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Guide To Economic Indicators, Seventh Edition

Book Description

It is even more essential in business and many professions today than in the past to have a thorough understanding of economic information. Written for the non-specialist, this highly accessible guide provides the keys to understanding all the major and many lesser economic indicators: what they are, the areas they cover, their reliability, and how and why to interpret them.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. 1 Interpreting economic indicators
  3. 2 Essential mechanics
  4. 3 Measuring economic activity
    1. Omissions
    2. Output, expenditure and income
    3. Prices
    4. Putting it in context
    5. Reliability
  5. 4 Growth: trends and cycles
    1. Nominal GDP
    2. GDP per head
    3. Real GDP
    4. GDP: output
    5. GDP: expenditure
    6. Productivity
    7. Cyclical or leading indicators
  6. 5 Population, employment and unemployment
    1. Population
    2. Labour or workforce
    3. Employment
    4. Unemployment and vacancies
  7. 6 Fiscal indicators
    1. Public expenditure
    2. Government revenues
    3. Budget balance, deficit, surplus
    4. National debt; government or public debt
  8. 7 Consumers
    1. Personal income, disposable income
    2. Consumer and personal expenditure, private consumption
    3. Personal and household savings; savings ratio
    4. Consumer confidence
  9. 8 Investment and savings
    1. Fixed investment and GDFCF
    2. Investment intentions
    3. Stocks (inventories)
    4. National savings, savings ratio
  10. 9 Industry and commerce
    1. Business conditions; indices and surveys
    2. Industrial and manufacturing production
    3. Capacity use and utilisation
    4. Manufacturing orders
    5. Motor vehicles
    6. Construction orders and output
    7. Housing starts, completions and sales
    8. Wholesale sales or turnover, orders and stocks
    9. Retail sales or turnover, orders and stocks
  11. 10 The balance of payments
    1. Accounting conventions
    2. Exports of goods and services
    3. Imports of goods and services
    4. Trade balance, merchandise trade balance
    5. Current-account balance
    6. Capital- and financial-account flows
    7. International investment position (IIP)
    8. Official reserves
    9. External debt, net foreign assets
  12. 11 Exchange rates
    1. Nominal exchange rates
    2. Special drawing rights ( SDRs )
    3. EMU , ECU, ERM and EURO
    4. Effective exchange rates
    5. Real exchange rates; competitiveness
    6. Terms of trade
  13. 12 Money and financial markets
    1. Money supply, money stock, M0 … M5, liquidity
    2. Bank lending, advances, credit, consumer credit
    3. Central bank policy rates
    4. Interest rates; short-term and money-market rates
    5. Bond yields
    6. Yield curves, gaps and ratios
    7. Real interest rates and yields
    8. Share prices and yields
  14. 13 Prices and wages
    1. Price indicators
    2. Gold price
    3. Oil prices
    4. Commodity price indices
    5. Export and import prices; unit values
    6. Producer and wholesale prices
    7. Surveys of price expectations
    8. Wages, earnings and labour costs
    9. Unit labour costs
    10. Consumer or retail prices
    11. Consumer or private expenditure deflators
    12. GDP deflators
  15. Appendix Useful websites