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Handbook of Research on Solar Energy Systems and Technologies

Book Description

The last ten years have seen rapid advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, allowing unprecedented manipulation of nanoscale structures controlling solar capture, conversion, and storage. Filled with cutting-edge solar energy research and reference materials, the Handbook of Research on Solar Energy Systems and Technologies serves as a one-stop resource for the latest information regarding different topical areas within solar energy. This handbook will emphasize the application of nanotechnology innovations to solar energy technologies, explore current and future developments in third generation solar cells, and provide a detailed economic analysis of solar energy applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
    2. List of Reviewers
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1: Control and Conversion of Solar Power
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLIES
    5. BUCK CONVERTERS
    6. BOOST CONVERTERS
    7. STATE-SPACE AVERAGED MODEL FOR THE SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES
    8. STATE-SPACE AVERAGED MODEL FOR A BUCK CONVERTER
    9. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    11. DEVELOPMENT OF A SOLAR BATTERY CHARGER
    12. SOLAR PANEL
    13. RECHARGEABLE BATTERY
    14. SEPIC CONVERTER
    15. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
    16. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    17. CONCLUSION
  7. Chapter 2: Solar Energy Storage
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE
    4. OTHER TECHNIQUES FOR SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE
    5. UNDERGROUND SOLAR THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM
    6. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENT FEASIBILITY STUDIES
    7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. CONCLUSION
  8. Chapter 3: Solar Photovoltaic Servo Tracking Controlled System
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. OBJECTIVES
    3. INTRODUCTION
    4. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL OF A DC MOTOR
    5. DESIGN OF A PD CONTROLLER
    6. LAG COMPENSATOR DESIGN
    7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  9. Chapter 4: Power Electronics and Controls in Solar Photovoltaic Systems
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS
    4. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM MODEL, SOLAR CELL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
    5. PV INVERTER CONFIGURATIONS AND TOPOLOGIES
    6. MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTIACS
    7. MPPT ALGORITHMS AND METHODS USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES
    8. OTHER MPPT TECHNIQUES
    9. CONCLUSION
  10. Chapter 5: Photovoltaic Devices
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS (1 GENERATION)
    4. THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS (2 GENERATION)
    5. THIRD GENERATION SOLAR CELLS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
  11. Chapter 6: Nanotechnology for Photovoltaic Energy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SOLAR RADIATION
    4. PRINCIPAL OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
    5. NANOTECHNOLOGY BASED PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
    6. USE OF GRAPHENE IN SOLAR CELLS
    7. CONCLUSION
  12. Chapter 7: CuInGaSe Based Thin Films for Photovoltaic Solar Cells
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. GIGS BASED PV – BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES
    4. THE PHOTOVOLTAIC MANUFACTURING CONSORTIUM
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. APPENDIX A
  13. Chapter 8: Nanoparticle Scattering, Absorption, and Interface Effects for Surface Plasmon Enhanced Thin Silicon Solar Cells
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ENHANCED SCATTERING: MIE THEORY
    4. INITIAL FINDINGS
    5. ENHANCED FREE CARRIER INTERBAND TRANSITION RATES
    6. CONCLUSION
  14. Chapter 9: Nanotechnology and Polymer Solar Cells
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. MORPHOLOGY
    4. POLYMER CHAIN ORIENTATION
    5. OPTICAL PROPERTIES
    6. HYBRID SOLAR CELLS
    7. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS
    8. DRIFT-DIFFUSION MODEL
    9. MONTE-CARLO MODEL
    10. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONS
    11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    12. CONCLUSION
  15. Chapter 10: Low-Cost III-V Compound Semiconductor Solar Cells
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PERSPECTIVE
    5. THIN FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE III-V SOLAR CELLS
    6. III-V SEMICONDUCTOR FILMS ON DISSIMILAR SUBSTRATES
    7. RECRYSTALLIZATION OF GERMANIUM FILMS FOR GAAS EPITAXY
    8. III-V SOLAR CELLS ON SILICON
    9. III-V SOLAR CELLS ON RE-USABLE SUBSTRATES
