You are previewing Handbook of Human Performance Technology: Principles, Practices, and Potential, Third Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Handbook of Human Performance Technology: Principles, Practices, and Potential, Third Edition

Book Description

The first two editions of the Handbook of Human Performance Technology helped define the rapidly growing and vibrant field of human performance technology - a systematic approach to improving individual and organizational performance. Exhaustively researched, this comprehensive sourcebook not only updates key foundational chapters on organizational change, evaluation, instructional design, and motivation, but it also features breakthrough chapters on "performance technology in action" and addresses many new topics in the field, such as certification, Six Sigma, and communities of practice.

Boasting fifty-five new chapters, contributors to this new edition comprise a veritable "who's who" in the field of performance improvement, including Geary Rummler, Roger Kaufman, Ruth Clark, Allison Rossett, Margo Murray, Judith Hale, Dana and James Robinson, and many others.

Praise for the third edition of theHandbook of Human Performance Technology

"If you are in the business of trying to improve organizational performance, this Handbook should be the first place you look for answers to questions about human performance technology."

- Joseph J. Durzo, CPT, Ph.D., senior vice president and chief learning officer, Archstone-Smith

"This newest edition of the Handbook provides an unparalleled, all-encompassing survey of the latest theory and its practical application in this emergent field. This book is a must-have reference for any professional wishing to systematically improve performance within their organization."

- Weston McMillan, CPT, manager, training and development, eBay Inc.

"An invaluable, engaging resource for anyone charged with improving workplace performance. It not only provides the background and foundations of our profession, but more importantly, it also provides the most up-to-date descriptions of how to apply HPT to drive results."

- Rodger Stotz, CPT, vice president and managing consultant, Maritz Inc.

"This book is filled with insights--both for those who are new to the field and also for those who are experienced. It offers concrete advice and examples on how to use HPT to impact business results and how to work successfully within organizations."

- Anne Marie Laures, CPT, director, learning services, Walgreen Co.

"The Handbook contains many of the secrets for improving the performance of individuals, groups, and organizations."

- Robert F. Mager, author, Analyzing Performance Problems and How to Turn Learners On...Without Turning Them Off

