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Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and (Opto)Electronic Devices

Book Description

Small molecules and conjugated polymers, the two main types of organic materials used for optoelectronic and photonic devices, can be used in a number of applications including organic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, photorefractive devices and waveguides. Organic materials are attractive due to their low cost, the possibility of their deposition from solution onto large-area substrates, and the ability to tailor their properties. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices provides an overview of the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials, and explains how these materials can be used across a range of applications.

Parts one and two explore the materials used for organic optoelectronics and nonlinear optics, their properties, and methods of their characterization illustrated by physical studies. Part three moves on to discuss the applications of optoelectronic and nonlinear optical organic materials in devices and includes chapters on organic solar cells, electronic memory devices, and electronic chemical sensors, electro-optic devices.

The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices is a technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists involved in research and development of organic semiconductor and nonlinear optical materials and devices.

  • Comprehensively examines the properties of organic optoelectric and nonlinear optical materials
  • Discusses their applications in different devices including solar cells, LED's and eletronic memory devices
  • An essential technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1: Small molecular weight materials for (opto)electronic applications: overview
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Historical development in organic (opto)electronics: devices and materials
    4. 1.3 Photo and electroactive organic materials: organic π-electron systems
    5. 1.4 Organic (opto)electronic devices: principles and operation processes
    6. 1.5 Molecular materials for organic (opto)electronic devices
    7. 1.6 Structures and performance of organic (opto)electronic devices
    8. 1.7 Conclusion and future trends
  9. Chapter 2: Influence of film morphology on optical and electronic properties of organic materials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Discontinuous processing
    4. 2.3 Continuous processing
    5. 2.4 Conclusion
  10. Chapter 3: Doping effects on charge transport in organic materials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Basics of doping of organic semiconductors
    4. 3.3 Doped organic p-i-n devices
    5. 3.4 Conclusion and future trends
    6. 3.5 Acknowledgements
    7. 3.7 Appendix: compound abbreviations, full names and CAS numbers
  11. Chapter 4: Third-order nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated polymers with thiophene units and molecular assembly of the polymers
    1. Abstract:
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Third-order nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated polymers with thiophene units and related compounds
    4. 4.3 Packing and molecular assembly of π-conjugated polymers
    5. 4.4 Conclusions and future trends
    6. 4.5 Acknowledgments
  12. Chapter 5: Small molecule supramolecular assemblies for thirdorder nonlinear optics
    1. Abstract
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Fundamental principles of the third-order nonlinear optical response
    4. 5.3 Macroscopic susceptibilities and microscopic polarizabilities
    5. 5.4 From molecules to bulk solid-state materials
    6. 5.5 Small molecules with large third-order nonlinearities
    7. 5.6 Small molecule supramolecular assemblies with high optical quality and large third-order susceptibility
    8. 5.7 Conclusion
  13. Chapter 6: Molecular crystals and crystalline thin films for photonics
    1. Abstract
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic crystals
    4. 6.3 THz-wave generation and detection with organic crystals
    5. 6.4 Integrated electro-optic (EO) applications
    6. 6.5 Conclusions and future trends
  14. Chapter 7: Charge generation and transport in organic materials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Theoretical and computational framework
    4. 7.3 Single-molecule magnitudes
    5. 7.4 Supramolecular organization of the samples
    6. 7.5 Predicting relative and absolute values of mobilities
    7. 7.6 From p-type to n-type semiconductors
    8. 7.7 Conclusion
    9. 7.8 Acknowledgements
  15. Chapter 8: Optical, photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of organic materials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Electronic states of single molecule and molecular solid state
    4. 8.3 Absorption and emission spectroscopy
    5. 8.4 Excitonic processes
    6. 8.5 Electroluminescence in organic materials
    7. 8.6 Conclusion and future trends
  16. Chapter 9: Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials
    1. Abstract
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Nonlinear optics (NLO) at the molecular level
    4. 9.3 From microscopic (molecules) to macroscopic (materials)
    5. 9.4 Quantum mechanical expressions for the molecular (hyper)polarizabilities
    6. 9.5 Conclusion and future trends
  17. Chapter 10: Ultrafast intrachain exciton dynamics in π-conjugated polymers
    1. Abstract:
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 Ultrafast dynamics in π-conjugated polymers
    4. 10.3 Conclusion
  18. Chapter 11: Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organic (opto)electronic materials
    1. Abstract
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Infrared-active vibrational (IRAV) modes
    4. 11.3 Transient photocurrent (TPC) spectroscopy
    5. 11.4 Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS)
    6. 11.5 Time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC)
    7. 11.6 Experimental evidence of charge localization
    8. 11.7 Conclusion
  19. Chapter 12: Short-pulse induced photocurrent and photoluminescence in organic materials
    1. Abstract
