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Handbook of Ontologies for Business Interaction

Book Description

"Ontologies form an indispensable basis for modeling and engineering languages for business enterprise and information systems: fostering a need for the integration of structural and behavioral aspects in domain-oriented ontologies.

The Handbook of Ontologies for Business Interaction documents high-quality research addressing ontological issues that are relevant to the modeling of enterprises and information systems in general and business processes in particular covering both static and dynamic aspects of structural concepts. This authoritative handbook provides crucial reference content to researchers, practitioners, and scholars in the fields of language design, information systems, enterprise modeling, domain engineering, artificial intelligence, and the Semantic Web."

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
  3. Preface
    1. MOTIVATION
    2. ONTOLOGY LEVELS
      1. Domain-Level Ontologies
      2. Application-Level Ontologies
    3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK
      1. Ontological Foundations
      2. General Domain Ontologies for Business Interaction
      3. Specialized Domain Ontologies for Business Interaction
      4. Building Business Interaction Ontologies
      5. Applying Ontologies in a Business Context
      6. Ontology Management
    4. REFERENCES
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. I. Ontological Foundations
    1. I. Overview of Semantic Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCING THE VISION
      3. HARNESSING SEMANTICS
      4. KEY STRATEGIES OF SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Data
        2. Metadata
        3. Ontologies
        4. Semantic Interoperability
        5. Semantic Brokers and Services
        6. Intelligent Agents
      5. APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS
        1. Information Integration and Interoperability
        2. Intelligent Search
        3. Semantic Web Services
        4. Model-Driven Applications
        5. Adaptive and Autonomic Computing
        6. Intelligent Reasoning
      6. CASE STUDY: U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
        1. Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models
        2. Formalizing the FEA Reference Models Using Ontologies
      7. EXPLORING ONTOLOGIES
        1. Expressing Knowledge
        2. Components
          1. Ontology Language
          2. Ontology Model Structure
          3. Ontology Content
        3. Features of Ontologies
          1. Virtual Structures
          2. Ability to Import, Merge, and Align at Run-time
        4. Connection to Formal Logics
        5. Inferencing with Reasoning Engines
        6. Rules
        7. Tools
        8. Annotation
        9. Ontologies vs. Other Data Structures and Models
          1. Ontologies vs. Data Models
          2. Ontologies vs. Unified Modeling Language (UML)
          3. Ontologies vs. Databases
          4. Ontologies vs. Taxonomies
          5. Ontologies vs. Expert Systems
      8. THE SEMANTIC WEB
        1. Semantic Technologies and the Semantic Web
        2. Idea
        3. Relationship to the World Wide Web
        4. Semantic Web Components
      9. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
        1. Large-Scale Semantic Markup of Existing Data
        2. Large Scale Data Manipulation and Querying
        3. Ontology Building by NonExperts
        4. Standards and Methods for Resolving Meaning
        5. Dealing with Incomplete, Uncertain, and Probabilistic Data
        6. Proof, Trust, and Security
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    2. II. Aristotelian Ontologies and OWL Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPROACHES TO DOMAIN ONTOLOGIES
      4. ARISTOTELIAN ONTOLOGIES
      5. ARISTOTELIAN ONTOLOGIES FROM A LOGICAL POINT OF VIEW
      6. APPROACHES TO SIMULATING ARISTOTELIAN ONTOLOGIES IN OWL
        1. Representing Specific Differences as Individuals
        2. Representing Specific Differences as Datatype Properties
        3. Representing Specific Differences as Object Property Classes
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    3. III. Referent Tracking for Corporate Memories