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. FOREWORD TO THE THIRD EDITION
  3. THE HANDBOOK OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY: A FOUNDATION DOCUMENT
    1. HPT: HOW FAR WE HAVE COME
    2. THE RELEVANCE OF HPT
    3. THE EMERGENCE OF HUMAN CAPITAL
    4. AND SO THIS THIRD EDITION OF THE HANDBOOK OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY . . .
      1. References
  4. PREFACE
    1. INTENDED AUDIENCES
    2. OVERVIEW OF THE CONTENTS
  5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  6. THE EDITOR AND EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
  7. FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION
    1. SCIENCE HAS A CLEAR SUBJECT MATTER
    2. SCIENCE SIMPLIFIES
    3. SCIENCE IS GROUNDED IN MEASUREMENT
    4. SCIENCE IS CAREFUL OF ITS LANGUAGE
    5. ENGINEERING SCIENCE FOCUSES ON ITS MOST PROMISING INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
  8. FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION
    1. WHAT IS HPT?
    2. IT WASN'T ALWAYS THUS
    3. BRIGHT WITH PROMISE
    4. SCIENCE-BASED
    5. THERE'S STILL WORK TO BE DONE
    6. THE REWARD IS WORTH THE EFFORT
  9. I. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
    1. 1. Human Performance Technology Fundamentals
      1. 1.1. A DEFINITION OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
      2. 1.2. ELEMENTS OF THE DEFINITION
        1. 1.2.1. Study
        2. 1.2.2. Ethical Practice
        3. 1.2.3. Improving Productivity
        4. 1.2.4. Organizations
        5. 1.2.5. Designing and Developing
        6. 1.2.6. Effective
        7. 1.2.7. Interventions
        8. 1.2.8. Results-Oriented
        9. 1.2.9. Comprehensive and Systemic
      3. 1.3. PERFORMANCE-IMPROVEMENT MODEL
        1. 1.3.1. Getting Started
        2. 1.3.2. Perception Analysis
        3. 1.3.3. Strategic Alignment with Organizational Mission, Goals, and Objectives
        4. 1.3.4. Performance Analysis
        5. 1.3.5. Intervention Selection
        6. 1.3.6. Feasibility Analysis
        7. 1.3.7. Design, Development, and Implementation
        8. 1.3.8. Evaluation and Feedback
      4. 1.4. IS THERE MAGIC IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY?
      5. 1.5. CONCLUSIONS
        1. 1.5.1. References
    2. 2. The Performance Architect's Essential Guide to the Performance Technology Landscape
      1. 2.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2.2. THE PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
        1. 2.2.1. What Is Performance?
        2. 2.2.2. What Is Performance Technology?
        3. 2.2.3. Mapping the Performance-Improvement Journey
      3. 2.3. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE ARCHITECTURE?
        1. 2.3.1. Performance Systems
        2. 2.3.2. Performance Map
        3. 2.3.3. Tip of the Iceberg
        4. 2.3.4. Other Models and Tools
        5. 2.3.5. Evaluation
      4. 2.4. THE SAVVY PERFORMANCE-IMPROVEMENT PROFESSIONAL'S GUIDE TO SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE (TECHNOLOGY): A DECEPTIVELY SIMPLE LIST
      5. 2.5. HEADING HOME
        1. 2.5.1. Landscape Model
        2. 2.5.2. Systems Model
        3. 2.5.3. Performance Architecture
        4. 2.5.4. Performance Map and the Tip of the Iceberg
        5. 2.5.5. Feedback and Evaluation
        6. 2.5.6. The List
        7. 2.5.7. Travelers' Advisory
        8. 2.5.8. References
        9. 2.5.9. Additional Resources
    3. 3. Business Perspectives for Performance Technologists
      1. 3.1. WHY UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS IS IMPORTANT
      2. 3.2. HOW HPT PRACTITIONERS CAN IMPROVE THEIR BUSINESS UNDERSTANDING
      3. 3.3. THE BUSINESS LOGICS MODEL
        1. 3.3.1. Uses of the Business Logics Model
        2. 3.3.2. Overview of the Model
        3. 3.3.3. Gathering Data for the Various Logics and Metrics
      4. 3.4. THE MODEL, LOGIC BY LOGIC
        1. 3.4.1. External Logic
        2. 3.4.2. Economic Logic
        3. 3.4.3. Strategy Logic
        4. 3.4.4. Customer Logic
        5. 3.4.5. Product Logic
        6. 3.4.6. Process Logic
        7. 3.4.7. Internal Logic
      5. 3.5. WORKSHEETS AND HOW TO USE THE MODEL
      6. 3.6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
        1. 3.6.1. References
    4. 4. Performance Improvement: Enabling Commitment to Changing Performance Requirements
      1. 4.1. THE PRIMACY OF PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
      2. 4.2. ROLE SETS: STABILIZER OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND RESISTER OF PERFORMANCE CHANGE
      3. 4.3. ALIGNING REQUIREMENTS ACROSS FORMAL AND ROLE-SET STRUCTURES
      4. 4.4. CASE STUDY: A SOFTWARE PROGRAM TEAM
        1. 4.4.1. The Monthly All Hands Program Meeting
        2. 4.4.2. The Weekly Project Team Meetings
        3. 4.4.3. The Weekly Program Team Meeting
      5. 4.5. GUIDELINES FOR HPT PRACTITIONERS
        1. 4.5.1. Help the Client Focus on Its Process for Setting and Realigning Performance Requirements
        2. 4.5.2. Get into the Real Meetings and Deal with the Real Issues
        3. 4.5.3. Work with at Least Three Levels of the Hierarchy at Once
      6. 4.6. CONCLUSION
        1. 4.6.1. References
    5. 5. Systemic Issues
      1. 5.1. RELEVANCE OF SYSTEMIC ISSUES TO HPT CERTIFICATION STANDARDS
      2. 5.2. ORGANIZATIONS ARE SYSTEMS
        1. 5.2.1. Organizations as Systems in the Fictional World
        2. 5.2.2. Organizations as Systems in the Real World
      3. 5.3. POINTS OF THEORY AND SYSTEM PRINCIPLES IN THE STORIES
        1. 5.3.1. Points of Theory: The System
        2. 5.3.2. Six Key Points of Theory
        3. 5.3.3. Three System Principles
      4. 5.4. LINKING THEORY, PRINCIPLE, AND PRACTICE
        1. 5.4.1. Dealing with Systemic Issues: Fundamental Questions
        2. 5.4.2. Systemic Question 1: What is the system performance?
        3. 5.4.3. Systemic Question 2: How does the system fit into the environment?
        4. 5.4.4. Systemic Question 3: What are the parts of the system?
        5. 5.4.5. Systemic Question 4: How are value set variables maintained?
        6. 5.4.6. Systemic Question 5: How do the governance processes function?
      5. 5.5. THE HPT CERTIFICATION STANDARDS
        1. 5.5.1. How Working Systemically Generates Documentation for the Standards
        2. 5.5.2. How Working Systemically Is Fundamental to HPT
        3. 5.5.3. How Failure to Work Systemically Produces Suboptimal Results
      6. 5.6. CONCLUSION
        1. 5.6.1. References
    6. 6. Mega Planning and Thinking: Defining and Achieving Measurable Success
      1. 6.1. WHAT IS THE SOCIETAL VALUE-ADDED PERSPECTIVE AND FRAME OF MIND?
      2. 6.2. AN OVERVIEW OF THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND TOOLS FOR MEGA PLANNING
        1. 6.2.1. Guide One: Defining and Aligning Everything an Organization Uses, Does, Produces, and Delivers, and the Resulting Measurable Value Added
        2. 6.2.2. Guide Two: Defining, Justifying, and Resolving Problems
        3. 6.2.3. Guide Three: Six Critical Success Factors of Strategic Thinking and Planning
        4. 6.2.4. Mega Planning: Getting Agreement
        5. 6.2.5. Mega Planning Is Proactive
      3. 6.3. THE SIX CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN BRIEF
        1. 6.3.1. CSF 1: Use New and Wider Boundaries for Thinking, Planning, Doing, Evaluating, and Continuous Improvement
        2. 6.3.2. CSF 2: Differentiate Between Ends and Means by Focusing on "What" Before "How"
        3. 6.3.3. CSF 3: Use, Link, and Align All Three Levels of Planning and Results
        4. 6.3.4. CSF 4: Prepare Objectives, Including Those for the Ideal Vision and Mission, to Contain Precise Indicators of Where You Are Headed and How You Will Know When You Have Arrived
        5. 6.3.5. CSF 5: Define "Need" as a Gap Between Current and Desired Results and Not as Insufficient Levels of Resources, Means, or Methods
        6. 6.3.6. CSF 6: Use an Ideal Vision as the Underlying Basis for All Planning and Continuous Improvement
      4. 6.4. CONCLUSION
        1. 6.4.1. Notes
        2. 6.4.2. References
        3. 6.4.3. Additional Resources
    7. 7. The Origins and Evolution of Human Performance Technology
      1. 7.1. HISTORICAL ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF HPT
        1. 7.1.1. Changing Views of Performance Management from Antiquity to the 1950s' Intuitive Culture-Based Management
        2. 7.1.2. HPT as an Outgrowth of the Pragmatic Philosophy
        3. 7.1.3. Integrating Cognitive Psychology and Information Technology
      2. 7.2. FIRST VISIBLE SIGNS OF HPT AND ITS SCALABILITY
        1. 7.2.1. Brethower's Five Performance Principles
        2. 7.2.2. Behavior Systems Analysis as the Total Performance System
        3. 7.2.3. Rationale for the Paradigm Shift from Mechanical Determinism to System Theory
        4. 7.2.4. Behavior Engineering and PROBE Models
        5. 7.2.5. Front-End Analysis
        6. 7.2.6. Managing the White Space and Serious Performance Consulting
        7. 7.2.7. The Organizational Scan, Performance Levers, and Alignment
        8. 7.2.8. Strategic Planning for Success
