You are previewing GSM - Architecture, Protocols and Services, Third Edition.
O'Reilly logo
GSM - Architecture, Protocols and Services, Third Edition

Book Description

With around 3 billion subscribers, GSM is the world's most commonly used technology for wireless communication. Providing an overview of the innovations that have fuelled this phenomena, GSM: Architecture, Protocols and Services, Third Edition offers a clear introduction to the field of cellular systems. Special emphasis is placed on system architecture and protocol aspects, and topics range from addressing concepts through mobility management to network management.

This third edition contains around 25% new and reworked material and has been thoroughly updated to encompass recent advances and future trends. It serves as both an introductory textbook for graduate students as well as a reference resource for telecommunications engineers and researchers.

This edition:

  • Presents capacity enhancement methods like sectorization, the application of adaptive antennas for Spatial Filtering for Interference Reduction (SFIR) and Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

  • Provides a detailed introduction to GPRS, HSCSD, and EDGE for packet-switched services and higher data rates

  • Features updated coverage on the vastly expanded range of GSM services, including an examination of Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)

  • Adopts a highly graphical approach with numerous illustrations

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
  3. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1. The idea of unbounded communication
    2. 1.2. The success of GSM
    3. 1.3. Classification of mobile communication systems
    4. 1.4. Some history and statistics of GSM
    5. 1.5. Overview of the book
  4. 2. The mobile radio channel and the cellular principle
    1. 2.1. Characteristics of the mobile radio channel
    2. 2.2. Separation of directions and duplex transmission
      1. 2.2.1. Frequency Division Duplex
      2. 2.2.2. Time Division Duplex
    3. 2.3. Multiple access
      1. 2.3.1. Frequency Division Multiple Access
      2. 2.3.2. Time Division Multiple Access
      3. 2.3.3. Code Division Multiple Access
        1. 2.3.3.1. Direct sequence CDMA
        2. 2.3.3.2. Frequency hopping CDMA
      4. 2.3.4. Space Division Multiple Access
    4. 2.4. Cellular principle
      1. 2.4.1. Definitions
      2. 2.4.2. Carrier-to-interference ratio
      3. 2.4.3. Formation of clusters
      4. 2.4.4. Traffic capacity and traffic engineering
      5. 2.4.5. Sectorization of cells
      6. 2.4.6. Spatial filtering for interference reduction (SFIR)
        1. 2.4.6.1. C/I improvement and blocking probability
        2. 2.4.6.2. Outage probability
        3. 2.4.6.3. Numerical results
  5. 3. System architecture and addressing
    1. 3.1. System architecture
    2. 3.2. The SIM concept
    3. 3.3. Addressing
      1. 3.3.1. International mobile station equipment identity
      2. 3.3.2. International mobile subscriber identity
      3. 3.3.3. Mobile subscriber ISDN number
      4. 3.3.4. Mobile station roaming number
      5. 3.3.5. Location area identity
      6. 3.3.6. Temporary mobile subscriber identity
      7. 3.3.7. Other identifiers
    4. 3.4. Registers and subscriber data
      1. 3.4.1. Location registers (HLR and VLR)
      2. 3.4.2. Security-related registers (AUC and EIR)
      3. 3.4.3. Subscriber data
    5. 3.5. Network interfaces and configurations
      1. 3.5.1. Interfaces
      2. 3.5.2. Configurations
  6. 4. Air interface – physical layer
    1. 4.1. Logical channels
      1. 4.1.1. Traffic channels
      2. 4.1.2. Signaling channels
      3. 4.1.3. Example: connection setup for incoming call
      4. 4.1.4. Bit rates, block lengths and block distances
      5. 4.1.5. Combinations of logical channels
    2. 4.2. Physical channels
      1. 4.2.1. Modulation
      2. 4.2.2. Multiple access, duplexing and bursts
      3. 4.2.3. Optional frequency hopping
      4. 4.2.4. Summary
    3. 4.3. Synchronization
      1. 4.3.1. Frequency and clock synchronization
      2. 4.3.2. Adaptive frame synchronization
    4. 4.4. Mapping of logical onto physical channels
      1. 4.4.1. 26-frame multiframe
      2. 4.4.2. 51-frame multiframe
    5. 4.5. Radio subsystem link control
      1. 4.5.1. Channel measurement