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Corporate Memories
        2. Enterprise Ontologies
      4. WHY ARE SUCH SYSTEMS NOT IN USE?
      5. ONTOLOGIES AND FAITHFULNESS TO REALITY
        1. Basic Formal Ontology
        2. Granular Partition Theory
      6. THE REFERENT TRACKING PARADIGM
        1. Services of a Referent Tracking System
        2. Applying BFO and Referent Tracking to Corporate Memories
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  6. II. General Domain Ontologies for Business Interaction
    1. IV. Ontology Design for Interaction in a Reasonable Enterprise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A SMALL-SCALE ROADMAP OF ENTERPRISE MODELING
      4. A SELECTION OF PATTERNS
        1. The Basic Description and Situation Pattern
        2. The Plans Pattern
      5. AN EXAMPLE IN BUSINESS MODELING
        1. The Scenario
        2. The Workflow Ontology
        3. The Contract Ontology
        4. A Unified Model
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. V. Grounding Business Interaction Models: Socio-Instrumental Pragmatism as a Theoretical Foundation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUSINESS ACTION THEORY
        1. Overview of the BAT Model
        2. Essential Concepts
        3. BAT in Relation to Other Business Interaction Frameworks
      4. SOCIO-INSTRUMENTAL PRAGMATISM
        1. Social Action
        2. Social Interaction and Relations
        3. Realms of the World
      5. GROUNDING BUSINESS INTERACTION ACCORDING TO BAT IN SOCIO-INSTRUMENTAL PRAGMATISM
        1. Contractual Phase
        2. Fulfilment Phase
        3. Assessment Phase
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. VI. Towards a Meta-Model for Socio-Instrumental Pragmatism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOWARDS A META-MODEL SOCIO-INSTRUMENTAL PRAGMATISM
      4. META-MODEL
        1. Actors
        2. Objects
        3. Actions
        4. Agents
        5. Organizational Actions
      5. OTHER ONTOLOGIES
        1. Social Roles
        2. Intentional Collectives
        3. Actor Network Theory
      6. EVALUATING A BUSINESS MODELING LANGUAGE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. VII. Towards Organizational Self-Awareness: An Initial Architecture and Ontology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
        1. Organizations as Resultant of the Agency-Structure Duality
        2. Refining Organizational Agency: A Complex, Adaptive Framework
        3. Human Activity and Consciousness
        4. Organizational Consciousness and Self-Awareness
        5. Summary
      4. RELATED WORK
        1. Enterprise Architectures: The CEO Framework
        2. Enterprise Ontologies
        3. Limitations of Current Enterprise Representations in Supporting OSA
        4. Agent Cognitive Architectures
      5. THE PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
        1. Fundamental Concepts of the Ontology
        2. Basic Architecture and Ontology
        3. Applying the Basic Architecture at Several Levels of Detail
      6. EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS
        1. Modeling Human Multitasking at Work
        2. Adding a Human Perspective to EA
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
    5. VIII. An Agent-Oriented Enterprise Model for Early Requirements Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AGENT-ORIENTATION IN ENTERPRISE MODELS FOR MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL IS
      4. RELATED WORK
        1. Activity-Oriented Models
        2. Ontology-Driven Approaches to Enterprise Modeling
        3. Goal-Driven Modeling
        4. Role-Driven Modeling
        5. Agent-Driven Modeling
      5. OVERVIEW OF THE ENTERPRISE MODEL
        1. The Management Perspective
        2. The Information-System Perspective
        3. Kinds of Primitives
      6. ORGANIZATIONAL SUBMODEL
        1. Actor
        2. Organizational Role
        3. Capability
        4. Group and Group Structure
        5. Agentified and Nonagentified Groups
        6. Group Structure
        7. Organization and Organization Structure
        8. Dependum and Dependency
      7. GOALS SUBMODEL
        1. Goal
        2. Operational Goal vs. Softgoal
        3. Organizational Goal vs. Personal Goal
        4. Temporal Behavior of Goals
        5. Goal Refinement Alternative
      8. CONFLICT SUBMODEL