        9. 7.2.9. The Performance Learning-Satisfaction (PLS) Evaluation System
        10. 7.2.10. Language for Work That Works
        11. 7.2.11. The Metamodel of Performance Improvement
      3. 7.3. TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURY HPT
        1. 7.3.1. Strengths
        2. 7.3.2. Weaknesses
        3. 7.3.3. Threats
        4. 7.3.4. Opportunities
        5. 7.3.5. Notes
        6. 7.3.6. References
  10. II. THE PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY PROCESS
    1. 8. Aligning Human Performance Technology Decisions with an Organization's Strategic Direction
      1. 8.1. STRATEGIC DIRECTION
        1. 8.1.1. Unconventional Wisdom
        2. 8.1.2. A Model for Effective Direction Setting
        3. 8.1.3. Analysis of Strategic Direction
      2. 8.2. DEFINING SUCCESS
        1. 8.2.1. How Is Your Success Defined?
        2. 8.2.2. Making Decisions
      3. 8.3. HPT IMPLICATIONS
      4. 8.4. SUMMARY
        1. 8.4.1. References
    2. 9. Analysis and More
      1. 9.1. AN EXPANDING VIEW OF ANALYSIS: ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
      2. 9.2. ANALYSIS GOALS AND REQUESTS
        1. 9.2.1. Goals
        2. 9.2.2. Requests
      3. 9.3. OBSTACLES TO ANALYSIS
        1. 9.3.1. Blame It on the Organization
        2. 9.3.2. Blame It on the Executives
        3. 9.3.3. Blame It on the First-Line Supervisors
        4. 9.3.4. Blame It on Ourselves
      4. 9.4. TRENDS IN ANALYSIS
        1. 9.4.1. Data Hounds for Analysis and Evaluation
        2. 9.4.2. Performance Consulting
        3. 9.4.3. Converging Learning, Performance, and Work
      5. 9.5. CONCLUSION
        1. 9.5.1. References
    3. 10. Requirements: The Bridge Between Analysis and Design
      1. 10.1. WHAT IS A REQUIREMENT?
      2. 10.2. THE PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH USING REQUIREMENTS
        1. 10.2.1. Categories of Requirements
        2. 10.2.2. Deriving Requirements from Analysis Data
      3. 10.3. THE VALUE OF EXPLICIT REQUIREMENTS
        1. 10.3.1. Stakeholder Approval
        2. 10.3.2. Design
        3. 10.3.3. Development
        4. 10.3.4. Implementation
      4. 10.4. EXAMPLES OF REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT KINDS OF PERFORMANCE SOLUTIONS
        1. 10.4.1. Instructional System Example
        2. 10.4.2. Organization Redesign Example
        3. 10.4.3. Qualification System Design Example
        4. 10.4.4. Feedback System Example
      5. 10.5. SUMMARY
        1. 10.5.1. Reference
        2. 10.5.2. Additional Resource
    4. 11. Modeling Mastery Performance and Systematically Deriving the Enablers for Performance Improvement
      1. 11.1. INTRODUCTION TO THE KEY DATA SETS
        1. 11.1.1. Performance Models
        2. 11.1.2. Enabler Matrices
        3. 11.1.3. Other Analyses Potentially Required
      2. 11.2. INTRODUCTION TO THE DATA SET USAGES
        1. 11.2.1. Three Performance Variables That May Need Changing
        2. 11.2.2. Process Design and Redesign
        3. 11.2.3. Human Asset Management Systems Changes
        4. 11.2.4. Environmental Asset Management Systems Changes
      3. 11.3. THE PROCESS OF MODELING MASTERY PERFORMANCE
        1. 11.3.1. Establishing Areas of Performance
        2. 11.3.2. Creating Performance Model Charts
      4. 11.4. THE GOAL AND PROCESS OF ENABLER ANALYSIS
        1. 11.4.1. Establishing Enabler Categories
        2. 11.4.2. Creating Enabler Matrices Charts
      5. 11.5. THE PARTICIPANTS OR TEAMS AND THEIR ROLES
        1. 11.5.1. The Team Rationale and Approach
        2. 11.5.2. Project Steering Team
        3. 11.5.3. Analysis Team
        4. 11.5.4. Downstream Teams for Performance-Improvement Design and Development
        5. 11.5.5. The Nonteam Approach
      6. 11.6. THE IMPACT OF THE DATA ON THE ENTERPRISE PROCESSES
        1. 11.6.1. Process Design and Redesign
        2. 11.6.2. The Impact of the Data on the Human-Asset Management Systems
        3. 11.6.3. The Impact of the Data on the Environmental-Asset Management Systems
      7. 11.7. SUMMARY
        1. 11.7.1. Resources
    5. 12. Dimensions of Organizational Change
      1. 12.1. UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
        1. 12.1.1. Defining Organizational Change
        2. 12.1.2. Why Do Organizations Change?
        3. 12.1.3. Forms of Organizational Change
        4. 12.1.4. Organizational Forces and Targets for Change
        5. 12.1.5. Organizational Change Stages
      2. 12.2. WHY MANAGE CHANGE?
      3. 12.3. PLANNING CHANGE
        1. 12.3.1. Understanding Organizational Goals and Values
        2. 12.3.2. Conducting Organizational Diagnosis
        3. 12.3.3. Defining Change-Management Strategy
        4. 12.3.4. Selecting a Change-Management Model
        5. 12.3.5. Developing Change-Management Methods and Tools
        6. 12.3.6. Defining Roles in the Change Process
        7. 12.3.7. Designing Change-Management Plans
      4. 12.4. IMPLEMENTING CHANGE
        1. 12.4.1. Facilitating the Individual Change-Adoption Process
        2. 12.4.2. Adoption Stages
        3. 12.4.3. Adopter Categories
        4. 12.4.4. Managing Resistance
        5. 12.4.5. Measuring Organizational Change
      5. 12.5. DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINING CHANGE EFFORTS
        1. 12.5.1. Designing Communication and Training Programs
        2. 12.5.2. Implementing Incentive and Recognition Strategies
      6. 12.6. PLANNING FURTHER STEPS
        1. 12.6.1. References
    6. 13. Using Evaluation to Measure and Improve the Effectiveness of Human Performance Technology Initiatives
      1. 13.1. THE WHAT AND WHY OF EVALUATION
        1. 13.1.1. Purposes for Evaluation
        2. 13.1.2. Evaluation as Systematic Reflection
        3. 13.1.3. The Process of Evaluation
      2. 13.2. EVALUATION AS PART OF AN ITERATIVE HPT STRATEGY
      3. 13.3. THE FIVE FATAL HPT ERRORS
        1. 13.3.1. Errors of Direction
        2. 13.3.2. Errors of Analysis
        3. 13.3.3. Errors of Design
        4. 13.3.4. Errors of Implementation
        5. 13.3.5. Errors of Sustained Impact
      4. 13.4. A FIVE-PHASE FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATION OF HPT
        1. 13.4.1. Phase 1: Set HPT Goals
        2. 13.4.2. Phase 2: Analyze Performance Issues
        3. 13.4.3. Phase 3: Design HPT Initiative
        4. 13.4.4. Phase 4: Implement HPT Initiative
        5. 13.4.5. Phase 5: Sustaining Impact and Worthy Performance
      5. 13.5. SUMMARY
        1. 13.5.1. References
        2. 13.5.2. Additional Resources
    7. 14. The Full Scoop on Full-Scope Evaluation
      1. 14.1. WHAT EVALUATION IS; WHAT IT IS NOT
      2. 14.2. MILESTONES IN THE EVOLUTION OF EVALUATION PRACTICE
      3. 14.3. EVALUATION MODELS
        1. 14.3.1. Curriculum Evaluation Models
        2. 14.3.2. Training Evaluation Models
        3. 14.3.3. Eclectic Models
        4. 14.3.4. Full-Scope Evaluation: A Timely New Model
      4. 14.4. FULL-SCOPE EVALUATION: AN OVERVIEW
        1. 14.4.1. Zooming Out: Definition, Purpose, and a Model
        2. 14.4.2. Zooming In: The Components of Full-Scope Evaluation
        3. 14.4.3. Zooming In: Full-Scope Evaluation Activities
      5. 14.5. THINKING INSIDE THE BOX
      6. 14.6. IMPLEMENTING FULL-SCOPE EVALUATION IN THE REAL WORLD
        1. 14.6.1. Full-Scope Evaluation Toolkit for the HPT Practitioner
        2. 14.6.2. Can You Get There from Here? The Future of Full-Scope Evaluation
        3. 14.6.3. Call to Action
        4. 14.6.4. References
        5. 14.6.5. Additional Resources
  11. III. INTERVENTIONS AT THE WORKER AND WORK TEAM LEVELS
    1. 15. Instruction as an Intervention
      1. 15.1. INSTRUCTION AIMS AT IMPROVING CAPABILITIES
        1. 15.1.1. Instruction Is One of Many Performance Interventions
        2. 15.1.2. Distinguishing Information Giving from Instruction
        3. 15.1.3. Distinguishing Cognitive Support from Instruction
      2. 15.2. PLANNING INSTRUCTION
        1. 15.2.1. Instructional Design and Development Models
        2. 15.2.2. Specifying Goals and Objectives
        3. 15.2.3. Instructional Methods and Media
      3. 15.3. LESSON FRAMEWORKS
        1. 15.3.1. Behaviorist Framework
        2. 15.3.2. Cognitive Framework
        3. 15.3.3. A Constructivist Framework
        4. 15.3.4. An Eclectic Framework
      4. 15.4. DELIVERY ENVIRONMENTS FOR INSTRUCTION
        1. 15.4.1. Face-to-Face Classroom Instruction
        2. 15.4.2. Distance Learning via Synchronous Telecommunications Media
        3. 15.4.3. Distance Learning via Asynchronous Computer-Based Media
        4. 15.4.4. Games and Simulations
        5. 15.4.5. Independent Self-Study
        6. 15.4.6. Blended Learning
        7. 15.4.7. Selecting Delivery Systems
      5. 15.5. EVALUATING INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSING LEARNER OUTCOMES
        1. 15.5.1. Formative Evaluation of Instruction
        2. 15.5.2. Summative Evaluation of Instruction
        3. 15.5.3. Confirmative Evaluation of Instruction
        4. 15.5.4. Formative Assessment of Learners
        5. 15.5.5. Summative Assessment of Learners