        1. 4.5.1.1. Channel measurement during idle mode
        2. 4.5.1.2. Channel measurement during a connection
      2. 4.5.2. Transmission power control
      3. 4.5.3. Disconnection due to radio channel failure
      4. 4.5.4. Cell selection and operation in power conservation mode
        1. 4.5.4.1. Cell selection and cell reselection
        2. 4.5.4.2. Discontinuous reception
    6. 4.6. Channel coding, source coding and speech processing
    7. 4.7. Source coding and speech processing
    8. 4.8. Channel coding
      1. 4.8.1. External error protection: block coding
        1. 4.8.1.1. Block coding for speech traffic channel
        2. 4.8.1.2. Block coding for data traffic channels
        3. 4.8.1.3. Block coding for signaling channels
      2. 4.8.2. Internal error protection: convolutional coding
        1. 4.8.2.1. Speech traffic channels
        2. 4.8.2.2. Data traffic channels
        3. 4.8.2.3. Convolutional decoding
      3. 4.8.3. Interleaving
        1. 4.8.3.1. Full-rate speech channel, TCH/F2.4 and FACCH
        2. 4.8.3.2. Other data traffic channels
        3. 4.8.3.3. Half-rate speech channel
        4. 4.8.3.4. Signaling channels
      4. 4.8.4. Mapping onto the burst plane
      5. 4.8.5. Improved codecs for speech services: half-rate codec, enhanced full-rate codec and adaptive multi-rate codec
        1. 4.8.5.1. Half-rate codec
        2. 4.8.5.2. Enhanced full-rate codec
        3. 4.8.5.3. Adaptive multi-rate codec
    9. 4.9. Power-up scenario
  7. 5. Protocols
    1. 5.1. Protocol architecture planes
    2. 5.2. Protocol architecture of the user plane
      1. 5.2.1. Speech transmission
      2. 5.2.2. Transparent data transmission
      3. 5.2.3. Nontransparent data transmission
    3. 5.3. Protocol architecture of the signaling plane
      1. 5.3.1. Overview of the signaling architecture
        1. 5.3.1.1. Physical layer
        2. 5.3.1.2. Layer 2: LAPDm
        3. 5.3.1.3. Layer 3
        4. 5.3.1.4. Radio resource management
        5. 5.3.1.5. Mobility management
        6. 5.3.1.6. Connection management
        7. 5.3.1.7. Message transfer part
        8. 5.3.1.8. BSS application part
        9. 5.3.1.9. BTS management
        10. 5.3.1.10. Mobile application part
      2. 5.3.2. Transport of user data in the signaling plane
    4. 5.4. Signaling at the air interface (Um)
      1. 5.4.1. Layer 1 of the MS-BTS interface
        1. 5.4.1.1. Layer 1 services
        2. 5.4.1.2. Layer 1: Procedures and peer-to-peer signaling
      2. 5.4.2. Layer 2 signaling
      3. 5.4.3. Radio resource management
        1. 5.4.3.1. Connection setup and release
        2. 5.4.3.2. Channel change
        3. 5.4.3.3. Handover
        4. 5.4.3.4. Activation of ciphering
        5. 5.4.3.5. Other signaling procedures
      4. 5.4.4. Mobility management
        1. 5.4.4.1. Common MM procedures
        2. 5.4.4.2. Specific MM procedures
        3. 5.4.4.3. MM connection management
      5. 5.4.5. Connection management
      6. 5.4.6. Structured signaling procedures
      7. 5.4.7. Signaling procedures for supplementary services
      8. 5.4.8. Realization of SMS
    5. 5.5. Signaling at the A and Abis interfaces
    6. 5.6. Security-related network functions: authentication and encryption
      1. 5.6.1. Protection of subscriber identity
      2. 5.6.2. Verification of subscriber identity
      3. 5.6.3. Generating security data
      4. 5.6.4. Encryption of signaling and payload data
    7. 5.7. Signaling at the user interface
  8. 6. Roaming and handover
    1. 6.1. Mobile application part interfaces
    2. 6.2. Location registration and location update
    3. 6.3. Connection establishment and termination
      1. 6.3.1. Routing calls to MSs
        1. 6.3.1.1. Effect of the MSRN assignment on routing
        2. 6.3.1.2. Placement of the protocol entities for HLR interrogation
      2. 6.3.2. Call establishment and corresponding MAP procedures
        1. 6.3.2.1. Outgoing connection setup
        2. 6.3.2.2. Incoming connection setup
      3. 6.3.3. Call termination
      4. 6.3.4. MAP procedures and routing for short messages
    4. 6.4. Handover
      1. 6.4.1. Overview
      2. 6.4.2. Intra-MSC handover
      3. 6.4.3. Decision algorithm for handover timing
      4. 6.4.4. MAP and inter-MSC handover
        1. 6.4.4.1. Basic handover between two MSCs
        2. 6.4.4.2. Subsequent handover
