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Handbook of Process Integration (PI)

Book Description

Since its first development in the 1970s, Process Integration (PI) has become an important methodology in achieving more energy efficient processes. This pioneering handbook brings together the leading scientists and researchers currently contributing to PI development, pooling their expertise and specialist knowledge to provide readers with a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest PI research and applications.

After an introduction to the principles of PI, the book reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems. The book considers Heat Integration, Mass Integration and Extended PI as well as a series of applications and case studies. Chapters address not just operating and capital costs but also equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Handbook of Process Integration (PI) is a standard reference work for managers and researchers in all energy-intensive industries, as well as academics with an interest in them, including those designing and managing oil refineries, petrochemical and power plants, as well as paper/pulp, steel, waste, food and drink processors.

  • This pioneering handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest process integration research and applications
  • Reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems
  • Chapters also address equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Foreword
  8. Part I: Overview of Process Integration and Analysis
    1. Chapter 1: Process Integration (PI): An Introduction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 A Short History of Process Integration (PI)
      4. 1.3 Current Centres of Expertise in PI
      5. 1.4 Sources of Further Information
    2. Chapter 2: Basic Process Integration Terminology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Process Integration Terms: The Importance of Context
      4. 2.3 Fundamental Process Integration Terms
      5. 2.4 Conventions: Symbols for Heaters and Coolers
      6. 2.6 Appendix: Nomenclature
    3. Chapter 3: Process Design, Integration and Optimisation: Advantages, Challenges and Drivers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Grassroots Design versus Retrofit Design
      4. 3.3 Process Integration
      5. 3.4 Integration versus Intensification
      6. 3.5 Process Integration Techniques
      7. 3.6 Optimisation of Integrated Processes
      8. 3.7 Controllability of Integrated Processes
      9. 3.8 Process Integration under Disturbances
  9. Part II: Heat Integration
    1. Chapter 4: Heat Integration: Targets and Heat Exchanger Network Design
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Stages in the Design of Heat Recovery Systems
      4. 4.3 Data Extraction
      5. 4.4 Performance Targets
      6. 4.5 Process Modifications
      7. 4.6 Network Design
      8. 4.7 Design Evolution
      9. 4.8 Conclusion
      10. 4.9 Sources of Further Information
    2. Chapter 5: Application of Process Integration to the Synthesis of Heat and Power Utility Systems Including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and Industrial Heat Pumps
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Targeting Utility Loads and Temperature Levels
      4. 5.3 Integration of Advanced Energy Conversion Cycles as Process Utilities: Basic Concepts
      5. 5.4 Process Integration of Heat Engines
      6. 5.5 Process Integration of Heat Pumps
      7. 5.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    3. Chapter 6: Total Site Methodology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Data Extraction for Total Sites
      4. 6.3 Total Site Profiles and Total Site Composite Curves
      5. 6.4 Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (SUGCC)
      6. 6.5 Conclusion
      7. 6.6 Sources of Further Information
    4. Chapter 7: Extending Total Site Methodology to Address Varying Energy Supply and Demand
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Characteristics of Energy Supply and Demand
      4. 7.3 Thermal Energy Storage and Integrated Architecture
      5. 7.4 Terminology for Process Streams and Utilities
      6. 7.5 Identification of Time Slices
      7. 7.6 Heat Cascades for the Evaluation of Total Site Targets When There Is Variation in Supply and Demand
      8. 7.7 Case Study: Integration of Solar Thermal Energy into a Locally Integrated Energy Sector (LIES)
      9. 7.8 Conclusion
      10. 7.9 Sources of Further Information
      11. 7.11 Appendix: Nomenclature
    5. Chapter 8: Analysis and Design of Heat Recovery Systems for Grassroots and Retrofit Situations
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Analysis
      4. 8.3 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Design
      5. 8.4 Retrofit Analysis and Design
      6. 8.5 Use of Optimisation for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis
      7. 8.6 Conclusion
      8. 8.7 Sources of Further Information
    6. Chapter 9: Heat Integration in Batch Processes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Graphical Technique for Heat Integration in Batch Process
      4. 9.3 Mathematical Technique for Heat Integration of Batch Plants
      5. 9.4 Case Study of a Multipurpose Batch Facility
      6. 9.5 Industrial Case Study
      7. 9.6 Conclusion
      8. 9.7 Sources of Further Information
      9. 9.9 Appendix: Glover Transformation (Glover, 1975)
  10. Part III: Mass Integration
    1. Chapter 10: Water Pinch Analysis for Water Management and Minimisation: An Introduction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Approaches for Water Management and Minimisation
      3. 10.2 Water Integration and Water Pinch Analysis