        6. 15.5.6. Confirmative Assessment of Learners
      6. 15.6. CONCLUSION
        1. 15.6.1. References
    2. 16. Designing Instructional Strategies: A Cognitive Perspective
      1. 16.1. THE COGNITIVE APPROACH TO DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
        1. 16.1.1. How Learning Occurs from a Cognitive Point of View
          1. 16.1.1.1. Perception and Sensory Stores
          2. 16.1.1.2. Short-Term or Working Memory
          3. 16.1.1.3. Long-Term Memory
        2. 16.1.2. Types of Knowledge
      2. 16.2. THE COGNITIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL
      3. 16.3. USING THE MODEL TO BEGIN ANY LESSON
      4. 16.4. USING THE MODEL TO TEACH FACTS
        1. 16.4.1. Issues
        2. 16.4.2. General Strategies for Teaching Facts
        3. 16.4.3. Teaching Facts Using the Lesson Elements
          1. 16.4.3.1. Assimilate
          2. 16.4.3.2. Strengthen
      5. 16.5. USING THE MODEL TO TEACH CONCEPTS
        1. 16.5.1. Issues
        2. 16.5.2. General Strategies for Teaching Concepts
        3. 16.5.3. Teaching Concepts Using the Lesson Elements
          1. 16.5.3.1. Link
          2. 16.5.3.2. Organize
          3. 16.5.3.3. Assimilate
            1. 16.5.3.3.1. Sequencing
            2. 16.5.3.3.2. Range
          4. 16.5.3.4. Strengthen
      6. 16.6. USING THE MODEL TO TEACH PRINCIPLES AND MENTAL MODELS
        1. 16.6.1. General Strategies for Teaching Principles and Mental Models
        2. 16.6.2. How to Teach Principles and Mental Models Using the Lesson Elements
          1. 16.6.2.1. Link
          2. 16.6.2.2. Organize
          3. 16.6.2.3. Assimilate
          4. 16.6.2.4. Strengthen
      7. 16.7. USING THE MODEL TO TEACH PROCEDURES OR WELL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM SOLVING
        1. 16.7.1. General Strategies for Teaching Procedures and Well-Structured Problem Solving
        2. 16.7.2. Teaching Procedures or Well-Structured Problem Solving Using the Lesson Elements
          1. 16.7.2.1. Link
          2. 16.7.2.2. Organize
          3. 16.7.2.3. Assimilate
          4. 16.7.2.4. Strengthen
      8. 16.8. USING THE MODEL TO TEACH ILL-STRUCTURED PROBLEM SOLVING
        1. 16.8.1. Issues
        2. 16.8.2. General Strategies for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving
        3. 16.8.3. Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving Using the Lesson Elements
          1. 16.8.3.1. Link
          2. 16.8.3.2. Organize
          3. 16.8.3.3. Assimilate
          4. 16.8.3.4. Strengthen
      9. 16.9. TEACHING LESSONS COMBINING DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEARNING
      10. 16.10. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
        1. 16.10.1. References
    3. 17. Games and Simulations for Training: From Group Activities to Virtual Reality
      1. 17.1. CLASSIC PERCEPTIONS OF GAMES
      2. 17.2. OUTCOMES, ASPECTS, AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMES
        1. 17.2.1. Outcomes
        2. 17.2.2. Aspects and Characteristics
      3. 17.3. WHAT ARE SIMULATIONS (SIMS)?
        1. 17.3.1. Outcomes
        2. 17.3.2. Aspects: Why Not Characteristics?
        3. 17.3.3. Characteristics
      4. 17.4. CASE STUDIES
        1. 17.4.1. Training on Insurance Benefits for Helpline Trainees
        2. 17.4.2. Pre- and Post-Test Simulations for Pharmaceutical Sales
        3. 17.4.3. Algorithmic Strategy Simulation for Resource Management
        4. 17.4.4. Porting Real Data into Virtual Space for Automobile Design and Manufacturing
      5. 17.5. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
        1. 17.5.1. Analysis Focus
        2. 17.5.2. Design Focus
        3. 17.5.3. Outcomes Targeting Training or Evaluation
        4. 17.5.4. Game and Simulation Rules and Models
        5. 17.5.5. Play Time, Apperception of Content, and Complexity
        6. 17.5.6. Debriefing and Feedback Complexity
        7. 17.5.7. Development Focus
        8. 17.5.8. Time and Resources
        9. 17.5.9. Performance Tracking and Scoring
      6. 17.6. ROI AND SUMMARY
        1. 17.6.1. References
    4. 18. Distance Training
      1. 18.1. DISTANCE TRAINING: A NOVELTY OR A REAL SOLUTION?
        1. 18.1.1. Is the Excitement about Distance Training Justified?
        2. 18.1.2. How Is the Distance Training Format Different from Traditional Instruction?
        3. 18.1.3. Why Are These Features Valuable?
        4. 18.1.4. How Much Evidence Is There to Support Claims of the Distance Advocates?
      2. 18.2. THE STATUS OF DISTANCE TRAINING
      3. 18.3. WHY CORPORATIONS ARE ADOPTING DISTANCE LEARNING
      4. 18.4. PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION OF DISTANCE TRAINING
        1. 18.4.1. Functions of the Distance Training Administrative Team
        2. 18.4.2. Potential Issues and Obstacles to Be Addressed by the Administrative Team
        3. 18.4.3. Stages of Organizational Capability for Distance Training
      5. 18.5. BLENDED LEARNING: A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE
      6. 18.6. SUMMARY
        1. 18.6.1. References
    5. 19. Innovations in Performance Improvement with Mentoring
      1. 19.1. MENTORING: THE PROCESS, ROLES, AND TASKS
      2. 19.2. EVOLUTION OF THE MENTORING CONCEPT
        1. 19.2.1. Different Structures Called Mentoring
      3. 19.3. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF SKILLS LOSS
        1. 19.3.1. Cultural Due Diligence
        2. 19.3.2. Professional or Technical Skills Transfer
      4. 19.4. KEY ELEMENTS TO MAKING MENTORING WORK
      5. 19.5. RETURN ON INVESTMENT: PERCEPTION AND REALITY
        1. 19.5.1. Benefits for the Mentor
        2. 19.5.2. Organizational Benefits
        3. 19.5.3. Benefits to Supervisors
      6. 19.6. PITFALLS AND PREVENTIVE ACTIONS
      7. 19.7. SYSTEMATIC DESIGN
      8. 19.8. CHALLENGES OF SCALING UP
      9. 19.9. CONCLUSION
        1. 19.9.1. Note
        2. 19.9.2. References
    6. 20. Motivating Individuals, Teams, and Organizations
      1. 20.1. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
        1. 20.1.1. What Causes Motivation?
        2. 20.1.2. What Kills Motivation in Organizations?
        3. 20.1.3. What Helps Motivation? Universal Motivators That Work for Everyone
      2. 20.2. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VALUES FOR WORK GOALS
      3. 20.3. FINANCIAL INCENTIVES THAT CREATE VALUE
        1. 20.3.1. Types of Financial Incentive Programs
        2. 20.3.2. Disputes about Incentive Systems
      4. 20.4. MOTIVATING TEAMS
        1. 20.4.1. Why Is Team Motivation Different from Individual Motivation?
        2. 20.4.2. What Motivates Teams?
      5. 20.5. CONCLUSION
        1. 20.5.1. References
    7. 21. Shifting Organizational Alignment from Behavior to Values
      1. 21.1. WHY ALIGNMENT MATTERS
        1. 21.1.1. Alignment in Lean Organizations
        2. 21.1.2. Alignment in Growing Organizations
        3. 21.1.3. Identifying Alignment-Intervention Warning Signs
        4. 21.1.4. Sharing Control in Order to Increase It
        5. 21.1.5. Empowered Teams
      2. 21.2. THE NATURE OF CONTROL: GETTING BEYOND MERE AUTONOMY
        1. 21.2.1. Alignment Approaches
        2. 21.2.2. Alignment and Its Link to Power
      3. 21.3. SHIFTING TO AN UNOBTRUSIVE APPROACH
        1. 21.3.1. Over-Control
        2. 21.3.2. Under-Control
        3. 21.3.3. Balancing the Transition to Autonomy
        4. 21.3.4. Moving on to Empowerment
      4. 21.4. CONCLUSION
        1. 21.4.1. Summary of Main Points
        2. 21.4.2. References
    8. 22. Principles and Practices of Work-Group Performance
      1. 22.1. THE CONTEXT OF GROUP PERFORMANCE
        1. 22.1.1. When Is a Group Necessary?
        2. 22.1.2. What Are the Requisite Conditions for a Successful Work Group?
      2. 22.2. GROUP ROLES
        1. 22.2.1. Group Leader
        2. 22.2.2. Subject-Matter Experts
        3. 22.2.3. Facilitator
        4. 22.2.4. Decision Makers and Stakeholders
        5. 22.2.5. Sensitivity to Social Dynamics
      3. 22.3. LEVELS OF GROUP PLANNING
        1. 22.3.1. Operational
        2. 22.3.2. Tactical
        3. 22.3.3. Strategic
      4. 22.4. MODELING THE PROBLEM OR DECISION
        1. 22.4.1. Defining Criteria
        2. 22.4.2. Exploring the Problem Space
        3. 22.4.3. Exploring the Solution Space
        4. 22.4.4. Conducting Sensitivity Analyses and Resolving Disagreements
        5. 22.4.5. Communicating Results and Garnering Support
      5. 22.5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
        1. 22.5.1. Notes
        2. 22.5.2. References
    9. 23. Performance Support Systems
      1. 23.1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 23.1.1. Authors' Approach
        2. 23.1.2. Description of PSS
      2. 23.2. BASIC CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY
        1. 23.2.1. Learning
        2. 23.2.2. Guidance and Tracking
        3. 23.2.3. Task-Structuring Support
        4. 23.2.4. Knowledge Management
        5. 23.2.5. Communities of Practice
        6. 23.2.6. Tools
        7. 23.2.7. Motivation
      3. 23.3. VARIATIONS
        1. 23.3.1. Integration
        2. 23.3.2. Scale or Level
