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Handbook of Energy by Christopher G. Morris, Cutler J. Cleveland

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Section 35

Transportation, Water

The subject area “Transportation, Water” deals with notable events in the history of travel on oceans, rivers, canals, lakes, and so on. It follows a companion section dealing with land transporation and precedes another dealing with air transportation. Historically, water travel was the first type of transportation to employ an energy source other than human or animal power; i.e., wind. This is believed to have begun in about 3,500 B.C., when boats powered by sails are known to have appeared on the Nile River and in the Mediterranean Sea.

The Nile and the Mediterranean saw other important advances in water transportation during early times, such as propulsion by means of oars, the building of canals, and the ...

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