      4. 10.3 Water Pinch Analysis Steps
      5. 10.4 Examples of Successful Case Studies
      6. 10.7 Appendix: Nomenclature
    2. Chapter 11: Using Systematic Design Methods to Minimise Water Use in Process Industries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Water Use in Process Industries
      4. 11.3 Process Integration for Water Systems
      5. 11.4 Conclusions and Future Trends
      6. 11.5 Sources of Further Information
    3. Chapter 12: Synthesis of Water Networks with Water Loss and Gain via an Extended Pinch Analysis Technique
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Targeting a Single Water-Using Process
      4. 12.3 Process-based Graphical Approach (PGA) for Synthesis of Direct Reuse Water Networks
      5. 12.4 Conclusion
      6. 12.5 Sources of Further Information and Advice
      7. 12.6 Acknowledgements
      8. 12.8 Appendix: Nomenclature
    4. Chapter 13: Conserving Material Resources through Process Integration: Material Conservation Networks
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Overall Targeting of Material Conservation Networks
      4. 13.3 Mass Exchange Networks
      5. 13.4 Water-Pinch Analysis
      6. 13.5 Direct Recycle and Material Recycle Pinch Diagram
      7. 13.6 Property-Based Material Recycle Pinch Diagram
      8. 13.8 Appendix: Nomenclature
  11. Part IV: Extended Process Integration
    1. Chapter 14: Process Integration for Cleaner Process Design
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 A Revised ‘Onion Diagram’
      4. 14.3 Different Models for Total Material Network (TMN)
      5. 14.4 Case Study: Water Minimisation in a Water Fabrication Plant
      6. 14.5 Conclusion
      7. 14.6 Sources of Further Information
      8. 14.8 Appendix: Nomenclature
    2. Chapter 15: Process Integration Concepts for Combined Energy and Water Integration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Water–Energy Specifics and Challenges
      4. 15.3 Water Path Concept
      5. 15.4 State-of-the-Art Methodology for Combined Energy and Water Integration
      6. 15.5 Sequential, Simultaneous, Mathematical Programming
      7. 15.6 Conclusion
      8. 15.7 Sources of Further Information
    3. Chapter 16: Process Integration Techniques for Cogeneration and Trigeneration Systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Combined Heat and Power
      4. 16.3 Heat Integration of Trigeneration Systems
      5. 16.4 Conclusions
      6. 16.5 Sources of Further Information
      7. 16.7 Appendix: Nomenclature
    4. Chapter 17: Pinch Analysis for Sustainable Energy Planning Using Diverse Quality Measures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Generalised Problem Statement
      4. 17.3 Graphical Targeting Procedure
      5. 17.4 Case Studies
      6. 17.5 Conclusion
      7. 17.6 Sources of Further Information
      8. 17.8 Appendix
    5. Chapter 18: A Unified Targeting Algorithm for Diverse Process Integration Problems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction to Targeting Algorithms
      3. 18.2 Unified Approach to Diverse Resource Optimisation Problems
      4. 18.3 Basis for Unification
      5. 18.4 Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA)
      6. 18.5 Heat Exchange Networks (HENs) and Mass Exchange Networks (MENs)
      7. 18.6 Water Networks: Case Study of a Specialty Chemical Plant
      8. 18.7 Hydrogen and Other Gas Networks
      9. 18.8 Property-Based Material Reuse Networks
      10. 18.9 Alternative Approaches to Targeting
      11. 18.10 Conclusion
      12. 18.11 Sources of Further Information
      13. 18.13 Appendix: Nomenclature
    6. Chapter 19: A Process Integration Approach for Supply Chain Development
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Supply Chain Characteristics and Performance Measurement
      4. 19.3 Supply Chain Development with Process Integration
      5. 19.4 Case Studies
      6. 19.5 Future Trends
      7. 19.6 Sources of Further Information
    7. Chapter 20: Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Processes for Process Integration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Indirect Heat Recovery Systems
      4. 20.3 Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Plants
      5. 20.4 A More Complex Example of a Heat Recovery Loop (HRL)
      6. 20.5 Case Study: Semi-continuous Multi-plant Dairy Factory
      7. 20.6 Conclusions and Future Trends
      8. 20.7 Sources of Further Information
  12. Part V: Applications and Case Studies
    1. Chapter 21: Applications of Energy and Water Process Integration Methodologies in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Complexes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Heat and Power Integration
      4. 21.3 Water and Wastewater Minimisation
      5. Results and Discussion
      6. Results and Discussion
      7. 21.4 Effluent Treatment and Regeneration
      8. Results and Discussion
      9. Results and Discussion
      10. 21.5 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 22: Process Integration of an Oil Refinery Hydrogen Network
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Technology Review
      4. 22.3 An Industrial Case Study
      5. 22.4 Hydrogen Management in the Wider Context of Process Integration: Future Trends
      6. 22.5 Conclusion
      7. 22.6 Sources of Further Information
    3. Chapter 23: Retrofit Mass Integration of Acid Gas Removal Systems in Petrochemical Plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Review of Previous Work on Mass Exchanger Network Synthesis (MENS) and Retrofit of Existing Systems
      4. 23.3 Systems Studied: Venturi Scrubber System and Ethanolamine Absorber System
      5. 23.4 Pinch Approach
      6. 23.5 Hybrid Approach
