You are previewing Guide to Postproduction for TV and Film, 2nd Edition.
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Guide to Postproduction for TV and Film, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Are you an associate producer who needs to juggle projects and vendors while keeping on top of the latest trends and formats? Or an independent filmmaker who can't afford a misstep in the crucial postproduction phase? Take a step back and get a clear overview of the process. This guide will show you how to navigate each step in taking a TV or film project from production to final delivery. Start by getting a handle on the critical issues of budgets and schedules. From there, you'll learn the smoothest way to manage dailies, sound, editing, and completion. Detailed instructions and checklists for film, video, and High Definition procedures will teach you new ways of doing things and help you avoid costly errors.

The second edition is fully updated and information-packed. There is extensive new material on high definition as it affects dailies, editing, and delivery. The chapter on the film laboratory has been expanded further to include discussions on troubleshooting film damage and YCMs, which are so important in maintaining film assets. The latest information on film restoration, digital technologies, acquisitions, and a chapter on what's on the horizon round out the update.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Introduction
  7. 1 Scheduling
    1. Creating a Postproduction Schedule
    2. Elements of the Postproduction Schedule
      1. Principal Photography
      2. Dailies
      3. Second Unit Photography
      4. Editor’s Cut
      5. Director’s Cut
      6. Producer’s Cut
      7. Temporary On-Line/Temporary Dub
      8. Network/Studio View
      9. Picture Lock
      10. Opticals/Simple Visual Effects
      11. Theatrical Test Screenings
      12. Negative Cut
      13. On-Line/Assembly Edit
      14. Answer Print
      15. Spotting Music and Sound Effects
      16. ADR/Looping
      17. Scoring
      18. Color Correction
      19. Prelay/Predub
      20. Titling
      21. Print Before First Trial
      22. Mix/Dub
      23. Fully-Formatted Dupe and Answer Print
      24. Interpositive (IP)
      25. Internegative (IN)
      26. Composite Answer Print
      27. Release Prints
      28. Delivery Duplication/Air Masters
      29. Delivery
      30. Air Date
      31. Overnight Ratings
    3. Summary
    4. Scheduling Samples
    5. Television vs. Theatrical Features
  8. 2 Budgeting
    1. Getting Started on Your Budget
    2. A Carefully Planned Nightmare
    3. Areas to Budget
    4. Understanding Costs and Bids
    5. Purchase Orders
    6. Sample Budget
      1. A Sample Budget
    7. Film and Lab Production
      1. 3700 Film and Lab Production
      2. 3710 Raw Film Stock
      3. 3712 Develop Dailies
    8. Video Production
      1. 3800 Video Production
      2. 3814 Videocassette Dailies
    9. Second Unit
      1. 4000 Second Unit
    10. Photographic Effects and Inserts
      1. 4400 Photographic Effects and Inserts
    11. Editorial and Projection
      1. 4500 Editorial and Projection
      2. 4501 Editor/4502 Assistant Editor
      3. 4503 Apprentice Editors
      4. 4505 Sound Effects Editor and Assistant
      5. 4506 Music Editor and Assistant
      6. 4511 Film Coding
      7. 4512 Script Continuity
      8. 4513 Foreign Delivery Requirements
      9. 4514 Screen Dailies/Projection
      10. 4516 Purchases and Supplies
      11. 4517 Cutting Room and Equipment Rental
      12. 4550 Film Shipment
      13. 4585 Miscellaneous Expenses
    12. Music
      1. 4600 Music
      2. 4601 Composer
      3. 4602 Orchestrators
      4. 4603 Copyists
      5. 4604 Musicians—Score or Prescore
      6. 4608 Singers
      7. 4609 Orchestra Contractor
      8. 4628 Studio Time
      9. 4646 Music Rights and Licenses
      10. 4647 Rental Instruments/Cartage
    13. Postproduction Sound
      1. 4700 Postproduction Sound
      2. 4711 Sound Transfer
      3. 4712 Magnetic Film
      4. 4713 Looping and Narration