        3. 23.3.3. Wearability
        4. 23.3.4. Nomenclature
      4. 23.4. PSS EXAMPLES
        1. 23.4.1. On-Line External Example
        2. 23.4.2. On-Line-Intrinsic Example
      5. 23.5. BENEFITS OF PSS
      6. 23.6. PROJECT-DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS
        1. 23.6.1. Collaboration
        2. 23.6.2. Design
        3. 23.6.3. Implementation
        4. 23.6.4. Evaluation
      7. 23.7. ANOTHER LOOK TOWARD THE FUTURE
        1. 23.7.1. References
  12. IV. INTERVENTIONS AT THE WORKPLACE AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS
    1. 24. The Impact of Organizational Development
      1. 24.1. CASE SCENARIO
      2. 24.2. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT?
      3. 24.3. DEFINING THE IDEAL STATE
        1. 24.3.1. Defining Deliverables
        2. 24.3.2. Defining Processes
        3. 24.3.3. Defining Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes
        4. 24.3.4. Defining Resources
        5. 24.3.5. Defining Effort or Execution
      4. 24.4. DEFINING THE CURRENT STATE
        1. 24.4.1. X-Press Current State: Deliverables
        2. 24.4.2. X-Press Current State: Processes
        3. 24.4.3. X-Press Current State: KSAs
        4. 24.4.4. X-Press Current State: Resources
        5. 24.4.5. X-Press Current State: Effort or Execution
      5. 24.5. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND CLOSING PERFORMANCE GAPS
      6. 24.6. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS
        1. 24.6.1. Designing OD Solutions Aimed at Process Deficiencies
        2. 24.6.2. Designing OD Solutions Aimed at KSA Deficiencies
        3. 24.6.3. Designing OD Solutions Aimed at Resource Deficiencies
        4. 24.6.4. Designing OD Solutions Aimed at Effort Deficiencies
      7. 24.7. IMPLEMENTING THE OD SOLUTION
        1. 24.7.1. Assigning Ownership of Deliverables
        2. 24.7.2. Managing the Project
        3. 24.7.3. Overcoming Resistance
      8. 24.8. MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION
      9. 24.9. CONCLUSION
        1. 24.9.1. X-Press: Designed OD Solutions
        2. 24.9.2. X-Press: Implementation Plan
        3. 24.9.3. X-Press: Evaluation of Effectiveness
        4. 24.9.4. Impact of OD Solutions on Attrition
        5. 24.9.5. References
    2. 25. The Fifth Discipline: A Systems Learning Model for Building High-Performing Learning Organizations
      1. 25.1. SYSTEMS THINKING: THE HEART OF THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION
      2. 25.2. THE REMAINING CORE DISCIPLINES IN GREATER DEPTH
        1. 25.2.1. Personal Mastery
        2. 25.2.2. Mental Models
        3. 25.2.3. Shared Vision
        4. 25.2.4. Team Learning
      3. 25.3. LINKS TO HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
      4. 25.4. THE AUTHORS' EXPERIENCE WITH ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
        1. 25.4.1. The Basis of the Authors' Work
        2. 25.4.2. Single- and Double-Loop Learning
      5. 25.5. THE TOOLS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING AND SYSTEMS LEARNING
        1. 25.5.1. Check-In, Check-Out
        2. 25.5.2. Dialogue: Raising the Level of Knowledge in a Team
        3. 25.5.3. Causal-Loop Diagrams
        4. 25.5.4. Thinking with Hexagons
        5. 25.5.5. Advocacy and Inquiry
        6. 25.5.6. Ladder of Inference
        7. 25.5.7. Reflection
        8. 25.5.8. Operation Adventure
        9. 25.5.9. The Beer Distribution Game
        10. 25.5.10. Clearness Committee
        11. 25.5.11. Organizational Engineering: I-OPT
        12. 25.5.12. Strategic Thinking
        13. 25.5.13. Scenario Planning
      6. 25.6. EVALUATING THE SYSTEMS LEARNING MODEL
      7. 25.7. THE UM-DEARBORN ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING COURSE
      8. 25.8. EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF THE COURSE
        1. 25.8.1. Note
        2. 25.8.2. References
    3. 26. Knowledge Management, Organizational Performance, and Human Performance Technology
      1. 26.1. BASIC CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY
        1. 26.1.1. Data, Information, and Knowledge
        2. 26.1.2. Coordination and Communication
        3. 26.1.3. Costs and Results
        4. 26.1.4. Symptoms of Problems
      2. 26.2. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING, COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE, AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL
      3. 26.3. THE KNOWLEDGE LIFE CYCLE
        1. 26.3.1. Create or Learn, and Identify
        2. 26.3.2. Organize and Codify
        3. 26.3.3. Store
        4. 26.3.4. Distribute
        5. 26.3.5. Use
        6. 26.3.6. Maintain
      4. 26.4. ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT
      5. 26.5. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
      6. 26.6. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
      7. 26.7. ESTABLISHING A KNOWLEDGE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
        1. 26.7.1. Assess
        2. 26.7.2. Design
        3. 26.7.3. Develop
        4. 26.7.4. Prototype and Pilot
        5. 26.7.5. Implement
        6. 26.7.6. Maintain
      8. 26.8. THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
      9. 26.9. CONCLUSION
        1. 26.9.1. References
        2. 26.9.2. Additional Resources
        3. 26.9.3. Websites
        4. 26.9.4. Printed Resources
    4. 27. Coming to Terms with Communities of Practice: A Definition and Operational Criteria
      1. 27.1. WHY BOTHER WITH A CoP?
        1. 27.1.1. Theoretical, Practical, and Psychological Underpinnings of Communities of Practice
        2. 27.1.2. Knowledge Conceptualization
        3. 27.1.3. Benefits of a CoP
      2. 27.2. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE: SIX CHARACTERISTICS
        1. 27.2.1. A Common Practice and Shared Enterprise
        2. 27.2.2. Opportunities for Interaction and Participation
        3. 27.2.3. Mutual Interdependence
        4. 27.2.4. Overlapping Histories, Practices, and Understandings among Members
        5. 27.2.5. Mechanisms for Reproduction
        6. 27.2.6. Respect for Diverse Perspectives and Minority Views
      3. 27.3. THE EMERGENCE OF A CoP
        1. 27.3.1. Promoting a CoP
        2. 27.3.2. Lingering Questions about Communities of Practice
        3. 27.3.3. Warnings and Cautions: What Experience Tells Us about Working with Communities of Practice
      4. 27.4. CONCLUSION
        1. 27.4.1. Appendix: Guiding or Evaluative Criteria for Examining a Designed CoP
        2. 27.4.2. References
    5. 28. Workplace Design
      1. 28.1. THE ERGONOMIC APPROACH TO WORKPLACE DESIGN
      2. 28.2. WHO?: HUMAN REQUIREMENTS IN WORKSPACE DESIGN
        1. 28.2.1. Common Work Environment Needs
        2. 28.2.2. Variable Work Environment Needs
      3. 28.3. WHAT?: TASK REQUIREMENTS IN WORKSPACE DESIGN
        1. 28.3.1. Mental Aspects of Tasks
        2. 28.3.2. Physical Aspects of Tasks
        3. 28.3.3. Group and Team Tasks
      4. 28.4. WHERE?: WORKSPACE PLANNING
        1. 28.4.1. Noise Reduction
        2. 28.4.2. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
        3. 28.4.3. Furniture
        4. 28.4.4. Storage
        5. 28.4.5. Lighting
        6. 28.4.6. Color
        7. 28.4.7. Music
        8. 28.4.8. Spaces That Facilitate Collaboration
        9. 28.4.9. Building Location
        10. 28.4.10. Indoor Air Quality
        11. 28.4.11. The Home Office
      5. 28.5. HOW?: WORKING SMARTER ERGONOMICALLY
        1. 28.5.1. Ergonomically Designed Tools
        2. 28.5.2. Ergonomically Designed Information
        3. 28.5.3. Educating Workers
      6. 28.6. WHEN?: WORK SCHEDULES
        1. 28.6.1. Alternative Work Schedules
        2. 28.6.2. Shift Work
        3. 28.6.3. The Demise of the Forty-Hour Week: The Rise of 24 × 7
      7. 28.7. WHY?: POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF WORKPLACE DESIGN
        1. 28.7.1. Benefits for Workers
        2. 28.7.2. Benefits for Employers
      8. 28.8. SUCCESS STORIES
        1. 28.8.1. References
    6. 29. Six Sigma: Increasing Human Performance Technology Value and Results
      1. 29.1. SIX SIGMA BACKGROUND
      2. 29.2. SIX SIGMA AS A PHILOSOPHY AND A PRACTICE
        1. 29.2.1. Philosophy
        2. 29.2.2. Practice
      3. 29.3. BENEFITS OF SIX SIGMA
      4. 29.4. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING SIX SIGMA
      5. 29.5. SIX SIGMA TECHNIQUES
      6. 29.6. SIX SIGMA AND THE ISPI HPT MODEL
      7. 29.7. A SIX SIGMA TOOLBOX FOR THE HPT PRACTITIONER
        1. 29.7.1. Tool: Benchmarking
        2. 29.7.2. Tool: Critical to Quality
        3. 29.7.3. Tool: Design of Experiments
        4. 29.7.4. Tool: Fault Tree Analysis
        5. 29.7.5. Tool: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
        6. 29.7.6. Tool: Multi-Generational (Product) Plan
        7. 29.7.7. Tool: Flowcharting
        8. 29.7.8. Tool: Process Mapping
        9. 29.7.9. Tool: Modeling and Simulations
        10. 29.7.10. Tool: Project Management
        11. 29.7.11. Tool: Quality Functional Deployment
        12. 29.7.12. Tool: Statistical Analysis
