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Green Technologies

Book Description

In recent years, environmental technology has become a critical area of study, as individuals and organizations have started to emphasize the importance of conserving resources and reducing human impact on the environment. Environmental Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications assembles the most up-to-date collection of research results and recent discoveries in green technology. This comprehensive anthology covers a wide range of topics, including climate change, sustainable development, green diplomacy, and more.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 101: Green Energy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 102: Green Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ASPECTS OF THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY
      4. THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT
      5. STAKEHOLDERS, PLAYERS AND VALUE CHAIN IN HEALTHCARE
      6. ROLE OF GREEN ICT IN THE HEALTHCARE SECTOR
      7. MOBILE AND WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES IN THE HEALTH SECTOR
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 103: Green IS
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED RESEARCH
      4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
      5. STEPS TOWARDS A RESEARCH AGENDA
    4. Chapter 104: Information and Communication Technologies for a more Sustainable World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Perspectives of ICT and Sustainability
      4. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 105: Planning Sustainable Communities
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 106: Strategies for Greening Enterprise IT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF IT
      4. GREENING IT: A NECESSITY, NOT AN OPTION
      5. STRATEGIES FOR GREENING ENTERPRISE IT
      6. A SEVEN-STEP APPROACH TO CREATING GREEN IT STRATEGY
      7. CREATING GREEN AWARENESS
      8. USING IT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
      9. ETHICS AND GREEN IT
      10. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 107: Sustainability Constraints as System Boundaries
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKCASTING FROM BASIC SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES
      4. RATIONALE FOR STRATEGIC LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT
      5. PRELIMINARY GUIDELINES FOR STRATEGIC LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 108: Sustainable Infrastructure Project Planning
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Infrastructure Project Planning
      4. Decision Making in Infrastructure Planning
      5. Decision Support System
      6. DSS for Construction Project Management
      7. Research Direction for Future DSS Development
      8. Proposed Settings for a Typical Construction DSS Application
      9. Conclusion
    9. Chapter 109: Sustaining the Green Information Technology Movement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Definition of Green Computing
      4. Organization of the Chapter
      5. Personal Computers
      6. Disposal of Computers (E-Waste)
      7. Materials Recycling
      8. Data Centres
      9. Virtualization
      10. Cloud Computing
      11. Telecommuting and Teleworking
      12. Green Energy
      13. Green Organization
      14. Costs and Benefits of Green Computing and Green Product Design
      15. Government Initiatives to Promote Green Computing
      16. Implications of Green Information Technology
    10. Chapter 110: The Greenstone Digital Library Software
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. History and Background
      4. Reconciling Research and Production
      5. Conclusion
    11. Chapter 111: Sustainable Supply Chain Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Green Supply Chain Management
      4. Green Logistics
      5. Green Supply Chain/Logistics Reference Model and Cases
      6. Using RFID to Support ‘Greening’ of the SUPPLY CHAIN
      7. Opportunities for RFID in Green Logistics
      8. Conclusion
    12. Chapter 112: Sustainable Transport Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 113: Sustainable Urban Development
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Sustainable Urban Planning and Development
      4. An Integrated Sustainable Planning and Development Process
      5. Conclusion
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 201: A Comprehensive and Practical Green ICT Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Why is Green ICT Important?