      5. 4714 Foley
      6. 4715 Sound Effects Recording
      7. 4717 Optical Sound Track
      8. 4722 Dubbing
      9. 4724 Foreign Delivery Requirements
    14. Film Laboratory and Postproduction
      1. 4800 Film Laboratory/Postproduction
      2. 4824 Negative Cutter
      3. 4828 Answer Print
      4. 4831 Picture Leader
    15. Titles and Opticals
      1. 4900 Titles and Opticals
    16. Video Postproduction
      1. 5000 Video Postproduction
      2. 5001 Video Editing (Off-Line/On-Line)
      3. 5002 Color Correction/Telecine Video Transfer
      4. 5003 Video Labor and Material
      5. 5004 Video-Network Requirements
      6. 5014 Video Stock Purchases
      7. 5020 Satellite Transmission Charges
      8. 5100 Stock Footage
    17. Fringe Benefits—Postproduction
      1. 5200 Fringe Benefits—Postproduction
    18. The Rules of Thumb
  9. 3 Digital Tv and High Definition
    1. The FCC’s Plan
    2. Digital Television Highlights
      1. Our NTSC Broadcast System
        1. MPEG2 Compression
    3. High Definition TV
      1. Interlace
      2. Progressive
      3. 24p
      4. Digital Broadcast
    4. And the Answer Is
  10. 4 The Film Laboratory
    1. Motion Picture Film Formats
    2. Three- and Four-Perf Film
    3. Aspect Ratio
    4. Negative Processing Path
    5. Processing Dailies
      1. Laboratory Processing Schedule
      2. Scheduling Film Processing
      3. Inform the Laboratory
      4. Special Handling
        1. Flashing—It’s Not What You Might Think
      5. Camera and Makeup Tests
      6. Film Cans, Bags, Cores, and Blank Camera Reports
    6. Film Damage
      1. Perforation/Edge Tears
      2. Scratches
      3. Fogging/Light Leaks
      4. Film Loaded in Reverse
      5. Double Exposure
      6. Camera Running Off-Speed
      7. Skiving
      8. Water Damage
      9. Density Shifts (Light Shifts)/Breathing and HMIs
      10. X-Ray Damage
      11. Laboratory Errors
      12. Stock Damage
      13. Film Weave
      14. We Just Meant to Inform, Not Frighten
    7. Creating Other Negatives and Prints
      1. Cut Negative
      2. Acetate vs. Estar
    8. Adding Sound
    9. Application Splash
    10. Creating a Telecine Print
    11. Creating Yellow/Cyan/Magenta (YCM)
      1. What Are YCM Masters?
      2. Why Create YCM Masters?
      3. What Is the Process?
      4. Is the Result Always Positive?
      5. When Are YCMs Needed?
    12. Shipping Exposed Negatives
    13. Summary
    14. Footage Conversions
  11. 5 Dailies
    1. Dropping Film at the Laboratory
    2. Camera Reports
      1. The Camera Report
        1. Camera Report Breakdown
      2. Videotape-Shoot Camera Report
        1. Video Camera Report/Video Log Breakdown
    3. Television Dailies
      1. Film Print Dailies
      2. Film-to-Tape Dailies
        1. Telecine Film Prep
        2. The Dailies Film Transfer
        3. Film Print to Tape Dailies
        4. Transferring 16 : 9 Dailies
          1. Transferring 16 : 9 as 4:3
          2. Transferring the 16 : 9 Image
          3. Work Cassettes
        5. Work Cassettes—High Definition Projects
        6. Film Transfer with Sound
        7. Production Audio Recording Tips
        8. Transfer Data
          1. Telecine Report Breakdown
        9. Naming the Telecine File
        10. Another Transfer Method
          1. The Telecine Transfer Specifications
        11. Road Maps and the Multicamera Shoot
      3. High Definition Dailies
        1. High Definition Dailies Telecine Transfer
      4. Videotape-Shoot Dailies
        1. Editing and Nonlinear Off-Line Cassettes
          1. Size Is Important
          2. Having “Safe” Picture
        2. Dailies Cassettes
        3. Dailies Completion Timetable Warning
        4. Alternations to Your Normal Sleep Pattern
    4. Alternate Dailies Delivery Methods
      1. View Wherever You Are
      2. Long Distance Dailies
        1. Delivery System Options
    5. Troubleshooting Dailies Problems
    6. Image Stabilization
    7. Footage Calculations
    8. Dirt and the Film Transfer
    9. In Summary
  12. 6 Editorial (Film Editorial and Video Off-Line Editing)