        13. 29.7.13. Tool: Structure-Tree Diagram
        14. 29.7.14. Tool: TRIZ
        15. 29.7.15. Tool: Voice of the Customer
        16. 29.7.16. Tool: Verification-Validation Plan
        17. 29.7.17. A Final "Tool": General Guide to Selecting and Using Tools
      8. 29.8. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
      9. 29.9. THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON SIX SIGMA IMPLEMENTATION
        1. 29.9.1. Culture and the Pyramid of Quality
        2. 29.9.2. Culture-Oriented Six Sigma Application from the Health Care Field
      10. 29.10. INTEGRATING SIX SIGMA AND HPT
        1. 29.10.1. Six Sigma
        2. 29.10.2. Human Performance Technology
        3. 29.10.3. The Case for Integration
      11. 29.11. CONCLUSION: HPT PLUS SIX SIGMA EQUALS SUPERHIGHWAY TO PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
        1. 29.11.1. References
    7. 30. Normal Excellence: Lean Human Performance Technology and the Toyota Production System
      1. 30.1. GENESIS AND EPIGENESIS OF THE LEAN SYSTEM
      2. 30.2. LEAN FOUNDATIONAL ASSUMPTIONS
      3. 30.3. LEAN PRINCIPLES
      4. 30.4. ELEMENTS OF LEAN HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
        1. 30.4.1. Pull and Flow
        2. 30.4.2. Single-Piece Flow
        3. 30.4.3. Setup Reduction or Quick Changeover
        4. 30.4.4. Total Productive Maintenance
        5. 30.4.5. Kanban
        6. 30.4.6. Takt Time
        7. 30.4.7. Leveled Production: Heijunka
        8. 30.4.8. Andon
        9. 30.4.9. Pokayoke
        10. 30.4.10. 5S
        11. 30.4.11. Visual Management
        12. 30.4.12. Standardized Work
        13. 30.4.13. Kaizen
      5. 30.5. CONCLUSION
        1. 30.5.1. References
  13. V. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT
    1. 31. A Commentary on Quantitative and Qualitative Methods: Myths and Realities
      1. 31.1. MYTH 1: THE PHILOSOPHICAL POSITIONS OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ARE INCOMPATIBLE
      2. 31.2. MYTH 2: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH IS MORE RIGOROUS THAN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
        1. 31.2.1. Populations and Samples
        2. 31.2.2. Standards of Rigor
      3. 31.3. MYTH 3: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH EMPLOYS A VARIETY OF METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES, WHILE QUALITATIVE METHODS ARE ALL THE SAME
      4. 31.4. MYTH 4: QUANTITATIVE METHODS YIELD QUANTITATIVE DATA, AND QUALITATIVE METHODS YIELD QUALITATIVE DATA
        1. 31.4.1. A Case Example: Content Analysis of Medical School Reaction Evaluations
      5. 31.5. CONCLUSION
        1. 31.5.1. Notes
        2. 31.5.2. References
    2. 32. Constructing Effective Questionnaires
      1. 32.1. THE PROCESS OF QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION
        1. 32.1.1. Review the Information Requirements Necessitating a Questionnaire
        2. 32.1.2. Develop and Prioritize a List of Potential Questions That Will Satisfy the Information Requirements
        3. 32.1.3. Assess Each Potential Question Carefully
      2. 32.2. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN CONSTRUCTING A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE
        1. 32.2.1. Introduction, Instructions, and Closing Statement
        2. 32.2.2. Question Construction
        3. 32.2.3. Question Format and Rating Scales
        4. 32.2.4. Questionnaire Layout or Format
        5. 32.2.5. Data Analysis
      3. 32.3. USEFUL ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES FOR USING A QUESTIONNAIRE
      4. 32.4. CONCLUSION
        1. 32.4.1. References
    3. 33. Interviewing to Analyze and Evaluate Human Performance Technology
      1. 33.1. WHY CONDUCT INTERVIEWS?
        1. 33.1.1. Advantages
        2. 33.1.2. Disadvantages
      2. 33.2. TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
        1. 33.2.1. Structured Interviews
        2. 33.2.2. Semistructured Interviews
        3. 33.2.3. Unstructured Interviews
      3. 33.3. METHODS OF INTERVIEWING
        1. 33.3.1. Telephone Interviews
        2. 33.3.2. Face-to-Face Interviews
      4. 33.4. THE PROCESS OF INTERVIEWING
        1. 33.4.1. Step 1. Determining the Objectives of the Interviews
        2. 33.4.2. Step 2. Preparing for the Interviews
        3. 33.4.3. Step 3. Carrying Out Each Interview
        4. 33.4.4. Step 4. Concluding the Interviewing Process
        5. 33.4.5. Step 5. Compiling and Analyzing Results
      5. 33.5. SUMMARY
        1. 33.5.1. Notes
        2. 33.5.2. References
    4. 34. Observation Methods for Human Performance Technology
      1. 34.1. HISTORY OF THE METHOD
      2. 34.2. OBSERVATION IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
      3. 34.3. OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES
        1. 34.3.1. Unstructured and Structured Observation Methods
        2. 34.3.2. Direct and Indirect Observations
        3. 34.3.3. Unobtrusive Measures
      4. 34.4. OBSERVATION INSTRUMENTS
      5. 34.5. ESTABLISHING RELIABILITY
      6. 34.6. PARTICIPANTS
        1. 34.6.1. Characteristics of Participants
        2. 34.6.2. Determining Which Participants Need to Be Involved
        3. 34.6.3. Concerns Regarding Participant Cooperation
      7. 34.7. THREATS TO OBSERVER RELIABILTY
        1. 34.7.1. Effects of the Observer on the Participants
        2. 34.7.2. Observer Personal Bias
        3. 34.7.3. Rating Errors
        4. 34.7.4. Observer Contamination or Expectancy Effects
        5. 34.7.5. Observer Omission
        6. 34.7.6. Observer Drift
        7. 34.7.7. Reliability Decay
      8. 34.8. ANALYZING OBSERVATION DATA
        1. 34.8.1. Compiling Data
        2. 34.8.2. Reviewing Data
        3. 34.8.3. Drawing Conclusions
      9. 34.9. TIPS FOR CONDUCTING SUCCESSFUL OBSERVATIONS
      10. 34.10. CONCLUSION
        1. 34.10.1. Notes
        2. 34.10.2. References
    5. 35. Using Content Analysis in Human Performance Technology
      1. 35.1. WHAT IS CONTENT ANALYSIS?
      2. 35.2. WHERE DOES CONTENT ANALYSIS FIT IN THE HPT PROCESS?
        1. 35.2.1. Using Content Analysis During Performance Analysis
        2. 35.2.2. Using Content Analysis During Cause Analysis
        3. 35.2.3. Using Content Analysis During Intervention Selection and Design
        4. 35.2.4. Using Content Analysis During Evaluation
      3. 35.3. PERFORMING CONTENT ANALYSIS
        1. 35.3.1. Steps in the Content-Analysis Process
        2. 35.3.2. Combining Content Analysis with Other Methods of Data Collection and Analysis
        3. 35.3.3. Advantages
        4. 35.3.4. Limitations
        5. 35.3.5. Validity and Reliability of Content Analysis
      4. 35.4. EXAMPLES OF CONTENT-ANALYSIS WORK
        1. 35.4.1. Case 1: Improving Safety Performance
        2. 35.4.2. Case 2: Improving Scheduling in Response to Attendance Fluctuations
        3. 35.4.3. Case 3: Defining Performance Objectives for Employee Training
        4. 35.4.4. Case 4: Assessing the Efficacy of an HPT Model
      5. 35.5. SUMMARY
        1. 35.5.1. References
    6. 36. Quantitative Data Analyses
      1. 36.1. QUANTITATIVE DATA-ANALYSIS PROCESS
      2. 36.2. MULTIPLE MEANINGS OF STATISTICS
        1. 36.2.1. Statistical Significance Versus Practical Significance
        2. 36.2.2. It's Greek to Me
      3. 36.3. FUNDAMENTALS
        1. 36.3.1. Basic Terms and Notations
        2. 36.3.2. Measurement and Meaningfulness
        3. 36.3.3. Data Types
      4. 36.4. DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUES
        1. 36.4.1. Tables and Graphs
        2. 36.4.2. Descriptive Statistics Appropriate for Each Scale of Measurement
        3. 36.4.3. Measures of Central Tendency
        4. 36.4.4. Measures of Dispersion
        5. 36.4.5. Normal Distributions
        6. 36.4.6. Skewed Distributions
        7. 36.4.7. Measures of Relatedness
      5. 36.5. INFERENTIAL TECHNIQUES
        1. 36.5.1. Which Inferential Test to Use When
        2. 36.5.2. Hypothesis Testing
        3. 36.5.3. Chi-Square Tests
        4. 36.5.4. t-Tests
        5. 36.5.5. Analysis of Variance
        6. 36.5.6. Regression
      6. 36.6. MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES
        1. 36.6.1. Multiple Regression
        2. 36.6.2. Canonical Correlation
        3. 36.6.3. Multivariate Analysis of Variance
        4. 36.6.4. Discriminant Analysis
        5. 36.6.5. Factor Analysis
      7. 36.7. META-ANALYSIS
      8. 36.8. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. 36.9. RESOURCE GUIDE
        1. 36.9.1. References
    7. 37. Evidence-Based Practice and Professionalization of Human Performance Technology
      1. 37.1. A SHIFT TOWARD EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE?
      2. 37.2. BARRIERS TO EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
        1. 37.2.1. Barrier 1: Where Is the Evidence?
        2. 37.2.2. Barrier 2: Does This Evidence Apply to My HPT and Training Interventions?
        3. 37.2.3. Barrier 3: How Can I Access Meaningful Evidence?
        4. 37.2.4. Barrier 4: How Can I Influence My Clients to Make Evidence-Based Decisions?