      7. 23.6 Solution Equilibria
      8. 23.7 Results and Discussion
      9. 23.8 Conclusions and Sources of Further Information
    4. Chapter 24: Applications of Pinch Technology to Total Sites: A Heavy Chemical Industrial Complex and a Steel Plant
      1. Abstract:
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Case Study of a Heavy Chemical Complex
      4. 24.3 Case Study of a Steel Plant
      5. 24.4 Conclusion
      6. 24.5 Sources of Further Information
      7. 24.6 Acknowledgements
    5. Chapter 25: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in the Pulp and Paper Industry
      1. Abstract:
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Energy Demands and Sources in the Kraft Pulping Process
      4. 25.3 Relations between the Heat Exchanger and Water Networks
      5. 25.4 Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Mills
      6. 25.5 Methodological Developments for Heat Integration in Existing Mills
      7. 25.6 Evolution of Pulp and Paper Mills
      8. 25.7 Conclusion
      9. 25.8 Sources of Further Information
    6. Chapter 26: Application of Process Integration Methodologies to the Thermal Processing of Waste
      1. Abstract:
      2. 26.1 Introduction
      3. 26.2 Types of Waste Thermal Processing Plants
      4. 26.3 Analysis of Energy Efficiency in the TERMIZO Plant
      5. 26.4 Application of Heat Integration Technology
      6. 26.5 Conclusion
      7. 26.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    7. Chapter 27: Application of Process Integration Methodologies in the Brewing Industry
      1. Abstract:
      2. 27.1 Introduction
      3. 27.2 Process Flowsheet Analysis
      4. 27.3 Calculating Maximum Heat Recovery in the System
      5. 27.4 Defining the Energy Conversion System
      6. 27.5 Conclusion
      7. 27.6 Sources of Further Information
      8. 27.8 Appendix A: Complementary Tables
      9. 27.9 Appendix B: Nomenclature
    8. Chapter 28: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Dairy and Cheese Production
      1. Abstract:
      2. 28.1 Introduction
      3. 28.2 Application of Process Integration Methodologies
      4. 28.3 Selected Case Studies
      5. 28.4 Future Trends
      6. 28.5 Sources of Further Information
    9. Chapter 29: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Beet Sugar Plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 29.1 Introduction
      3. 29.2 Sugar Production from Sugar Beet
      4. 29.3 Identification of Opportunities to Improve Energy and Water Use in Sugar Plants
      5. 29.4 Reduction of Energy Consumption
      6. 29.5 Reduction of Water Consumption
      7. 29.6 Energy and Water Use in Sugar Production Directly from Raw Beet Juice
      8. 29.7 Future Trends
      9. 29.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    10. Chapter 30: Application of Process Integration Techniques for the Efficient Use of Energy in a Urea Fertiliser Plant: A Case Study
      1. Abstract:
      2. 30.1 Introduction
      3. 30.2 Process Description
      4. 30.3 Opportunities for the Reduction of Energy Consumption
      5. 30.4 Conclusion
      6. 30.5 Sources of Further Information
      7. 30.7 Appendix: Nomenclature
    11. Chapter 31: Process Integration for Energy Saving in Buildings and Building Complexes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 31.1 Introduction
      3. 31.2 Buildings as Consumers and Producers of Energy
      4. 31.3 Commercial and Public Buildings and Building Complexes
      5. 31.4 District Energy (DE) Systems and Total Site Analysis (TSA)
      6. 31.5 The Use of Industrial Waste Heat
      7. 31.6 Renewable Energy for Buildings
      8. 31.7 Conclusion
      9. 31.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    12. Chapter 32: Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Networks
      1. Abstract:
      2. 32.1 Introduction to Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
      3. 32.2 Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques
      4. 32.3 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit
      5. 32.4 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit with Fouling Consideration
      6. 32.5 Sources of Further Information
      7. 32.6 Nomenclature
    13. Chapter 33: Applications of Pinch Analysis in the Design of Isolated Energy Systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 33.1 Introduction
      3. 33.2 Isolated Energy Systems: Descriptions and Models
      4. 33.3 Grand Composite Curve and Storage Sizing
      5. 33.4 Design Space
      6. 33.5 Illustrative Applications
      7. 33.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  13. Part VI: Software Tools and Epilogue
    1. Chapter 34: Software Tools for Heat Integration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 34.1 Heat Integration Software Tools
      3. 34.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    2. Chapter 35: Mass and Water Integration Software Tools
      1. Abstract:
      2. 35.1 Mass and Water Integration Software Tools
      3. 35.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    3. Chapter 36: Epilogue: The Importance of Problem Formulation and Data Extraction in Process Integration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 36.1 Introduction: Process Integration – from its Roots to its Present Strong Position
      3. 36.2 Successful Applications of Process Integration
      4. 36.3 Methods of Obtaining Credible High Integration HI Solutions
      5. 36.4 Data Extraction
      6. 36.5 Integration of Renewables – Fluctuating Demand and Supply
      7. 36.6 Results Interpretation
      8. 36.7 Conclusion: Making It Happen
      9. 36.8 Sources of Further Information
      10. 36.9 Acknowledgements
  14. Index