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Handbook of Cleaning for Semiconductor Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications

Book Description

This comprehensive volume provides an in-depth discussion of the fundamentals of cleaning and surface conditioning of semiconductor applications such as high-k/metal gate cleaning, copper/low-k cleaning, high dose implant stripping, and silicon and SiGe passivation. The theory and fundamental physics associated with wet etching and wet cleaning is reviewed, plus the surface and colloidal aspects of wet processing. Formulation development practices and methodology are presented along with the applications for preventing copper corrosion, cleaning aluminum lines, and other sensitive layers. This is a must-have reference for any engineer or manager associated with using or supplying cleaning and contamination free technologies for semiconductor manufacturing.

From the Reviews...

"This handbook will be a valuable resource for many academic libraries. Many engineering librarians who work with a variety of programs (including, but not limited to Materials Engineering) should include this work in their collection. My recommendation is to add this work to any collection that serves a campus with a materials/manufacturing/electrical/computer engineering programs and campuses with departments of physics and/or chemistry with large graduate-level enrollment."

Randy Wallace, Department Head, Discovery Park Library, University of North Texas

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Foreword
  6. Introduction
  7. Part 1: Fundamentals
    1. Chapter 1: Surface and Colloidal Chemical Aspects of Wet Cleaning
      1. 1.1 Introduction to Surface Chemical Aspects of Cleaning
      2. 1.2 Chemistry of Solid-Water Interface
      3. 1.3 Particulate Contamination: Theory and Measurements
      4. 1.4 Influence of Surface Electrical Charges on Metal Ion Adsorption
      5. 1.5 Wettability of Surfaces
      6. 1.6 High Aspect Ratio Cleaning: Narrow Structures
      7. 1.7 Surface Tension Gradient: Application to Drying
      8. 1.8 Summary
      9. References
    2. Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Wet Cleaning
      1. 2.1 Introduction to Aqueous Cleaning
      2. 2.2 Overview of Aqueous Cleaning Processes
      3. 2.3 The SC-1 Clean or APM
      4. 2.4 The SC-2 clean or HPM
      5. 2.5 Sulfuric Acid-Hydrogen Peroxide Mixture
      6. 2.6 Hydrofluoric Acid
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    3. Chapter 3: The Chemistry of Wet Etching
      1. 3.1 Introduction and Overview
      2. 3.2 Silicon Dioxide Etching
      3. 3.3 Silicon Etching
      4. 3.4 Silicon Nitride Etching
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
    4. Chapter 4: Surface Phenomena: Rinsing and Drying
      1. 4.1 The Surface Phenomena of Rinsing and Drying
      2. 4.2 Overview of Rinsing
      3. 4.3 Overview of Drying
      4. Acknowledgements
      5. References
    5. Chapter 5: Fundamental Design of Chemical Formulations
      1. 5.1 Introduction and Overview
      2. 5.2 Historical Development of Formulations for the Integrated Circuit Industry
      3. 5.3 Mechanism of Stripping, Cleaning, and Particle Removal
      4. 5.4 Components and Additives in Chemical Formulations
      5. 5.5 Creating Chemical Formulations
      6. 5.6 Environmental, Safety, and Health Aspects
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    6. Chapter 6: Filtering, Recirculating, Reuse, and Recycling of Chemicals
      1. 6.1 Overview of Wet Chemical Contamination Control
      2. 6.2 Bulk Chemical Distribution for Wet Cleaning Tools
      3. 6.3 Chemical Distribution, Filtering, and Recirculation Requirements for Wet Cleaning Tools
      4. 6.4 Contamination Control Metrology
      5. 6.5 Effects of Contamination
      6. 6.6 Filtration
      7. 6.7 Chemical Blending, Recycling, and Reuse
      8. 6.8 Summary
      9. References