      3. 37.3. EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE AND THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF HPT
        1. 37.3.1. References
  14. VI. PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY IN ACTION
    1. 38. Making the Transition from a Learning to a Performance Function
      1. 38.1. KEY CONCEPTS
        1. 38.1.1. The Need Hierarchy
        2. 38.1.2. Three Categories of Work
      2. 38.2. STEP 1: AGREE ON A DESIRED END STATE
        1. 38.2.1. Go Wrongs
      3. 38.3. STEP 2: ALIGN THE PROCESS WITH THE PERFORMANCE MISSION
        1. 38.3.1. Partnership Phase
        2. 38.3.2. Assessment Phase
        3. 38.3.3. Implementation Phase
        4. 38.3.4. Measurement Phase
        5. 38.3.5. Go Wrongs
      4. 38.4. STEP 3: ALIGN STRUCTURE WITH THE PERFORMANCE MISSION
        1. 38.4.1. Go Wrongs
      5. 38.5. STEP 4: ALIGN PEOPLE WITH THE PERFORMANCE MISSION
        1. 38.5.1. Go Wrongs
      6. 38.6. STEP 5: START SMALL; GET SOME EARLY WINS
      7. 38.7. TRANSITION STRATEGIES
      8. 38.8. SUMMARY
        1. 38.8.1. References
    2. 39. Using an HPT Model to Become Management's Partner
      1. 39.1. BUILDING ON THE CURRENT HPT MODEL
        1. 39.1.1. A Model of Work Performance for Work Execution
        2. 39.1.2. Management Owning and Using HPT Continuously
      2. 39.2. THE LANGUAGE OF WORK AS AN HPT MODEL OF WORK EXECUTION
      3. 39.3. PLACING THE LANGUAGE OF WORK MODEL WITHIN THE ISPI HPT MODEL
        1. 39.3.1. Performance Analysis
        2. 39.3.2. Defining Work as an Element of Environmental Analysis
        3. 39.3.3. Defining Worker as an Element of Environmental Analysis
        4. 39.3.4. Defining the Work Environment as an Element of Environmental Analysis
        5. 39.3.5. Gap Analysis
        6. 39.3.6. Cause Analysis and Intervention Selection
        7. 39.3.7. Intervention Implementation and Change
        8. 39.3.8. Evaluation
      4. 39.4. CONCLUSION
        1. 39.4.1. References
    3. 40. Managing Human Performance Technology Projects
      1. 40.1. PROJECT-MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE
        1. 40.1.1. Initiating
        2. 40.1.2. Planning
        3. 40.1.3. Organizing
        4. 40.1.4. Executing and Implementing the Plan
        5. 40.1.5. Closing Out a Project
      2. 40.2. BUILDING CREDIBILITY AS A MANAGER OF HPT PROJECTS
      3. 40.3. CONCLUSION
        1. 40.3.1. References
        2. 40.3.2. Additional Resources
    4. 41. Leadership in Performance Consulting
      1. 41.1. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
      2. 41.2. THE PERFORMANCE CONSULTING GUIDE
        1. 41.2.1. Preparation
        2. 41.2.2. Assessment
        3. 41.2.3. Diagnosis
        4. 41.2.4. Prescription
        5. 41.2.5. Partnering
        6. 41.2.6. Reinforcement
        7. 41.2.7. Follow-Up
      3. 41.3. QUESTIONS: THE KEY TO OUR SUCCESS
        1. 41.3.1. Situation Questions
        2. 41.3.2. Problem Questions
        3. 41.3.3. Implication Questions
        4. 41.3.4. Need-Payoff Questions
      4. 41.4. CAUSE ANALYSIS
        1. 41.4.1. Using the Updated Behavior Engineering Model
        2. 41.4.2. Performance Analysis Worksheet
        3. 41.4.3. Leading with Questions
      5. 41.5. CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
      6. 41.6. CONCLUSION
        1. 41.6.1. References
    5. 42. The Anatomy of Performance: A Framework for Consultants
      1. 42.1. BACKGROUND
      2. 42.2. FOUR CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR PERFORMANCE CONSULTING
        1. 42.2.1. CSF 1: Focus on Results
        2. 42.2.2. CSF 2: Understand Reality
        3. 42.2.3. CSF 3: Apply the Anatomy of Performance Model
        4. 42.2.4. CSF 4: Establish a Chain of Results
      3. 42.3. PROJECT REDUX: THE REQUEST FOR HELP
      4. 42.4. PROJECT REDUX: JOB-LEVEL ANALYSIS
      5. 42.5. PROJECT REDUX: PROCESS-LEVEL ANALYSIS AND BEYOND
      6. 42.6. PROJECT REDUX: RESULTS
      7. 42.7. THE CONTINUING USEFULNESS OF THE AOP FRAMEWORK
      8. 42.8. SUMMARY
        1. 42.8.1. References
    6. 43. Certification: An Alignment Intervention
      1. 43.1. RAPID DEPLOYMENT
      2. 43.2. SUCCESSION PLANNING
      3. 43.3. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL PROGRAMS
      4. 43.4. THE PROCESS
        1. 43.4.1. Phase 1: The Need
        2. 43.4.2. Phase 2: The Goal and Measures
        3. 43.4.3. Phase 3: Experts
        4. 43.4.4. Phases 4 and 5: Job Task and Criticality Analyses
        5. 43.4.5. Phases 6 and 7: Requirements and Standards
        6. 43.4.6. Phase 8: Governance
        7. 43.4.7. Phase 9: Assessment
        8. 43.4.8. Phase 10: Administration
        9. 43.4.9. Phase 11: Implementation
        10. 43.4.10. Phase 12: Measuring and Reporting
      5. 43.5. SUMMARY
        1. 43.5.1. References
        2. 43.5.2. Additional Resources
    7. 44. Standards and Ethics in Human Performance Technology
      1. 44.1. ETHICS AND MORALITY
        1. 44.1.1. Is There One Correct Ethical Theory?
        2. 44.1.2. Consequentialist Theories: Based on Consequences
      2. 44.2. IS ETHICAL BEHAVIOR ABSOLUTE OR RELATIVE?
      3. 44.3. ETHICAL DECISION MAKING IN AMBIGUOUS SITUATIONS
      4. 44.4. SOCIAL, CORPORATE, AND PROFESSIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS
      5. 44.5. STANDARDS
        1. 44.5.1. Broadening the Vantage Point
        2. 44.5.2. Professional Accountability and Credibility Through Standards
      6. 44.6. ESTABLISHED STANDARDS
        1. 44.6.1. IBSTPI Standards for Instructional Designers
        2. 44.6.2. ISPI Standards for HPT Professionals
        3. 44.6.3. Measurement of Standards and Certification
        4. 44.6.4. Certified Performance Technologist
      7. 44.7. SUMMARY
        1. 44.7.1. References
    8. 45. Professional Ethics: A Matter of Duty
      1. 45.1. WRITING ABOUT ETHICS
      2. 45.2. PROFESSIONAL REQUIREMENTS VERSUS PERSONAL NEEDS
        1. 45.2.1. Defining the Objectives of a Profession
        2. 45.2.2. Our Group: Building a Community
      3. 45.3. THE CHALLENGE OF COMMON TERMS
      4. 45.4. TAKING LESSONS FROM MEDICINE
      5. 45.5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR ETHICAL CENTER
        1. 45.5.1. The Need for a Moral Center
        2. 45.5.2. Trust Leads to Prosperity
      6. 45.6. DIFFERING CULTURES: CORE BELIEFS
        1. 45.6.1. East Asia
        2. 45.6.2. China
        3. 45.6.3. Korea
        4. 45.6.4. Japan
        5. 45.6.5. South Asia
        6. 45.6.6. West-Southwest Asia
        7. 45.6.7. The West
      7. 45.7. COEXISTENCE OF PRINCIPLES
        1. 45.7.1. Consistency of Practice
        2. 45.7.2. Frameworks for Personal and Professional Ethics
        3. 45.7.3. A Societal Framework
      8. 45.8. DUTY
        1. 45.8.1. Local Focus; Global Impact
        2. 45.8.2. Accepting Our Global Duty
      9. 45.9. INCREASING OUR ABILITY TO TRUST AND BE TRUSTED
        1. 45.9.1. Start with the Personal
        2. 45.9.2. A Story: High Tech, Low Trust
        3. 45.9.3. Trust as Understanding
        4. 45.9.4. Trusting an Organization
      10. 45.10. BUILDING AN ETHICAL ENVIRONMENT
        1. 45.10.1. Hire Ethical People
        2. 45.10.2. Set Clear Expectations
        3. 45.10.3. Provide the Necessary Support
        4. 45.10.4. Personal Decisions: Huge Impact
        5. 45.10.5. Wanted: Moral Exemplars
      11. 45.11. THE GOAL? BUILDING A WORTHY LIFE
        1. 45.11.1. References
    9. 46. Improving Human Performance by Employing a Top-Down Function Analysis Methodology in Navy Aircraft Design
      1. 46.1. HUMAN PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
      2. 46.2. THE NAVY'S TOP-DOWN FUNCTION ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY
        1. 46.2.1. Mission Analysis Phase
        2. 46.2.2. Human Performance Goals Analysis Phase
        3. 46.2.3. Function Analysis Phase
        4. 46.2.4. Function Allocation Phase
        5. 46.2.5. Task Design and Analysis Phase
        6. 46.2.6. Interface Concepts and Designs Phase
        7. 46.2.7. Crew and Team Concepts and Designs Phase
        8. 46.2.8. Performance, Workload, and Training Estimation Phase
        9. 46.2.9. User and Requirements Review Phase
      3. 46.3. SUMMARY
        1. 46.3.1. References
  15. VII. LOOKING FORWARD IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
    1. 47. SWOT Analysis
      1. 47.1. SWOT ANALYSIS DEFINED
      2. 47.2. ORIGINS OF THE SWOT ANALYSIS
      3. 47.3. SWOT ANALYSIS AND HPT
        1. 47.3.1. Performance Analysis
        2. 47.3.2. Cause Analysis
      4. 47.4. CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES TO SWOT ANALYSIS
      5. 47.5. USING MARKET RESEARCH DATA FOR SWOT ANALYSIS
      6. 47.6. USING FOCUS GROUP DATA FOR SWOT ANALYSIS
        1. 47.6.1. Step 1: Identifying Stakeholders
        2. 47.6.2. Step 2: Generating SWOTs
        3. 47.6.3. Step 3: Categorizing SWOTs
        4. 47.6.4. Step 4: Deliberation
      7. 47.7. APPLICATIONS OF SWOT ANALYSIS
        1. 47.7.1. Strategic Planning and Needs Assessment
        2. 47.7.2. Evaluation of Change Initiatives
      8. 47.8. SWOT ANALYSIS CRITIQUES AND ADVANCEMENTS
      9. 47.9. ORGANIZATIONAL CONTROL OVER SWOTS