  9. 7. Services
    1. 7.1. Classical GSM services
      1. 7.1.1. Teleservices
        1. 7.1.1.1. Voice
        2. 7.1.1.2. Fax transmission
    2. 7.2. Popular GSM services: SMS and MMS
      1. 7.2.1. SMS
      2. 7.2.2. EMS
      3. 7.2.3. MMS
        1. 7.2.3.1. MMS architecture
    3. 7.3. Overview of GSM services in Phase 2+
    4. 7.4. Bearer and teleservices of GSM Phase 2+
      1. 7.4.1. Advanced speech call items
        1. 7.4.1.1. Voice broadcast service
          1. 7.4.1.1.1. System concept and group call register.
          2. 7.4.1.1.2. Call establishment and logical channels.
        2. 7.4.1.2. Voice Group Call Service
          1. 7.4.1.2.1. Logical channels.
        3. 7.4.1.3. Enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption
      2. 7.4.2. New data services and higher data rates: HSCSD, GPRS and EDGE
    5. 7.5. Supplementary services in GSM Phase 2+
      1. 7.5.1. Supplementary services for speech
      2. 7.5.2. Location service
    6. 7.6. Service platforms
      1. 7.6.1. CAMEL: GSM and INs
      2. 7.6.2. Service platforms on the terminal side
        1. 7.6.2.1. SIM application toolkit
        2. 7.6.2.2. Mobile station application execution environment
    7. 7.7. Wireless application protocol
      1. 7.7.1. Wireless markup language
      2. 7.7.2. Protocol architecture
      3. 7.7.3. System architecture
      4. 7.7.4. Services and applications
  10. 8. Improved data services in GSM: GPRS, HSCSD and EDGE
    1. 8.1. GPRS
      1. 8.1.1. System architecture of GPRS
      2. 8.1.2. Services
        1. 8.1.2.1. Bearer services and supplementary services
        2. 8.1.2.2. Quality of service
        3. 8.1.2.3. Simultaneous use of packet-switched and circuit-switched services
      3. 8.1.3. Session management, mobility management and routing
        1. 8.1.3.1. Attachment and detachment procedure
        2. 8.1.3.2. Session management and PDP context
        3. 8.1.3.3. Routing
        4. 8.1.3.4. Location management
      4. 8.1.4. Protocol architecture
        1. 8.1.4.1. Transmission plane
          1. 8.1.4.1.1. GPRS backbone: SGSN-GGSN.
          2. 8.1.4.1.2. Air interface.
          3. 8.1.4.1.3. Subnetwork dependent convergence protocol.
          4. 8.1.4.1.4. Data link layer.
          5. 8.1.4.1.5. Physical layer.
          6. 8.1.4.1.6. BSS-SGSN interface.
        2. 8.1.4.2. Routing and conversion of addresses
      5. 8.1.5. Signaling plane
      6. 8.1.6. Interworking with IP networks
      7. 8.1.7. Air interface
        1. 8.1.7.1. Multiple access and radio resource management
        2. 8.1.7.2. Logical channels
        3. 8.1.7.3. Mapping of packet data logical channels onto physical channels
        4. 8.1.7.4. Channel coding
      8. 8.1.8. Authentication and ciphering
        1. 8.1.8.1. User authentication
        2. 8.1.8.2. Ciphering
        3. 8.1.8.3. Subscriber identity confidentiality
      9. 8.1.9. Summary of GPRS
    2. 8.2. HSCSD
      1. 8.2.1. Architecture
      2. 8.2.2. Air interface
      3. 8.2.3. HSCSD resource allocation and capacity issues
    3. 8.3. EDGE
      1. 8.3.1. The EDGE concept
      2. 8.3.2. EDGE physical layer, modulation and coding
      3. 8.3.3. EDGE: effects on the GSM system architecture
      4. 8.3.4. ECSD and EGPRS
      5. 8.3.5. EDGE Classic and EDGE Compact
  11. 9. Beyond GSM and UMTS: 4G
  12. A. Data communication and networking
    1. A.1. Reference configuration
    2. A.2. Overview of data communication
    3. A.3. Service selection at transitions between networks
    4. A.4. Bit rate adaptation
    5. A.5. Asynchronous data services
      1. A.5.1. Transparent transmission in the mobile network
      2. A.5.2. Nontransparent data transmission
      3. A.5.3. PAD access to public packet-switched data networks
        1. A.5.3.1. Asynchronous connection to PSPDN PADs
        2. A.5.3.2. Dedicated PAD access in GSM
    6. A.6. Synchronous data services
      1. A.6.1. Overview
      2. A.6.2. Synchronous X.25 packet data network access
        1. A.6.2.1. Basic packet mode
        2. A.6.2.2. Dedicated packet mode
    7. A.7. Teleservices: fax
  13. B. Aspects of network operation
    1. B.1. Objectives of GSM NM
    2. B.2. Telecommunication management network
    3. B.3. TMN realization in GSM networks
  14. C. GSM Addresses
    1. Additional Addresses for GPRS
  15. D. List of Acronyms
  16. References