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 Photocurrent response after short pulse excitation
    4. 12.3 Exciton dynamics and photoluminescence in organic molecular crystals
    5. 12.4 Exciton dynamics and delayed photocurrent
    6. 12.5 Conclusion
  20. Chapter 13: Conductivity measurements of organic materials using field-effect transistors (FETs) and space-charge-limited current (SCLC) technique
    1. Abstract:
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Field-effect transistor (FET) measurements
    4. 13.3 Space-charge-limited current (SCLC) measurements
    5. 13.4 Future trends
  21. Chapter 14: Charge transport features in disordered organic materials measured by time-of-fl ight (TOF), xerographic discharge (XTOF) and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) techniques
    1. Abstract:
    2. 14.1 Introduction
    3. 14.2 Measurement techniques
    4. 14.3 Experimental results of charge carrier mobility determination
    5. 14.4 Charge transport models in disordered organic semiconductors
    6. 14.5 Conclusion
  22. Chapter 15: Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) characterization of metal–organic interactions
    1. Abstract
    2. 15.1 Introduction
    3. 15.2 Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) background
    4. 15.3 Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications
    5. 15.4 Active and passive control of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals
    6. 15.5 Conclusion
  23. Chapter 16: Second harmonic generation (SHG) as a characterization technique and phenomological probe for organic materials
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Second harmonic generation (SHG) in bulk media
    3. 16.3 Electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG)
    4. 16.4 Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS)
    5. 16.5 Second harmonic generation (SHG) probing structure and dynamics
    6. 16.6 Conclusion
    7. 16.7 Acknowledgments
  24. Chapter 17: Organic solar cells (OSCs)
    1. Abstract
    2. 17.1 Introduction
    3. 17.2 Organic solar cells (OSCs)
    4. 17.3 Working principle and device structures
    5. 17.4 Materials
    6. 17.5 Roll-to-roll (R2R) processing of organic solar cells (OSCs)
    7. 17.6 Demonstration projects and conclusion
    8. 17.7 Acknowledgments
  25. Chapter 18: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    1. Abstract
    2. 18.1 Introduction
    3. 18.2 Basics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    4. 18.3 Pin organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    5. 18.4 Highly efficient monochrome organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    6. 18.5 Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    7. 18.6 Degradation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    8. 18.7 Future trends
  26. Chapter 19: Organic spintronics
    1. Abstract
    2. 19.1 Introduction
    3. 19.2 Magneto-conductance (MC) and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    4. 19.3 Organic spin-valves (OSVs)
    5. 19.4 Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in poly (dioctyloxy) phenyl vinylene (DOO-PPV) isotopes
    6. 19.5 Conclusion
    7. 19.6 Acknowledgments
  27. Chapter 20: Organic semiconductors (OSCs) for electronic chemical sensors
    1. Abstract
    2. 20.1 Introduction to organic semiconductors (OSCs)
    3. 20.2 Sensitive organic semiconductor (OSC) devices
    4. 20.3 Sensitive carbon nanotube and graphene devices
    5. 20.4 Conclusion
    6. 20.5 Acknowledgments
  28. Chapter 21: Organic bioelectronics
    1. Abstract:
    2. 21.1 Introduction to organic bioelectronics
    3. 21.2 Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs)
    4. 21.3 Enzymatic sensing with organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs)
    5. 21.4 Cell-based organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs)
    6. 21.5 Conclusions and future trends
  29. Chapter 22: Organic electronic memory devices
    1. Abstract
    2. 22.1 Introduction
    3. 22.2 Memory types
    4. 22.3 Resistive memory
    5. 22.4 Organic flash memory
    6. 22.5 Ferroelectric random access memory (RAM)
    7. 22.6 Molecular memories
    8. 22.7 Future trends
    9. 22.8 Sources of further information
    10. 22.9 Acknowledgement
  30. Chapter 23: Unconventional molecular scale logic devices
    1. Abstract:
    2. 23.1 Introduction
    3. 23.2 Properties of nanoparticles and their applications in molecular scale logic devices
    4. 23.3 Photoelectrochemical photocurrent switching (PEPS) effect
    5. 23.4 Logic devices based on photoelectrochemical photocurrent switching (PEPS) effect
    6. 23.5 Conclusions and future trends
    7. 23.6 Acknowledgments
  31. Chapter 24: Photorefractive (PR) polymers and their recent applications
    1. Abstract:
    2. 24.1 Introduction
    3. 24.2 Fundamentals of photorefractivity
    4. 24.3 Functions of photorefractive (PR) components
    5. 24.4 Photorefractive (PR) characterization techniques
    6. 24.5 Photorefractive (PR) polymer composites for applications
    7. 24.6 Conclusion and future trends
  32. Chapter 25: Organic waveguides, ultra-low loss demultiplexers and electro-optic (EO) polymer devices
    1. Abstract:
    2. 25.1 Introduction and motivation for using polymer (opto)electronic components
    3. 25.2 General polymer science
    4. 25.3 Polymer processing
    5. 25.4 Ultra-low loss polymer waveguide devices: materials science
    6. 25.5 Ultra-low loss polymer waveguide fabrication and process-induced losses
    7. 25.6 Perfluoropolymer-based true time delay (TTD) modules
    8. 25.7 Wide band channelizer with high-resolution arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)
    9. 25.8 Electro-optical polymer-based waveguide devices: materials science
    10. 25.9 Molecular theory of electro-optic (EO) polymers
    11. 25.10 Electric-field assisted poling in polymer films
    12. 25.11 Device and system level analysis for electro-optical polymer waveguides
    13. 25.12 Electro-optic (EO) polymer spatial light modulators: theory
    14. 25.13 Spacial light modulator device design and fabrication
    15. 25.14 Spacial light modulator device characterization
    16. 25.15 Future design considerations for spatial light modulators
    17. 25.16 Conclusion
  33. Index