      4. The Green ICT framework
      5. Equipment Lifecycle
      6. End User Computing
      7. Enterprise Computing
      8. ICT as a Low-Carbon Enabler
      9. Attitude, Policy, Practice and Technology
      10. Metrics
      11. Measuring Green ICT
      12. FUTURE DIRECTION
      13. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 202: A Framework for Environmentally Responsible Business Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICT AND THE ENVIRONMENT: LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. NEED FOR REENGINEERING THE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE
      5. MAP AND INVESTIVATE THE PROCESS TO BE REENGINEERED
      6. DESIGN ERBS
      7. ERBS ARCHITECTURE
      8. OPPORTUNITY AND SOLUTIONS:
      9. RESEARCH OUTCOMES
      10. MAJOR ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
      11. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 203: A Framework for the Implementation of Eco-Efficient Business Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. Implementation of Eco-Efficient Business Operations
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 204: A Linear Optimization Approach for Increasing Sustainability in Vegetable Crop Production
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. THE CROP ROTATION SCHEDULING MODEL
      6. SOME CROP ROTATION OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS
      7. SOLUTION METHODOLOGY
      8. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. APPENDIX A
      11. APPENDIX B
    5. Chapter 205: Architecture, Design and Development of a Green ICT System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
      5. GREEN ICT PROJECT
      6. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING GREEN ICT SOLUTION
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 206: Brisbane Urban Growth Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 207: Green ICT and Architectural Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT SITUATION
      4. ORGANISATIONAL PROCESS LANDSCAPE
      5. COMPLEXITIES OF CURRENT APPLICATION ENVIRONMENTS
      6. GREEN ICT METRICS
      7. TOTAL SUSTAINABILITY ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK
      8. GAME THEORY IN ICT ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    8. Chapter 208: Green ICT System Architecture Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW
      4. Business Strategy and Vision
      5. APPLICATION OF EA IN GREEN ENTERPRISE
      6. GREEN EA IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES AND MIGRATION STRATEGY
      7. FUTURE DIRECTION
      8. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 209: Modeling of Green Supply Chain Logistics
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN THRUST OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FURTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. Chapter 210: Green Semicondoctor Design Techniques and Challanges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Overview
      3. Early Power Estimation
      4. Conclusion: After applying clock gating on above SOC design
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 301: A BIM Based Application to Support Cost Feasible ‘Green Building’ Concept Decisions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. A CASE STUDY OF SINGAPORE
      5. 4. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. 5. FURTHER WORK
      7. Acknowledgment
    2. Chapter 302: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach for Household Appliances and Automobile Recycling
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTRODUCTION TO DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS APPROACH
      5. DEA APPLICATION TO END-OF-LIFE DECISION MAKING PROCESS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH
    3. Chapter 303: A Decision Support System for Sustainable Urban Development
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 304: A Taxonomy of Green Information and Communication Protocols and Standards
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A TAXONOMY OF GREEN ICT PROTOCOLS
      5. Governing Bodies of Green ICT Protocols
      6. Standard Development Organizations
      7. Future Directions and Conclusion
    5. Chapter 305: An Artificial Life-Based Vegetation Modelling Approach for Biodiversity Research
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Background
      4. Methodology: Natured-Inspired Modelling
      5. Future Trends
      6. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 306: Building Capacity for Better Water Decision Making through Internet-Based Decision Support Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DECISION MAKING IN WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS BACKGROUND
      4. INTERNET AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION SUPPORTING DECISION MAKING
      5. INTERNET AS THE SOURCE OF MODELS AND DSS TOOLS
      6. WEB-BASED DSS
      7. INTERNET-BASED OPTIMIZATION TOOLS
      8. LEGAL ASPECTS
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 307: Comprehensive Energy Systems Analysis Support Tools for Decision Making
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. Integration of MARKAL, LCA and ExternE in the Val D’Agri Local Scale Application
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. Acknowledgment
    8. Chapter 308: Energy Management System Using Wireless Sensor Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Automatic Meter Reading
      4. Wireless BASE Architecture for Energy Management System:
      5. Energy Distribution Network
      6. GREEN Benefits from the Fully AMR System
      7. Conclusion
