressing Work Ethic in the New Century
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PREVALENT WORK ETHIC IN THIS CENTURY
    5. MOTIVATION THEORIES
    6. MOTIVATION AND AGE
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  47. Chapter 40: One Size Does Not Fit All
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  48. Chapter 41: Tapping Social Capital through E-Mentoring
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. E-MENTORING PROGRAMS FOR WOMEN: A REALITY CHECK
    5. CURRENT TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  49. Chapter 42: Open Source Software to Enhance the STEM Learning Environment
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. OVERVIEW
    4. VIRTUALIZATION
    5. CLOUD COMPUTING
    6. LINUX
    7. OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING
    8. OPEN SOURCE HARDWARE PLATFORMS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. Key Terms and Definitions
  50. Chapter 43: What is Your Teaching Style?
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. WHAT IS YOUR TEACHING PREFERENCE IN YOUR ORGANIZATION?
    5. LEARNING STYLES
    6. PLANNING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  51. Chapter 44: Developing a Cross-Disciplinary Framework for Collaborative Research in Multi- and Intercultural Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
    3. THEME 1: BOUNDARY TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE, SKILL AND LANGUAGE
    4. THEME 2: BOUNDARY OBJECTS AS REPRESENTATIONS AND ‘CARRIERS’ OF CULTURE
    5. THEME 3: TECHNOLOGICAL MEDIATION OF BOUNDARY ENCOUNTERS
    6. SYNTHESIS, DISCUSSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  52. Chapter 45: Adult Learning in a Digital Age
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. BARRIERS
    5. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
    6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN ORGANIZATIONS
    8. SUMMARY
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. APPENDIX
  53. Chapter 46: Soft and Hard Technologies in Technology Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. CASE STUDY: TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN HONG KONG
    5. THE INCLUSION OF SOFT TECHNOLOGIES IN TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
    6. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. ENDNOTES
  54. Chapter 47: Authentic Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING
    5. THE CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY
    6. RESULTS
    7. DISCUSSIONS
    8. LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  55. Chapter 48: Leading and Learning in the Digital Age
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PRINCIPAL GEORGINA AND HER CHALLENGE: “[DO] WE HAVE TO GO IN A DIFFERENT DIRECTION?”
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTES
  56. Chapter 49: Examining the Benefits of Integrating Social Media into the Classroom
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. INTEGRATING SOCIAL MEDIA
    5. CONCERNS
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  57. Chapter 50: Using Technologies to Integrate Vocational Learning in Multiple Contexts
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. TECHNOLOGIES AS TOOLS TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN LEARNING CONTEXTS
    5. MOBILE DEVICES FOR APPRENTICE CHEFS
    6. COLLABORATIVE WRITING ACTIVITIES FOR APPRENTICE COMMERCIAL EMPLOYEES
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. ENDNOTES
  58. Chapter 51: Library Science and Technology in a Changing World
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
    4. INFORMATION LITERACY WITHIN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
    5. LIBRARY SCIENCE IN A WORLD OF TECHNOLOGY CHANGE
    6. THE LIBRARY AS A TECHNOLOGY SOCIAL SAFETY NET
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  59. Chapter 52: Women and STEM
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. WOMEN AND THE CURRENT WORKFORCE
    4. THE GLASS CEILING AND STEM?
    5. GENDER PERCEPTIONS
    6. STUDIES: WHY WOMEN STAY IN STEM FIELDS
    7. MITIGATING THE GENDER GAP
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  60. Chapter 53: Online Well-Being Focused Curriculums
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. MAJOR ISSUES WITH TEACHING AND LEARNING ABOUT HEALTH IN K-20 ENVIRONMENTS
    4. DEFINITIONS OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL-BEING
    5. PROCESS-FOCUSED, HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE-ORIENTED CURRICULUMS
    6. INCONSISTENCY OF THE DELIVERY AND CONTENT OF HEALTH-RELATED CURRICULUMS
    7. WELL-BEING AND PROCESS-ORIENTED ONLINE HEALTH EDUCATION CURRICULUMS
    8. CHALLENGES TO THIS NEW APPROACH
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  61. Chapter 54: Students' Attitudes towards the Use of Technology in Hong Kong
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LEARNING
    6. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF TEACHER’S ROLE IN USING TECHNOLOGY FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING
    7. STUDENTS’ LEARNING BEHAVIOR WITH ICT
    8. FUTURE TRENDS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. APPENDIX 1
    13. APPENDIX 2
  62. Chapter 55: Personalised E-Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS’ PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