        1. Conflict
        2. Boundary Condition
      9. PROCESS SUBMODEL
        1. Action
        2. Plan
      10. OBJECT SUBMODEL
        1. Resource
        2. Authorization
        3. Belief
        4. Organizational Rule
        5. Event
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTE
  7. III. Specialized Domain Ontologies
    1. IX. Toward an Ontology of ICT Management: Integration of Organizational Theories and ICT Core Constructs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING FOUR CORE CONSTRUCTS OF ICT MANAGEMENT
        1. ICT Projects
        2. ICT Assets
        3. ICT Policies
        4. ICT Evaluation
        5. The ICTM Ontological Framework
      4. ICTM AND ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES
        1. The Stakeholder Theory
          1. Stakeholder Theory and ICT Management
        2. The Theory of Fit
          1. Theory of Fit and ICT Management
        3. The Theory of Behavioral Integration
          1. The Theory of Behavioral Integration and ICT Management
        4. The Agency Theory
          1. The Agency Theory and ICT Management
        5. The Transaction Cost Theory
          1. The Transaction Cost Theory and ICT Management
        6. Theory of Images of Organization
          1. Theory of Images of Organization and ICT Management
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. REFERENCES
    2. X. KnowledgeEco: An Ontology of Organizational Memory
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KNOWLEDGEECO: ONTOLOGY FOR THE DOMAIN OF OM
        1. KnowledgeEco in Detail
        2. Structural Memory and Type
        3. Component
        4. The Dynamic Aspect: SM Lifecycle
      4. DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
        1. Managing Ontological Constructs
        2. Evaluation of Conceptual Coverage
      5. RELEVANCE TO PRACTICE
      6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. XI. An Ontology for Secure Socio-Technical Systems1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. A RUNNING EXAMPLE
      5. SI*: A LANGUAGE FOR SRE
        1. Actors and Their Specializations
        2. Goals, Tasks, and Resources
        3. Objectives, Entitlements, and Capabilities
        4. Trust and Delegation
      6. A FORMAL ONTOLOGY
        1. Predicates
        2. Extensional Predicates
        3. Intentional Predicates
        4. Axioms
        5. Trust
        6. Fulfillment, Confidence, and Need-to-Know
      7. ANALYSIS AND VERIFICATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
  8. IV. Building Business Interaction Ontologies
    1. XII. Linking Ontological Conceptions and Mapping Business Life Worlds
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CAPTURING KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS
        1. Research Area
        2. Ordering and Describing Knowledge Using Ontologies
        3. Eliciting Knowledge
        4. Information Collection Overview
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Case Study
        2. The Corporate Process Model
        3. SSM and Cognitive Mapping
        4. The Ontology as Knowledge Map
      5. THE KNOWLEDGE PORTAL
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. XIII. Modeling Semantic Business Process Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODELING BUSINESS PROCESS MODELS WITH PETRI NETS
      4. ONTOLOGIES AND THE WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE
      5. REALIZATION OF SEMANTIC BUSINESS PROCESS MODELS
        1. Methodology
          1. Defining Concepts and Properties
          2. Classification of Concepts and Properties
          3. Modeling of Instances
      6. APPLICATION SCENARIO
      7. IMPLEMENTATION
      8. RELATED WORK
      9. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      10. REFERENCES
  9. V. Applying Ontologies in a Business Context
    1. XIV. Ontologies for Model-Driven Business Transformation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODEL-DRIVEN BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION
      4. SEMANTIC MODELS FOR BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION
      5. SEMANTIC ANALYSES FOR BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION
        1. Dependency Analysis
        2. Heat Map Analysis
        3. Shortfall Assessment
        4. Solution Proposal
      6. SNOBASE ONTOLOGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