  8. Part 2: Applications
    1. Chapter 7: Cleaning Challenges of High-k/Metal Gate Structures
      1. 7.1 Introduction and Overview of High-κ/Metal Gate Surface Preparation
      2. 7.2 Surface Preparation and Cleaning
      3. 7.3 Wet Film Removal
      4. 7.4 High-κ Removal
      5. 7.5 Resist Stripping and Residue Removal
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    2. Chapter 8: High Dose Implant Stripping
      1. 8.1 Introduction and Overview of High Dose Implant Stripping
      2. 8.2 High Dose Implant Cleaning and Stripping Processes
      3. 8.3 Plasma Processing
      4. 8.4 Wet Processing
      5. 8.5 Other Processing
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    3. Chapter 9: Aluminum Interconnect Cleaning and Drying
      1. 9.1 Introduction to Aluminum Interconnect Cleaning
      2. 9.2 Source of Post-Etch Residues Requiring Wet Cleaning
      3. 9.3 Chemistry Considerations for Cleans Following Etching
      4. 9.4 Rinsing/Drying and Equipment Considerations
      5. 9.5 Alternative and Emerging Cleaning Technologies
      6. Acknowledgements
      7. References
    4. Chapter 10: Low-κ/CU Cleaning and Drying
      1. 10.1 Introduction and Overview
      2. 10.2 Stripping and Post-etch Residue Removal
      3. 10.3 Pore Sealing and Plasma Damage Repair
      4. 10.4 Post-chemical Mechanical Polishing Cleaning
      5. References
    5. Chapter 11: Corrosion and Passivation of Copper
      1. 11.1 Introduction and Overview
      2. 11.2 Copper Corrosion
      3. 11.3 Copper Corrosion Inhibitors
      4. 11.4 Copper Cleaning Formulations
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    6. Chapter 12: Germanium Surface Conditioning and Passivation
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Germanium Cleaning
      3. 12.3 Surface Passivation and Gate Stack Interface Preparation
      4. References
    7. Chapter 13: Wafer Reclaim
      1. 13.1 Introduction to Wafer Reclaim
      2. 13.2 Introduction to Silicon Manufacturing for Semiconductor Applications
      3. 13.3 Energy Requirements for Silicon Wafer Manufacturing
      4. 13.4 Test Wafer Usage and Wafer Reclaim
      5. 13.5 Requirements for Wafer Reclaim and Recycle
      6. 13.6 Wafer Reclaim Options
      7. 13.7 Types of Wafer Reclaim Processes
      8. 13.8 Formulated Reclaim Solutions
      9. Acknowledgements
      10. References
    8. Chapter 14: Direct Wafer Bonding Surface Conditioning
      1. 14.1 Introduction and Overview of Bonding
      2. 14.2 Planarization and Smoothing Prior to Bonding
      3. 14.3 Wet Cleaning and Surface Conditioning Processing
      4. 14.4 Dry Surface Conditioning Processing
      5. 14.5 Thermal Treatments and Annealing
      6. 14.6 Conductive Bonding
      7. References
  9. Part 3: New Directions
    1. Chapter 15: Novel Analytical Methods for Cleaning Evaluation
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Novel Analytical Methods
      3. 15.3 Recent Advances in Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy Analysis
      4. 15.4 Advances in Vapor Phase Analysis
      5. 15.5 Trace Metal Contamination on the Edge and Bevel of a Wafer
      6. 15.6 Kelvin Probe Technologies
      7. 15.7 Novel Applications of Electron Spectroscopy Techniques
      8. 15.8 Novel X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques
      9. 15.9 Electrochemical Sensors
      10. 15.10 Summary
      11. Acknowledgments
      12. References
    2. Chapter 16: Stripping and Cleaning for Advanced Photolithography Applications
      1. 16.1 Introduction to Advance Stripping Applications
      2. 16.2 Historical Background
      3. 16.3 Recent Trends for Photoresist Stripping and Post-etch Residue Removal
      4. 16.4 Single Wafer Tools
      5. 16.5 Wetting in Small Dimensions and Cleaning Challenges
      6. 16.6 Environmental Health and Safety
      7. 16.7 The Future of Advanced Photoresist Stripping and Cleaning
      8. Acknowledgements
      9. References
  10. Index