      10. 47.10. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF SWOTS TO AN ORGANIZATION
      11. 47.11. PLOTTING IE2 DATA
      12. 47.12. USING IE2 DATA TO INFORM DECISION MAKING
        1. 47.12.1. Monitor
        2. 47.12.2. Reduce Threats and Maintain Opportunities
        3. 47.12.3. Extinguish Weaknesses and Improve Strengths
      13. 47.13. CONCLUSION
        1. 47.13.1. References
    2. 48. Sustainable Development and Human Performance Technology
      1. 48.1. SUSTAINABILITY DEFINED
        1. 48.1.1. Economic Dimension
        2. 48.1.2. Environmental Dimension
        3. 48.1.3. Social Dimension
      2. 48.2. WHY ORGANIZATIONS ARE CONCERNED WITH SUSTAINABILITY
      3. 48.3. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN IN ACTION: FORD MOTOR COMPANY
      4. 48.4. SUSTAINABILITY AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY
        1. 48.4.1. Groundwork in Our Field
        2. 48.4.2. Role of Human Performance Technology Processes and Practices
      5. 48.5. PLANNING TOOLS
      6. 48.6. IMPLEMENTATION
      7. 48.7. CONCLUSION
        1. 48.7.1. References
    3. 49. Rapid Reflection Throughout the Performance-Improvement Process
      1. 49.1. FOUNDATIONS OF REFLECTION
      2. 49.2. THE RAPID REFLECTION MODEL
        1. 49.2.1. Between Phases, of the HPT Process: Reflection-on-Action and Reflection-for-Action
        2. 49.2.2. Factors Affecting Reflection
        3. 49.2.3. Model Summary
      3. 49.3. IMPLEMENTING THE RAPID REFLECTION PROCESS
        1. 49.3.1. Leveraging the Role of the Human Performance Professional
        2. 49.3.2. Enhancing Work Environment Conditions to Support Reflection
        3. 49.3.3. Tools, Techniques, and Templates
      4. 49.4. CHALLENGES AND SUCCESS STRATEGIES FOR RAPID REFLECTION
      5. 49.5. RAPID REFLECTION EXAMPLE
      6. 49.6. OPPORTUNITIES TO INCREASE THE USE OF THE RAPID REFLECTION MODEL
      7. 49.7. RESOURCES
        1. 49.7.1. References
    4. 50. Appreciative Inquiry: Unraveling the Mystery of Accentuating the Positive
      1. 50.1. APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY DEFINED
      2. 50.2. THE FOUNDERS
      3. 50.3. THE APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY APPROACH: THE 4-D CYCLE
        1. 50.3.1. Discovery
        2. 50.3.2. Dream
        3. 50.3.3. Design
        4. 50.3.4. Destiny
      4. 50.4. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE HPT MODEL AND THE APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY APPROACH
        1. 50.4.1. AI Approach: Affirmative Topic Choice
        2. 50.4.2. The HPT Model: Performance Analysis and Cause Analysis
        3. 50.4.3. AI Versus the HPT Model
      5. 50.5. TRADITIONAL PERFORMANCE SOLUTIONS
        1. 50.5.1. AI Versus Motivational Systems
        2. 50.5.2. AI Versus Incentive Systems
        3. 50.5.3. AI Versus Feedback Systems
        4. 50.5.4. The Selection of AI Versus Traditional Solutions
      6. 50.6. LEADING AI
      7. 50.7. AI AT WORK
      8. 50.8. LARGE-SCALE CHANGE
      9. 50.9. CHALLENGES OF AI
      10. 50.10. CONCLUSION
        1. 50.10.1. Note
        2. 50.10.2. References
    5. 51. Comprehensive Performance Evaluation: Using Logic Models to Develop a Theory-Based Approach for Evaluation of Human Performance Technology Interventions
      1. 51.1. THE LAWFULNESS OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE
      2. 51.2. CURRENT EVALUATION MODELS IN HPT LITERATURE
        1. 51.2.1. Strengths of Level-Based Evaluation
        2. 51.2.2. Limitations of Level-Based Evaluation
      3. 51.3. CURRENT MODELS FROM PROGRAM EVALUATION
        1. 51.3.1. Theory-Based Evaluation
        2. 51.3.2. Logic Modeling for Program Evaluation
      4. 51.4. COMPARING LEVEL-BASED AND THEORY-BASED EVALUATION MODELS
      5. 51.5. AN APPROACH TO COMPREHENSIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. 51.5.1. Theoretical Framework for Comprehensive Performance Evaluation
        2. 51.5.2. Logic Model for Comprehensive Performance Evaluation
        3. 51.5.3. Method for Comprehensive Performance Evaluation
      6. 51.6. EXAMPLES OF COMPREHENSIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. 51.6.1. CPE Logic Model for NTCP
        2. 51.6.2. Program-as-Intended Compared with Program-as-Implemented
      7. 51.7. CONCLUSIONS
        1. 51.7.1. Strengths of Comprehensive Performance Evaluation
        2. 51.7.2. Limitations of Comprehensive Performance Evaluation
        3. 51.7.3. Ideas for Further Development of Comprehensive Program Evaluation
        4. 51.7.4. References
    6. 52. Aligning the Human Performance System
      1. 52.1. EVOLUTION OF UNDERSTANDING
        1. 52.1.1. Early Models
        2. 52.1.2. Joining the Touchstones
        3. 52.1.3. Practical Analytical Tools
        4. 52.1.4. Three Levels of Analysis
        5. 52.1.5. Organizational Alignment
      2. 52.2. FULLY INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK
        1. 52.2.1. Systems Analysis
        2. 52.2.2. Organizational Alignment
      3. 52.3. CONCLUSION
        1. 52.3.1. References
        2. 52.3.2. Additional Resources
    7. 53. Systems, Measures, and Workers: Producing and Obscuring the System and Making Systemic Performance Improvement Difficult
      1. 53.1. MANUFACTURING KNOWLEDGE
      2. 53.2. MANUFACTURING OFFICIAL IGNORANCE
        1. 53.2.1. Getting Performance, Obscuring Gaps, and Impeding Improvement
      3. 53.3. SETTING THE STAGE: HOW CALL CENTERS MANUFACTURE KNOWLEDGE AND PERMIT GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE
      4. 53.4. TALES FROM THE FIELD: OBSCURING VARIANCE FROM MANAGEMENT AND HELPING OR HURTING ONESELF IN THE PROCESS
        1. 53.4.1. Quantity Is More Important Than Quality
        2. 53.4.2. "Maybe This Isn't the Right Place For You . .."
        3. 53.4.3. Whose Value Is It?
        4. 53.4.4. Outstanding Customer Service That Violates Company Policy: Playing Both Sides of the Fence
      5. 53.5. CONCLUSION
        1. 53.5.1. The Doings of Doings: Obscuring Problems from the Organization's View
        2. 53.5.2. Avoiding Jumping to Solutions
        3. 53.5.3. Don't We Already Know How to Handle This?
      6. 53.6. EPILOGUE
        1. 53.6.1. How Do I Value Thee?
        2. 53.6.2. References
    8. 54. Hidden Order of Human Performance Technology: Chaos and Complexity
      1. 54.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 54.2. THE PROBLEM
      3. 54.3. THE SOLUTION
      4. 54.4. THE EXISTING SYSTEM
      5. 54.5. THE HPT PROCESS
      6. 54.6. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF CHAOS AND COMPLEXITY STUDY
      7. 54.7. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHAOTIC SYSTEMS
        1. 54.7.1. Nonlinear Dynamic Systems
        2. 54.7.2. Phase Space
        3. 54.7.3. Bifurcation
        4. 54.7.4. Attractors
        5. 54.7.5. Fractals
        6. 54.7.6. Complex Adaptive Systems
        7. 54.7.7. Networks
        8. 54.7.8. Network Theory
      8. 54.8. COMPANY ABC CASE STUDY
        1. 54.8.1. Context
        2. 54.8.2. Current Opportunities and Threats for Company ABC
        3. 54.8.3. Statement of the HPI Problem
        4. 54.8.4. Root Cause Analysis
        5. 54.8.5. Performance-Improvement Goal
        6. 54.8.6. Proposed Interventions and Considerations
        7. 54.8.7. Summary of Case Study
        8. 54.8.8. Results
      9. 54.9. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCORPORATING CHAOS AND COMPLEXITY INTO THE FUTURE OF HPT
        1. 54.9.1. Embrace Complexity During the Analysis Phase of Projects and Beyond
        2. 54.9.2. Identify and Make Use of Powerful Nodes
        3. 54.9.3. Do Not Be Afraid to Make Concurrent Changes
        4. 54.9.4. Build in Feedback Loops
        5. 54.9.5. Plan for Immediate Adjustments During Implementation
      10. 54.10. CONCLUSION
        1. 54.10.1. References
    9. 55. Quantulumcunque Concerning the Future Development of Performance Technology
      1. 55.1. PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY WILL START QUESTIONING THE PREMISES BEHIND THE CURRENT PT MODELS
      2. 55.2. HAVING CHALLENGED ITS OWN PREMISES, PT WILL EMBRACE OTHER WAYS OF CONCEPTUALIZING REALITY AND INTEGRATE THEM INTO ITS BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
      3. 55.3. PT WILL GIVE UP THE CLAIM TO BEING A TECHNOLOGY AND ACCORDINGLY LABEL ITSELF DIFFERENTLY
      4. 55.4. PT WILL BECOME MORE SERIOUS CONCERNING THE CLAIM OF BEING SYSTEMIC, AND THIS WILL LEAD TO A MORE COMPREHENSIVE SET OF METHODS TO ANALYZE SYSTEMS
      5. 55.5. PT WILL OPEN TOWARD SECOND-ORDER CYBERNETICS
      6. 55.6. SYSTEMS THEORY IN THE FUTURE WILL DEVELOP A NEW FOCUS TO ANSWER THE QUESTION "WHAT ARE THE ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF A SYSTEM?"
      7. 55.7. PT NEEDS TO DEVELOP A MORE COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK HOLDING TOGETHER DIFFERENT MODELS AND APPROACHES CONCERNING PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
        1. 55.7.1. References
  16. ABOUT THE EDITOR
  17. ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS
  18. About ISPI
  19. Addendum to the Copyright Page