    10. ASSEMBLED III-V MICRO SOLAR CELL SYSTEMS
    11. CONCLUSION
  16. Chapter 11: Materials Characterization Techniques for Solar Cell Devices
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. IMAGING
    5. COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS
    6. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS
    7. CONCLUSION
  17. Chapter 12: Mechatronics Technology for Solar Cells
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DESIGN OF A SOLAR TRACKER
    4. PROGRAMMING OF A SOLAR TRACKER
    5. PROTOTYPE AND EXPERIMENTS
    6. CONCLUSION
  18. Chapter 13: Computer Simulations of Solar Energy Systems
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. FINITE DIFFERENCE TIME DOMAIN (FDTD) METHOD
    4. NUMERICAL DISPERSION AND STABILITY
    5. ABSORBTION BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (ABCs)
    6. CONVOLUTIONAL PERFECTLY MATCHED LAYER
    7. TOTAL-FIELD / SCATTERED-FIELD FORMULATION
    8. THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS
    9. SIMULATION OF SOLAR CELL
    10. CONCLUSION
  19. Chapter 14: Image Processing for Solar Cell Analysis, Diagnostics and Quality Assurance Inspection
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MACHINE VISION FOR SOLAR CELL INSPECTION
    5. SURFACE ROUGHNESS
    6. SURFACE ASSESSMENT BY INTERFEROMIC IMAGING
    7. IMAGE PROCESSING FOR GRAIN STRUCTURE ANALYSIS
    8. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF COATING UNIFORMITY
    9. FEATURE RECOGNITION
    10. IMAGING METHODS SPECIFIC TO SEMICONDUCTORS AND THE PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT
    11. THERMOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF SOLAR CELLS
    12. CONCLUSION
  20. Chapter 15: Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Applications
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION, REVIEW OF AI TECHNIQUES
    3. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
    4. FUZZY LOGIC
    5. GENETIC ALGORITHMS
    6. HYBRID SYSTEMS
    7. METEOROLOGICAL-BASED SOAR RADIATION DATA ANALYSIS, MODELING AND FORECASTING
    8. CONVENTIONAL MODELS FOR SOLAR RADIATION
    9. TERRESTRIAL RADIATION
    10. INSULATION ON TILTED SURFACES
    11. APPLICATION OF AI TECHNIQUES FOR SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION AND MODELING
    12. ANN MODELS FOR SOLAR RADIATION ESTIMATION, PREDICTION, AND FORECASTING
    13. FUZZY LOGIC AND HYBRID APPROACHES TO MODEL AND PREDICT SOLAR RADIATION
    14. APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS AND MARKOV CHAINS FOR SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION
    15. CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR PV SYSTEM SEIZING
    16. AI TECHNIQUES FOR SEIZING PV SYSTEMS
    17. CONCLUSION
  21. Chapter 16: Methods of Forecasting Solar Radiation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INTRODUCTION TO FORECASTING
    4. SELECTION OF FORECASTING METHODS
    5. ERRORS IN FORECASTING
    6. CHRONOLOGY IN FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION
    7. OTHER METHODS OF FORECASTING
    8. TIME SERIES APPROACH OF FORECASTING
    9. THE MODELLING PROCESS
    10. THE BOX-JENKINS METHOD
    11. INTRODUCTION TO NEURAL NETWORKS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
    12. DEVELOPMENT OF NEURAL NETWORK MODEL
    13. RESULTS AND COMPARISONS
    14. CONCLUSION
  22. Chapter 17: Greenhouse Solar Thermal Application
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CLASSIFICATION OF GREENHOUSE SYSTEMS
    4. BACKGROUND
    5. GREENHOUSE FISH POND SYSTEM (GPS)
    6. GREENHOUSE DRYER
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. APPENDIX: NOMENCLATURE
  23. Chapter 18: Technology Selection for Solar Power Generation in the Middle East
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. METHODOLOGY BACKGROUND
    4. DECISION MODEL
    5. REGIONAL BACKGROUND
    6. THE TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS
    7. RESULTS
    8. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
    9. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
    10. APPENDIX
  24. Chapter 19: Solar Energy Education and Training Programs in the USA
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE EDUCATION
    4. TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
    5. SCHOOLS/K-12 SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAMS
    6. WORKSHOPS AND SEMINARS FOR GENERAL PUBLIC
    7. CONCLUSION
  25. Chapter 20: Project-Based International Collaboration in Solar Energy Education
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. COLLABORATION FRAMEWORK
    4. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PARALLEL DESIGN FORM OF INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION
    5. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SINGLE TEAM FORM OF INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION
    6. CONCLUSION
  26. Compilation of References
  27. About the Contributors