    9. Chapter 309: Evolutionary Bayesian Belief Networks for Participatory Water Resources Management under Uncertainty
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROLE OF INTEGRATED CAUSAL LOOP DIAGRAM: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORK AND EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM IN PARTICIPATORY WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
      4. CASE STUDIES
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 310: Sustainable Product Service Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CHALLENGE: ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH LESS RESOURCE USE
      4. PRODUCT STEWARDSHIP AND TAKE-BACK SCHEMES
      5. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT SERVICE SYSTEMS
      6. THE HP “SERVICE SOLUTION”
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. OTHER APPLICATIONS AND WIDER POTENTIAL
      9. RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA
      10. CLOSING COMMENTS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. Chapter 311: Traceability Systems for Sustainable Development in Rural Areas
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REAL CASE
      4. ADOPTED SOLUTION
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    12. Chapter 312: Using Geographic Information System to Infollow the Fertilizers Pollution Migration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLYING STATISTICAL ANALYSIS WITHIN GIS
      5. USING GIS TO INFOLLOW FERTILIZERS POLLUTION
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 313: Using Knowledge Management Tools in Fostering Green ICT Related Behavior Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Theoretical Perspective
      4. Microsoft Hohm: Managing Sustainability
      5. Discussion
      6. Future Trends
      7. Conclusion
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 401: A Composite Indicator to Measure Agricultural Sustainability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CASE STUDY
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX A. SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
      8. APPENDIX B
    2. Chapter 402: Adaptive Management on Sustainability of Cork Oak Woodlands
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. FINAL REMARKS
    3. Chapter 403: An Australian Rules Football Club Approach To Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STATE OF GREEN ICT
      5. WHERE IS THE AFL AND ITS CLUBS WITH GREEN ICT?
      6. GREEN ICT AND THE CARLTON FOOTBALL CLUB
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 404: Application of a Composite Process Framework for Managing Green ICT Applications Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPOSITE PROCESS FRAMEWORK
      4. GREEN ICT SYSTEMS OVERVIEW
      5. GREEN ICT SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION
      6. GREEN ICT STRATEGIES
      7. GREEN ICT SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
      8. APPLICATION OF COMPOSITE PROCESS FRAMEWORK FOR GREEN ICT SYSTMES DEVELOPMENT
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTION
    5. Chapter 405: Application of Remote Sensing Technologies and Geographical Information Systems in Monitoring Environmental Degradation in the Lake Victoria Watershed, East Africa
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOURCES OF POLLUTION IN WATERSHEDS
      5. LAND USE POLLUTION LOADING MODELS
      6. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT DATA REQUIREMENTS AND POTENTIAL SOURCES
      7. NONPOINT POLLUTION LOADING FACTORS
      8. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
      9. RAINFALL/RUNOFF RELATIONSHIPS
      10. HYDROINFORMATICS: WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT
      11. WATER MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN
      12. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS
      13. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      14. FUTURE TRENDS
      15. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 406: Applying Service Oriented Architecture and Cloud Computing for a Greener Traffic Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Case Study: Traffic Management System
      4. SOA Architecture Styles
      5. Cloud computing
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION FOR TMS
      7. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 407: Assessing Environment-Climate Impacts in the Nile Basin for Decision-Making
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COUPLING WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE NILE BASIN WITH ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE POLICY
      5. ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE IMPACTS IN THE NILE BASIN: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ISSUES
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 408: Breaking Out from Lock-In
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE RUHRGEBIET IN SHORT
      4. THE ECONOMY OF THE RUHRGEBIET
      5. RE-INDUSTRIALISATION AND LOCK-IN
      6. BREAKING OUT FROM LOCK-IN
      7. TAKING STOCK OF THE RUHR'S STRATEGIES
      8. PERSPECTIVES FOR THE RUHRGEBIET
      9. SOME CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS
    9. Chapter 409: Construction of Agri-Environmental Data Using Computational Methods
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES
      5. FOREGROUND SYSTEM DATA FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
      6. BACKGROUND SYSTEM DATA FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
      7. LCI DATABASE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 410: Digital Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction: Why are we ‘Greening’ ICT?