        1. Java Ontology Base Connector
        2. SnoBase Driver
        3. Ontology Directory
        4. Inference Engine
        5. Query Language
        6. Query Optimizer
        7. Ontology Source Connectors
      7. JAVA ONTOLOGY BASE CONNECTOR
      8. MODEL-DRIVEN APPROACH TO SEMANTIC TOOLKIT
      9. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      10. REFERENCES
    2. XV. Ontology as Information System Support for Supply Chain Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INFORMATION TO SUPPORT SYSTEM PROCESSES
      4. A STRUCTURE OF INFORMATION SYSTEM SUPPORT FOR SUPPLY CHAIN
      5. SUPPLY CHAIN CHALLENGES AND ONTOLOGY
      6. TECHNICAL APPROACH
        1. System Taxonomy
        2. Problem Taxonomy
        3. Ontology
        4. Ontology-Driven Information System (ODIS)
      7. INFORMATION SUPPORT REFERENCE MODEL
      8. SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION SYSTEM SUPPORT: A VISION
        1. Interface-Semantic Web: An Environment For Supply Chain Collaboration
        2. Management-Software Agents: Supply Chain Collaborators
        3. Gathering-Databases with Ontological Links
        4. Ontology-Ontology Server: A Knowledge Repository
      9. CASE STUDY: SCHEDULING PROBLEM
        1. Ontology Development for Steel Shipment and Processing Supply Chain
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    3. A. APPENDIX A
        1. Notations Related to System Taxonomy
        2. Notations Related to General Problem Representation
        3. Notations Related to Specific Problem Representation
        4. Notations Common for Specific and General Problem Representations
        5. Notations for Ontology
        6. System Taxonomy Reference Model
        7. Problem Domain Reference Model
        8. Ontology Reference Model
      1. ENDNOTES
    4. XVI. Matching Dynamic Demands of Mobile Users with Dynamic Service Offers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICATION SCENARIOS
        1. Tourism
        2. Emergency Response Support
      5. APPLICATION ONTOLOGY
        1. Ontology Structure
        2. Upper Ontologies
          1. Location Ontology
          2. Time Ontology
          3. Content Ontology
        3. Domain and Task Ontologies
          1. Service Ontology
          2. Situation Ontology
        4. Ontology Usage
          1. Situation Detection
          2. Service Matching
          3. Service Roaming
        5. Implementation Aspects
      6. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
        1. Use of Profiles
        2. Gross Architecture
        3. Main Components
          1. ModelAccess
          2. Service Subsystem
          3. Context Subsystem
          4. User Subsystem
          5. Evaluation Subsystem
        4. Instantiation for Application Scenarios
      7. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSIONS
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      11. REFERENCES
    5. XVII. Knowledge Management Support for Enterprise Distributed Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORIES
      4. SEEDING ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORIES USING ONTOLOGY NETWORK ANALYSIS
      5. ONTOLOGY NETWORK ANALYSIS ALGORITHM
      6. USING ONTOLOGY NETWORK ANALYSIS IN ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORIES
      7. LIMITATIONS
      8. A CASE STUDY: ONTOCOPI
      9. THE ACTOR, DATA, AND PROCESS-ORIENTED (ADP) APPROACH
      10. A ROLE-AWARE SUPPORT FOR OM
      11. A RICH PROCESS SUPPORT FOR OM
      12. THE WORKFLOW ENGINE
      13. USING PROCESS MODEL FOR ADP-BASED KM ANALYSIS
      14. ACTOR-RELATED QUERIES
      15. SOCIAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      16. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      17. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      18. REFERENCES
      19. ENDNOTE
    6. XVIII. Modeling Strategic Partnerships Using the E3value Ontology: A Field Study in the Banking Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE E3 VALUE ONTOLOGY
      4. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS
      5. BRINGING PARTNERING-SPECIFIC MODELING CONSTRUCTS INTO E3VALUE
        1. Representing Equity Investments
        2. Representing Joint Ventures
      6. CASE STUDY: EVALUATING THE PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN BANK X AND BANK Y