    5. ISSUES
    6. PROBLEMS
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  63. Chapter 56: Learning Management Systems in a Changing Environment
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  64. Chapter 57: Cyclonic Transactions as Cultural Ecological Mechanisms for Investigating Change and Facilitating Action Research in Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE CULTURAL ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK (CEF)
    4. THE CYCLONIC TRANSACTIONAL FRAMEWORK (CTF)
    5. INTEGRATING CTF AND CEF
    6. CORROBORATION THROUGH PRACTICE
    7. CONCLUSION: REFRAMING EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, PRACTICE AND POLICY
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  65. Chapter 58: Enhancing Health Education with Collaborative Narratives
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION TO A SYNERGISTIC COLLABORATION
    3. ONLY THE BEGINNING
    4. OTHER WAYS OF DECREASING STRESS LEVELS AND IMPROVING OVERALL HEALTH
    5. LESSONS IN COLLABORATIVE INTERDISCIPLINARY SYNERGY
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  66. Chapter 59: Pedagogy and the New Literacies in Higher Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. USE OF DIGITAL RESOURCES AND CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING EXPERIENCES
    4. INNOVATIVE USE OF DIGITAL RESOURCES
    5. NEW LITERACIES AND READING COMPREHENSION
    6. ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOKS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  67. Chapter 60: Factors Shaping Academics' Use of Technology in Teaching
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FRAMEWORKS AND EMERGENT FACTORS
    5. A PROPOSED THEORETICAL MODEL OF THE ACADEMICS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  68. Chapter 61: Layering Learning – Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND: EMERGENCE OF GIS IN INDUSTRY
    4. PLACE BASED DATA: A SPATIAL EXPLOSION
    5. THE STATE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION: A SYSTEM IN QUESTION
    6. LAYERING LEARNING
    7. GIS IN ACADEMICS: ENHANCING EDUCATIONAL METHODS FOR THE DIGITAL FUTURE
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. APPENDIX
  69. Chapter 62: Ethical and Practical Issues Surrounding Access to ICT Education by Elderly Persons
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  70. Chapter 63: An Examination of Educators' and Learners' Experiences with Technology from Both Sides of the Learning Landscape
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. OVERVIEW OF THE ADULT LEARNER
    4. RESEARCH DESIGN
    5. IMPLICATIONS TO ADULT LEARNING IN LIGHT OF ONGOING TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  71. Chapter 64: A Novel Strategy to Improve STEM Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PHILANDER SMITH COLLEGE AND E-SCIENCE SYSTEMS
    5. IMPROVING STEM EDUCATION: THE E-SCIENCE APPROACH
    6. FINDINGS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  72. Chapter 65: Expectations, Dispositions, and Experiences of International Graduate Students
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. INTERNATIONAL STUDENT EXPECTATIONS
    5. INTERNATIONAL STUDENT DISPOSITIONS
    6. INTERNATIONAL STUDENT EXPERIENCES
    7. METHODOLOGY
    8. FINDINGS
    9. FUTURE TRENDS
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  73. Chapter 66: Women to the Rescue in Cyber Space
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INTERNET SECURITY NEEDS
    4. THE CYBER SECURITY WORKFORCE
    5. WOMEN AS CYBER SECURITY
    6. TECHNOLOGICAL GENDER BIAS AND MYTHS
    7. WOMEN AND CYBER SECURITY: WHAT NEEDS TO HAPPEN
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  74. Chapter 67: Transdisciplinary Methodology of an Architectural and Urban Discourse in Higher Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT
    5. RE-CONCEPTUALIZATION OF DISCIPLINARY METHODOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURAL AND URBANISTIC DISCOURSE
    6. TRANSDISCIPLINARY METHODOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURAL AND URBANISTIC EDUCATION
    7. TECHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE TRANSDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION IN EDUCATION
    8. CHALLENGES OF TRANSDISCIPLINARY METHODOLOGY IN HIGHER EDUCATION
    9. FUTURE TRENDS
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  75. Chapter 68: Social Media's Potential to Facilitate Dialogic Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. SOCIAL MEDIA FACILITATE DIALOGIC LEARNING
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  76. Chapter 69: Computational Thinking and Mathematics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING
    5. COMMON SKILLS FOR COMPUTATIONAL THINKING AND MATHEMATICS
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  77. Chapter 70: E-Mentoring
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. WHEN MENTORING IS DISTANCED
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  78. Chapter 71: Needs Satisfaction of Stakeholders and Socio-Economic Factors as Indicators of Curriculum Reforms in Technical Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. NEEDS SATISFACTION OF STAKE-HOLDERS’ TOWARDS CURRICULUM REFORMS IN TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING.
