Ethernet is the de facto networking standard nowadays. It’s a protocol (set of protocols, actually) that represents an agreed-upon set of rules that computing devices use to establish digital communications with each other.
The good news is that any self-respecting local area network (LAN) and certainly the Internet all use Ethernet, so there really isn’t anything more we need to discuss at that level.
More granularly, Ethernet hosts (that is to say, any device that has a network interface card [NIC] installed and is configured for Ethernet networking) must have a unique Internet Protocol (IP) address to be able to send and receive data meaningfully.
There are two versions of IP in ...