      3. Green ICT Vision
      4. ICT Contribution
      5. AREAS FOR ICT CARBON REDUCTION
      6. Green ICT Strategic Objectives
      7. Progress IN GREENING THE ICT
      8. FUTURE DIRECTION
      9. Risks and Mitigations
      10. Conclusion
    11. Chapter 411: E-Agriculture Development in South Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHOD
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
    12. Chapter 412: Environment-Enterprise Integration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRODUCT-SERVICE AND ECO-PROVISION
      4. FUNCTION-FACILITY ASSEMBLY INCORPORATION
      5. BUSINESS INFRA-ORGANISATION APPRAISAL
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 413: Flow-Based Structural Modelling and Dynamic Simulation of Lake Water Levels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. APPENDIX
    14. Chapter 414: Fuel Reduction Effect of the Solar Cell and Diesel Engine Hybrid System with a Prediction Algorithm of Solar Power Generation
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Analysis Case (2)
      4. Overall Conclusions and Future Research
    15. Chapter 415: GIS and Remote Sensing in Environmental Risk Assessment
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CURRENT STATE
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 416: Green Product Retrieval and Recommendations System
      1. Abstract
      2. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
      3. DESIGN OF THE CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RETRIEVAL SYSTEM
      4. RECOMMENDING SYSTEM DESIGN FOR BOTH CUSTOMER AND PRODUCER
      5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      6. Appendix
    17. Chapter 417: Green Transport Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RIDING TO SUSTAINABILITY
      4. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 418: Green Urban Planning and Design for Smarter Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE USE OF ICTs IN CITIES, SMART CITY AND ECO-TECH CITY CONCEPTS
      4. Eco-Tech Urban Design for Social Sustainability
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    19. Chapter 419: Integrated Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Management
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Urban Growth and Infrastructure Management in Complex Cities
      4. Conclusion
    20. Chapter 420: Integrated Watershed Management for Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      4. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
      5. THE WAY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
    21. Chapter 421: Integrating Green ICT in a Supply Chain Management System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Green Integrated Supply Chain Management Overview
      4. GISCM solutions
      5. GISCM systems architecture
      6. Benefits of GISCM systems
      7. Issues and Barriers in GISCM Analysis
      8. Proposed Methodology for GISCM Systems Analysis
      9. Conclusion and Future Challenge
    22. Chapter 422: Mathematical-Modelling Simulation Applied to Help in the Decision-Making Process on Environmental Impact Assessment of Agriculture
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENVIRONMENTAL AND MATHEMATICAL-MODELLING ASPECTS OF THE INTEREST AND SOME USES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN BRAZIL
      4. CASE STUDY: VERTICAL MOVEMENT OF HEXAZINONE HERBICIDE INTO TYPIC EUTHORTHOX SOIL OF ESPRAIADO CATCHMENT, RIBEIRÃO PRETO/SP: BRAZIL, CULTIVATED WITH SUGARCANE CROP: LOCAL AND DEFAULT DATA SCENARIOS USING MATHEMATICAL-MODELLING SIMULATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    23. Chapter 423: Promoting E-Governance Through Capacity Development for the Global Environment
      1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
      2. UNEP’s GLOBAL ROLE IN eLEARNING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND MANAGEMENT
      3. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    24. Chapter 424: Supply Chain Optimization Audit (SCOA) for Green ICT Opportunities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. SCOA Outline
      4. What is SCOA?
      5. Why SCOA
      6. SCOA tools and techniques
      7. Sponsorship for SCOA
      8. Lean SCOA
      9. Social or behavioral aspects of SCOA
      10. SCOA and the process stability pyramid idea
      11. Dominant input and the Swiss cheese model
      12. SCOA and the concept of departure from best practice, as a leading indicator of equipment abnormal operation or plant failure