    1. The Film Editor
    2. Film Editing
      1. Film Edit Room Equipment
      2. Viewing Film Dailies
      3. Film Coding
      4. Preparing for the Film Cut
      5. Editor’s Log and Script Notes
      6. Off-Line Editing
        1. Correct Opticals and Effects
      7. Beginning the Off-Line
    3. Dailies Transfer Direct to Hard Drive
      1. Off-Line Edit Room Equipment
    4. Desktop Editing
      1. Shooting Film—Editing on DV
      2. Shooting DV—Editing DV
        1. DV Tape Stock
      3. Timecode and the Mini DV
      4. Preparing for the Nonlinear Cut
      5. Editorial Specifications
    5. Nonlinear Editing for High Definition On-Line
      1. Why Off-Line in Standard Definition?
    6. B Negative and Reprints
    7. Stock Footage
      1. 16:9—There Is No Stock Answer
    8. Clips
    9. Editor’s Cut
    10. Director’s Cut
    11. Producer’s Cut
    12. Temporary On-Line/Temporary Dub
    13. Network/Studio View
    14. Picture Lock
      1. Balancing Reels
      2. Act Timings
    15. Opticals/Simple Visual Effects
    16. Negative Cut
    17. Summary
  13. 7 On-Line Editing
    1. On-Line Edit Decision List (EDL)
      1. Talkin’ Trash
    2. On-Line Session Requirements
    3. What the On-Line Facility Needs to Know
    4. The 16 : 9 On-Line
    5. 24p Editing
    6. On-Line Specifications
    7. Summary
  14. 8 Sound
    1. Audio Sweetening
    2. Production Sound
      1. The Sound Recordist
      2. The Sound Report
        1. The Sound Report Breakdown
      3. Production Sound Record Formats
      4. Use a SmartSlate, Dummy
        1. The Dos and Don’ts of Electronic Slating
        2. Electronic Slate Gotcha #1
        3. Electronic Slate Gotcha #2
        4. Not Too Bright—Electronic Slate Gotcha #3
    3. Production Sound Continued
    4. Temporary Mix/Temporary Dub (Temp Mix/Temp Dub)
      1. Do You Need One?
      2. Temporary Insanity
    5. Laydown
    6. Predub/Preplay
    7. Sound Effects
      1. Work Cassettes and Elements
        1. Work Cassette Sample Specifications
      2. Sound Effects Spotting
      3. Creating Sound Effects
    8. Adr/Looping
      1. Scheduling ADR/Looping
      2. Be One Step Ahead
      3. What’s It Going to Cost?
    9. Foley
    10. Music/Scoring
      1. Scoring Methods
      2. Music in a Can
      3. Obtaining Music Clearances
      4. A Word of Advice
    11. Audio Mix/Dub
      1. Be Prepared
      2. How Long Should It Take?
      3. Getting the Right Mix
        1. Sibilance
      4. Final Sound Masters
        1. The Printmaster
        2. Release Printing
        3. MO Disks
      5. Laugh Tracks
    12. Layback
    13. Music and Effects Tracks (M&E)
    14. Foreign Language Dubbing
    15. Foreign Language Film Prints
    16. Foreign Language Videotape Masters
      1. Dubbing in the United States
    17. Dubbing Materials
      1. Dubbing for Theatrical and Video Use
    18. Anti-Piracy Issues
    19. When Do You Dub?
    20. Foreign Laugh Pass
    21. Sound Advice
  15. 9 Completion
    1. Film Finish
      1. Film Opticals vs. A/B Cutting
        1. Single Strand Opticals
        2. A/B Opticals
        3. Choosing the Right Method
      2. Theatrical Film Finish
        1. Color Correcting Film
      3. Creating Formatted Dupes
        1. The Process
        2. Adding Sound
        3. Application Splash
      4. Alternate Sound Applications Methods
        1. Cyan and High Magenta Sound Tracks
      5. Film Finish for Telecine Transfer
        1. Reasons to Create a Print
        2. Adding Sound to Film
        3. Film Mags
    2. Videotape Finish
      1. The Tape-Finish Process
    3. Color Correction
      1. Why Color Correction Is Necessary
      2. Color Correcting Dailies
        1. The Color-Blind Producer
      3. Color Correcting Film to Tape
        1. Laying Down Your Color-Corrected Image from Film
      4. Transfer Standards
    4. Color Correction For Digital Cinema Delivery
      1. The D-Cinema Color Correction Bay
      2. Preparing for the D-Cinema Transfer
        1. Planning Ahead
          1. Telecine Drift
      3. Color Correcting Tape to Tape
    5. Dirt Fixes
      1. Noise Reduction/Picture Enhancement
        1. Starry, Starry Night
    6. Video In, Film Out
      1. So, What Is This Film-Out Thing?
      2. Understanding Data Resolution
      3. Film-Out Specifications
      4. Three Film-Out Processes
        1. The Film Recorder
        2. Electron Beam Recorder
        3. Kinescope
      5. Sound for Film Out
        1. 2 Pop
    7. Formatting
      1. Formatting for Network Delivery
