Novel Analytical Methods for Cleaning Evaluation
A review of recent trends in analytical characterization of wafer cleaning methodologies is covered in this chapter. For the wafer fab, there have been several improvements in the capabilities of total refection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. These would include difference X-ray sources for improved selectivity of analysis and more complete coverage of the entire wafer’s surface. Methodologies also have been developed for monitoring trace metal contamination on the bevel and edge of the wafer. Non-visual defects and wafer charging mechanisms have been characterized with Kelvin probe type technologies. While some new methodologies are still highly specialized, lab based techniques that require a synchrotron X-ray source, others are in situ monitoring at the wafer processing level, such as electrochemical sensors.
Keywords: wafer contamination, contamination monitoring, analysis, TXRF, vapor phase analysis – VPD, vapor phase treatments – VPT, Kelvin probe
The fundamentals of wafer contamination  and trace contamination analysis on wafers  are well covered in these and other references. The purpose of this chapter is to report on recent advances in analytical methodology associated with cleaning and surface conditioning processing. It is useful to consider ...