        1. Context
        2. Constructing an E3value Model for the Partnership Between Bank X and Bank Y
        3. Feedback by Bank X on the E3value Model
        4. Modified E3value Model of the Partnership Between Bank X and Bank Y
        5. The Financial Analysis of the Value Model of the XY Partnership
      7. FINAL OBSERVATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    7. XIX. Towards Adaptive Business Networks: Business Partner Management with Ontologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Scenario of Dynamic Business Ecosystems
        2. Communication and Ontology
        3. KAON Infrastructure
      4. RESULTS/RESEARCH
        1. Measurement
        2. Ontology Structure of the Business Partner Profiles
        3. Example
        4. Discovery and Matchmaking
        5. Implementation
      5. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
  10. VI. Ontology Management
    1. XX. POVOO: Process Oriented Views on Ontologies Supporting Business Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. VIEWS ON ONTOLOGIES
        1. 3-Level Architecture of Ontologies
        2. Specialized Domain Ontologies
        3. Creating Ontology Views in POVOO
      5. INTEGRATING PROCESS MODELS AND ONTOLOGIES
        1. POVOO Querying Mechanisms
        2. Connecting Ontologies with Process Modeling Techniques
      6. BUSINESS INTERACTION: THE NEW OLD CHALLENGE
      7. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
      8. REFERENCES
    2. XXI. Ontology-Based Partner Selection in Business Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
        1. Related Work in Ontology Matching
        2. Related Work in Ontology Application in E-service
        3. Related Work in Quality of Service
      4. EXAMPLE SCENARIO AND OUR SOLUTION
        1. A Running Example
      5. SOLUTION OVERVIEW
      6. A SCHEMA-BASED ONTOLOGY-MERGING ALGORITHM
        1. Top-Level Procedure
        2. Relocate Function
        3. Extensions to Puzzle
      7. COMPATIBILITY VECTOR SYSTEM
        1. Center Ontology and Concept Distance
          1. 1. Formation of a Center
          2. 2. Concept Distance Calculation
        2. Compatibility Vectors
        3. Dynamically Adjusting Vectors
        4. Pseudocode for New Vector Generation
        5. Utilities of Compatibility Vectors
          1. 1. Ontology Understanding Within the EBC
          2. 2. Partner Selection from Outside the EBC
        6. Features of Compatibility Vectors
          1. 1. Correctness of Compatibility Vectors: A Precise Approach
          2. 2. Complexity of Compatibility Vectors: An Efficient Approach
        7. Comparison to Other Vector-Based Approaches
      8. EXPERIMENT RESULTS
        1. Test Ontologies
        2. Experiments on Merging Algorithm
        3. Experiments on Compatibility Vectors
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    3. XXII. A Language and Algorithm for Automatic Merging of Ontologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. The Problem to Solve2
        2. Ontology
        3. Ontology Merging
        4. Increased Yield Through Better processing the Web Resources
        5. Issues, Problems, and Trends
        6. Knowledge Support for OM
      3. OM NOTATION
        1. Contributions of OM Notation
      4. OM ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATIC MERGING OF ONTOLOGIES
        1. The Comparison Function COM
        2. Confusion
        3. Contributions of the OM (ontology Merging) Algorithm:
        4. Commercial Areas Ready to Exploit OM
      5. USING OM: EXAMPLES
        1. Example 1: Ontology Merging in Spite of the Generality or Specificity of Contents
        2. Example 2: Merging Ontologies with Mutually Inconsistent Knowledge
        3. Example 3: Joining Partitions, Synonym Identification
        4. Example 4: Numbers in Figure 10 Match Those Below
        5. Example 5: Homonyms
        6. Example 6: Promotion of Subsets to Partitions
        7. Example 7: Unsuccessful Promotion of Subset to Partition
      6. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES FOR REAL-WORLD CASES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. VERIFICATION OF RESULTS
      10. REAL WORLD EXAMPLES AND CHALLENGES
      11. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORK
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ENDNOTES
    4. B. APPENDIX
  11. About the Contributors