        1. The Format Session
      2. Formatting for Foreign Delivery
    8. Credits and Titling
      1. Credits
        1. Tips for Creating Credits
        2. Credits for Features
        3. Credits for MOW or Pilot
        4. Credits for Episodics
        5. Union Rules Regarding Credits
          1. WGA (Writer’s Guild of America)
          2. DGA (Director’s Guild of America)
          3. SAG (Screen Actor’s Guild)
        6. Choosing a Font
        7. Mine Is Bigger
        8. Red Alert
      2. Titling
        1. Titling in 16 : 9
        2. Title Parts
        3. Titling Requirements
        4. Textless—It’s Not a State
        5. Be the Hero
        6. Titles and Captions
    9. Varispeed
      1. When to Varispeed
      2. Varispeed and the Foreigner
      3. Summary
    10. Closed Captioning
      1. It’s Not Just for the Hearing-Challenged
      2. Captioning Needs
      3. Sample Caption Cassette Specifications
      4. Captioning Your Master
      5. Captioning vs. Titling
      6. Summary
      7. Subtitles
    11. V-Chip
    12. Video Descriptions
    13. As-Broadcast Scripts
    14. Quality Control
      1. Two Types of Quality Control
      2. The Quality-Control Form
      3. Quality Control Costs
      4. Foreign Risks
      5. Who Is Responsible?
    15. Standards Conversion
      1. The Source Material
        1. Your Delivery Requirement
        2. Starting with a High Definition Master
        3. Starting with a Standard Definition/Film-Based Source
        4. Starting with a Standard Definition/Video-Based Source
        5. Using Field-Based Conversions on Film-Originated Videotape
        6. Field Dominance
          1. DVD PAL
    16. Negative Cut/Negative Conform
      1. LokBox Cassette
    17. Wrap-Up
  16. 10 Delivery
    1. A Long Labor
    2. Get the Delivery Agreement
    3. Makin’ a List and Checkin’ It Twice
    4. Know Who Gets What
    5. Network/Domestic Delivery
    6. Network Resources
      1. Network Meetings
      2. Feeding the Promotions Department
      3. Network Delivery Packet
        1. Cover Sheet
        2. Rate Card
        3. Format Sheet
        4. Delivery Requirements
          1. The Network Final Delivery Checklist
        5. Credit Guidelines
        6. Standards and Practices Guidelines
        7. Music Cue Sheet Instructions
        8. Technical Broadcast Specifications
        9. Framing Guidelines
        10. Making Use of the Delivery Packet
          1. Network Videotape Delivery List
    7. International or Foreign Delivery
      1. Granting Access
      2. Foreign Delivery Checklist
      3. Foreign Formatting
    8. Production Company Delivery
      1. Cast/Crew Cassette Copies
      2. Technical Requirements for Cassettes
      3. Production Company Delivery Checklist
        1. When the Producer Sells the Rights
          1. It Rings True
        2. When the Producer Retains the Rights
        3. Taking Stock
        4. Executive Quality
    9. Delivering
  17. 11 Legal
    1. Worthwhile Advice
    2. Five Reasons to Check with the Lawyers
      1. Stock Footage
      2. Music
      3. Products
      4. References
      5. Film Clips
        1. Disclaimers
          1. Sample Disclaimer
    3. Is It Clear?
  18. 12 Acquisition
    1. What Is an Acquisition Title?
      1. What If You’re Just a Little Guy
        1. Determining Delivery Elements
        2. Technical Assistance
      2. Other Common Causes for Rejection
        1. Missing Sound Effects
        2. Production Sound Problems
        3. Film Dirt/Film Damage
        4. Electronic Video Dirt/Damage Clean-Up
        5. Recut Negative
        6. Camera Problems
        7. Textless
      3. Other Delivery Items
      4. Rejected Delivery Materials
        1. Written Rejection Report
        2. Conditions of Acceptance
        3. Acceptance
        4. Fixing Rejections
        5. Is a Fix Required?
        6. How Much Will the Fix Cost?
        7. How Long Will the Fix Take to Complete?
        8. What Needs to Be Redelivered?
    2. Acquired Libraries
    3. In Summary
  19. 13 The Future
    1. A Little Background
      1. It’s Videotape—Run for Your Lives
    2. Oh, Digital Cinema
      1. Getting It Going
      2. Anti-Piracy
      3. Who’s Driving the D-Cinema Movement?
      4. Will High Def and Digital Transmission/Projection Catch On?
    3. Universal Mastering
    4. Digital Asset Management
      1. A Summary and a Chart
    5. Sound Improvements
    6. A Small Summary
    7. A Bigger Summary
  20. In Summary
  21. Glossary
  22. Index