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Hall-Effect Sensors, 2nd Edition by Edward Ramsden

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Appendix A

A Brief Introduction to Magnetics

A.1 Where Magnetic Fields Come From

Magnetic fields result from the motion of electrical charges. The two most common effects that generate magnetic fields are electron spin and moving charges. Some atoms, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt, have imbalances in the total spin of the electrons in their electron shells, and this effect is ultimately responsible for these materials’ “magnetic” properties. Moving charges, such as those that form an electrical current, also develop a magnetic field.

The relationships of electric current and magnetic field in empty space under steady-state conditions can be described by:

(Equation A.1)

(Equation A.2)

where is magnetic field, I is electrical current density, ...

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