      13. SCOA can be applied to the supply chain of solids, liquids, gases, energy or even services and product development
      14. Value-based modeling
      15. Subtraction of modeled value from actual parameter value, to detect malfunction
      16. Proving the accuracy of the model
      17. The model should also temporally accurate by appropriate design
      18. The accuracy of the model can be constantly tested in real time and suggested corrections recomputed
      19. Detecting process anomalies by recognizing modeled error patterns
      20. What is parallel sensitivity?
      21. Case Studies
      22. A tuned model can predict and help operations decide when a fix must be done
      23. What happens if the regulation is poor?
      24. Conclusion
    25. Chapter 425: Sustainable Infrastructure Assets
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Improving Organisation Performance
      4. Infrastructure Capacity Management Process
      5. Case Study: Port of Brisbane
      6. Conclusion
    26. Chapter 426: Sustainable Transportation Development
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Conclusion
    27. Chapter 427: Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Development in South East Asia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    28. Chapter 428: Sustainable Urban Stormwater Management
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Future Research Directions
      4. Conclusion
    29. Chapter 429: Technology Transfer and Diffusion in Developing Economies
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Agricultural Technology
      4. Technology Transfer and Diffusion in Context
      5. Factors Affecting Technology Transfer in the Developing World
      6. Lessons Learned
      7. Emerging Challenges and Recommendations
    30. Chapter 430: The Relation Between ICT and Environmental Management Practice in a Construction Company
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Some Empirical Evidence from the Swedish Construction Sector
      4. The Construction Context and the Use of ICT
      5. Environmental Management in the Construction Industry
      6. The Field Study: From a General Perception to Specific Activities
      7. The Context for Decision Making and System Use
      8. The Relation Between ICT and Environmental-Management Practice
    31. Chapter 431: Using Carbons Emissions Management Solutions in Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS CEMS?
      4. PRACTICAL USE OF CEMS TOOLS
      5. THREE CATEGORIES OF CEMS TOOLS
      6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ADVANTAGE AND LIMITATIONS OF CEMS TOOLS
      7. CEMS TOOLS IN ORGANISATIONS
      8. CHALLENGES IN CONFIGURING AND IMPLEMENTING CEMS TOOLS
      9. FUTURE DIRECTION OF CEMS TOOLS
    32. Chapter 432: Zoning Based on Climate and Soil for Planting Eucalyptus in Southern Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: GIS AS ZONING STRATEGY
      4. MATERIAL AND METHODS
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND NEW PERSPECTIVES
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 501: Adopting Green ICT in Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. RELEVANCE TO “Green ICT” THEME
      3. ADOPTING Green ICT IN BUSINESS
      4. FACTORS DRIVING ADOPTION OF GREEN COMPUTING
      5. IMPLEMENTING GREEN COMPUTING
      6. BUSINESS COMPUTING
      7. NATIONAL GREENHOUSE AND ENERGY REPORTING SCHEME (NGERS)
      8. IMPACT OF NGERS ON BUSINESS
      9. IT’s ENERGY UTILIZATION AND CARBON FOOTPRINT
      10. CARBON EMISSION MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
      11. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 502: Collaboration as a Key Enabler for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Implementing Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT DRIVES SMEs TOWARDS GREEN ICT?
      4. PEOPLE, PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR SME’S GREEN ICT EFFORT
      5. COLLABORATION AND GREEN ICT INITIATIVES FOR SMES
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 503: Communication, Information and Sustainability
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. A GEOGRAPHICAL FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS
      4. COMMUNICATION, INFORMATION AND GEOGRAPHY
      5. COMMUNICATION AND SUSTAINABILITY, A POSSIBLE NEXUS?
      6. CAN COMMUNICATION POLICIES HELP TO REALIZE A REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY?
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 504: Enhancing the Efficiency of ICT by Spatial Data Interoperability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPATIAL DATA and INTEROPERABILITY
      4. SPATIAL DATA DESCRIPTION IMPROVES INTEROPERABILITY
      5. SMART DATA IN PRAXIS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION and INSIGHT
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 505: Extending and Applying Business Intelligence and Customer Strategies for Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. introduction
      3. UNDERSTANDING ENVIRONMENTAL INTELLIGENCE – A CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE
      4. ENVIRONMENTAL INTELLIGENCE IN INTERNAL SYSTEMS
      5. DEVELOPING KEY ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES
      6. BUSINESS DATA MANAGEMENT AND EI
      7. IMPLEMENTING eNVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES WITH BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 506: From Traditional Non-Sustainable Production to Closed Loop Manufacturing
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction: On the Way to Sustainability
      3. Closed Loop Supply Chain
      4. CEMIS Approach: Related Works
      5. Sustainable Materials Management: Main Problems
      6. Remanufacturing: The Most Sustainable Form of Materials Reprocessing
      7. Integrated Approach in Materials Management
      8. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 507: Green ICT Organizational Implementations and Workplace Relationships
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Review of Green ICT Literature
      4. Research Question
      5. Theoretical Framework
      6. Research Design
      7. Research Findings
      8. Environmental Readiness
      9. Discussion
      10. Research Limitations
      11. Further Research
      12. Conclusion
    8. Chapter 508: How can Information Technology be Adopted by Micro-Enterprises
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. Methodology
      5. The IT Therapy Process
      6. Guidelines for Supporting Micro-Enterprises with IT
      7. Sustainability of IT Therapy for Micro-Enterprise Development
      8. Conclusion
    9. Chapter 509: Information Systems for a Green Organisation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATING INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO GREEN ORGANIZATION
      4. AREAS OF GREEN ICT IN THE ORGANIZATION
      5. INFORMATION OVERLOAD IN GREEN ICT SYSTEMS
      6. GREEN ICT REGULATORY CONSTRAINTS
      7. STRATEGIES FOR GATHERING RELEVANT GREEN INFORMATION
      8. STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING GREEN INFORMATION
      9. ONTOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE GREEN ICT INFORMATION PORTAL
      10. USING INFORMATION FOR CHANGE MANAGEMENT
      11. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 510: Philanthropy, CSR and Sustainability
      1. Abstract
      2. Structure of the Text
      3. Introduction
      4. Philanthropy
      5. The Paradigm Shift
      6. Corporate Social Responsibility
      7. Strategic CSR
      8. CSR in National & International Framework
      9. Sustainable Development
      10. Corporate Sustainability
      11. Sustainability and Its Reporting
      12. GRI Reporting Framework
      13. Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Guidelines
      14. Global Examples of Sustainability Reporting
      15. Indian Context
      16. Sustainability Reporting
      17. CSR and Sustainability Connection
      18. Conclusion
    11. Chapter 511: Role of Mobile Technologies in an Environmentally Responsible Business Strategy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SIGNIFICANT FACTORS IN THE CREATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ERBS
      4. CONCLUSION and FUTURE Directions
    12. Chapter 512: Standards and Legislation for the Carbon Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POLITICAL BACKGROUND
      4. REVIEW OF CURRENT LEGISLATIONS ON CARBON EMISSIONS
      5. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING CPRS
      6. APPROACH TO HANDLING THOSE CHALLENGES- BASED ON ISO 14001
      7. USE OF SOFTWARE RELATED TO CPRS
      8. KYOTO VERSUS COPENHAGEN
      9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 513: The Negative Impact of ICT Waste on Environment and Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS ICT WASTE?
      4. THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ICT ON ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH
      5. ICT AS AN ENABLER TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 514: The Potential of E-Participation in Sustainable Development Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Background
      4. The Challenge of E-Participation in Policy-Making
      5. Future Research Directions
      6. Conclusion
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 601: Approaches and Initiatives to Green IT Strategy in Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Environmental issues
      4. GREENING IT STRATEGY
      5. GREEN IT INITIATIVES
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE WORK AND CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 602: Balancing Green ICT Business Development with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): a definition
      4. Market segments
      5. Current and future trends
      6. Legal framework in environment
      7. Drivers for change in environment
      8. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) between Green ICT and business transformation: some examples of current and future trends
      9. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 603: Business Processes Management for a Green Telecommunications Company
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GREEN TELCO BACKGROUND
      4. GREEN BUSINESS Process Management
      5. TRANSFORMING and Managing Business Process for A Green Telco
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 604: Influence of Green IT on IT Management and IT Controlling
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Green IT
      4. IT Management and Controlling
      5. Impacts of Green IT
      6. Implications for Academia and Practice
    5. Chapter 605: Green Information Technology and Virtualization in Corporate Environmental Management Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS GREEN IT