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. RESEARCH DESIGN
    7. RESULTS
    8. FINDINGS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. RECOMMENDATIONS
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  79. Chapter 72: Informational Text and the Common Core
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. INFORMATIONAL TEXT
    5. DISCUSSION
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  80. Chapter 73: A Sentence Repetition Placement Test for ESL/EFL Learners in Japan
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT
    4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    5. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    6. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE
    7. DATA COLLECTION AND INSTRUMENTATION
    8. DATA ANALYSIS
    9. DISCUSSION
    10. FUTURE RESEARCH
    11. CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
    13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. APPENDIX
  81. Chapter 74: Empowering African American Adolescent Males through Engaging Literacy Tasks
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. EMPOWERING AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT MALES THROUGH ENGAGING LITERACY TASKS
    5. LITERACY PROMOTES FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  82. Chapter 75: Multiliteracies Pedagogy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. GLOBAL LITERACIES
    4. NEW LITERACY PEDAGOGY
    5. SUPPORT FOR NEW LITERACY PEDAGOGY
    6. DIGITAL GEOGRAPHIES AND THE DIGITAL CULTURE DIVIDE
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  83. Chapter 76: Cultures and Self-Directed Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    4. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING
    5. LEARNING MODES SHAPING GOOD LEARNING
    6. DISCUSSION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  84. Chapter 77: Creating a Sustainable Program for Ethics in Student Affairs
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. STUDY PART 1: ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT AFFAIRS DIVISION DIRECTORS
    5. PART 2: ETHICAL CLIMATE STUDY OF A STUDENT AFFAIRS DIVISION
    6. PART 3: ETHICS AWARENESS/TRAINING WORKSHOP
    7. THEORIES GUIDING WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENT
    8. SUMMARY
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. APPENDIX 1
    12. APPENDIX 2
  85. Chapter 78: Educational Innovations in Nigeria
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INNOVATION AND CHANGE
    4. PROCESS OF INNOVATION IN EDUCATION
    5. DIMENSIONS AND PLANNING OF INNOVATION
    6. PLANNING OF INNOVATIONS
    7. EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS IN NIGERIA AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS
    8. REASONS FOR INNOVATION FAILURE
    9. PROSPECTS OF INNOVATION ADOPTION IN NIGERIA EDUCATIONAL SECTOR
    10. PROCESS OF INNOVATION
    11. CARING FOR NEW GENERATION OF STUDENTS
    12. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
    13. CONCLUSION
    14. REFERENCES
    15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  86. Chapter 79: Theory and Application
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND: GROWTH IN ONLINE LEARNING
    4. ELEMENTS OF DESIGN IN MULTIMODAL LEARNING
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  87. Chapter 80: The Readiness, Challenges, and Expected Support for Chinese Students' Overseas Study
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. RESEARCH METHODS APPLIED FOR THIS RESEARCH
    5. RESEARCH CONDUCTION AND FINDINGS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  88. Chapter 81: East Meets West
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. RELIGION
    4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION, WOMEN, AND TECHNOLOGY
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. IMPLICATIONS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  89. Chapter 82: When Our Changing Society Meets the Social Media Era
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
    4. NEW WORLD WIDE WEB
    5. SOCIAL MEDIA SITES IN PRACTICE: CURRENT RESEARCH
    6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  90. Chapter 83: Research-Based Climate Change Public Education Programs
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  91. Chapter 84: A Study of Problems Faced by Diploma of Associate Engineering Graduates on the Job in Pakistan
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. STUDY RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES
    4. FINDINGS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  92. Chapter 85: Academics' Perceptions of Using Technology with Face-to-Face Teaching
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. METHOD AND INSTRUMENTS
    5. RESULTS
    6. DISCUSSION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  93. Chapter 86: The Boshier's Education Participation Scale Factors Reflected in History
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. BACKGROUND: CHAUTAUQUA – SIGNIFICANCE AND BRIEF HISTORY
    5. ADULT MOTIVATIONS TO LEARN: LOCATING THE 19 CHAUTAUQUAN LEARNERS TO THE BOSHIER SCALE
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  94. Chapter 87: Questioning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND CONTEXT
    4. TEACHING STUDENTS TO GENERATE QUESTIONS
    5. PRODUCTIVE QUESTIONING AND LEARNING
    6. CLASSROOM QUESTIONS AND AUTHENTIC LEARNING
    7. METHODOLOGY AND METHODS
    8. OBSERVATIONS
    9. FOCUS GROUPS
    10. GENERALISABILITY, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
    11. SELECTING DATA AND FINDINGS
    12. TYPES OF QUESTIONS USED
    13. TEACHERS’ POST-OBSERVATION INTERVIEWS
    14. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF QUESTIONING
    15. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
    16. REFERENCES
    17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  95. Chapter 88: A Comparative Analysis of Single-Sex Education in the United Kingdom and Australia
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. GENDER PERSPECTIVES IN CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY
    4. CULTURAL, RELIGIOUS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC MOTIVATIONS IN SCHOOL ORIENTATIONS
    5. PERCEIVED RETURNS ON SSE
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  96. Chapter 89: Exploring Assessment of Critical Thinking Learning Outcomes in Online Higher Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. CRITICAL THINKING
    5. CRITICAL THINKING ASSESSMENT
    6. CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING CRITICAL THINKING
    7. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  97. Chapter 90: The Empowerment of Japanese Women
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CONCLUSION
    4. REFERENCES
    5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  98. Compilation of References
  99. About the Contributors