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Hacking: The Art of Exploitation, 2nd Edition by Jon Erickson

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Peeling Back the Lower Layers

When you use a web browser, all seven OSI layers are taken care of for you, allowing you to focus on browsing and not protocols. At the upper layers of OSI, many protocols can be plaintext since all the other details of the connection are already taken care of by the lower layers. Sockets exist on the session layer (5), providing an interface to send data from one host to another. TCP on the transport layer (4) provides reliability and transport control, while IP on the network layer (3) provides addressing and packet-level communication. Ethernet on the data-link layer (2) provides addressing between Ethernet ports, suitable for basic LAN (Local Area Network) communications. At the bottom, the physical layer (1) ...

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