      4. WHAT IS VIRTUALIZATION
      5. POWER CONSUMPTIONS
      6. HELPING THE ENVIRONMENT
      7. MOTIVATION AND CHALLENGES FOR VIRTUALIZATION
      8. CORPORATE SHIFT TO SERVICE-BASED IT
      9. INFORMATION STRATEGY TRIANGLE: IMPLICATIONS
      10. Does It Pay To Be Green?
      11. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 606: Green Strategic Alignment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT: A CONCEPTUAL TOOL-KIT
      4. ARTICULATING STRATEGIES VIA OPTIMIZATION OBJECTIVES
      5. STRATEGIC RE-ALIGNMENT WITH SUSTAINABILITY OBJECTIVES
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 607: Management Instruments for Sustainable Information Systems Management
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Sustainability and Information Management
      4. Planning and Control Concepts of a Sustainable Information Management
      5. Conclusion
    8. Chapter 608: Strategies for a Sustainable Enterprise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Defining Green and Sustainable
      4. Challenges in Implementing a Sustainability Program
      5. Where Does Sustainability Fit in The Overall Architecture?
      6. Resource Reduction Example: Paper
      7. Conclusion
      8. FUTURE DIRECTION
    9. Chapter 609: The Role of the Business Analyst in Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. THE role OF the BUSINESS ANALYST IN green ICT
      4. ENTERPRISE ANALYSIS OF Green ICT
      5. BUSINESS ANALYSIS OF green ict projects
      6. TRACKING PROGRESS OF GREEN ICT
      7. the future of THE BUSINESS ANALYST ROLE IN green ICT
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 610: Tools for Corporate Assessment of Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Sustainability Needs
      3. Divergent Perspectives on Sustainable Development
      4. Tools for Assessment and Communication
      5. How Sustainable are the Sustainability Tools?
      6. Communicational Challenges and Solutions
      7. Appendix A
      8. Appendix B
    11. Chapter 701: Exploratory Analysis of Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Time Series Using Independent Component Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS
      4. SYSTEM MODEL
      5. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 702: Contesting ‘Sustainability’ In Infrastructure Planning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 703: Decision Criteria for Green Management Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Current options on the greening menu
      4. Challenges of the greening approach and options
      5. Management Information systems Oriented Greening Decision Criteria
      6. Future Trends and Directions
    14. Chapter 704: Diffusion of the Clean Development Mechanism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GROWTH OF CDM IN THE WORLD AND INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES
      4. THE LOGISTIC MODEL FOR CDM ADOPTION
      5. THE GLOBAL CDM ADOPTION CURVE
      6. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND AREAS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    15. Chapter 705: Efficient Information Provision for Environmental and Sustainability Reporting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. Corporate Environmental Reporting
      5. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an Approach to Environmental Management
      6. Suggested Approaches for an efficient Generation of Environment-Related Data for Organizational Reporting
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 706: Envisioning the Paradigm of Service Oriented Hydrology Intelligence (SOHI)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETTING THE CONTEXT FOR HYDROINFORMATICS
      4. SOA FOR AGILE AND ON-DEMAND HYDROINFORMATICS
      5. A VIEW ON SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE (SOA) EVOLUTION
      6. RELEVANCE AND ROI OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE (BI) SOFTWARE
      7. THE CHARACTERISTICS AND CAPABILITIES OF NEXT-GENERATION BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE (BI 2.0)
      8. SOA EMPOWERING SERVICE ORIENTED HYDROLOGIC INTELLIGENCE
      9. SERVICE ORIENTED HYDROLOGY INTELLIGENCE (SOHI) ARCHITECTURE
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. APPENDIX
    17. Chapter 707: E-Waste Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO E-WASTE
      3. E-WASTE - WHAT DOES IT CONTAIN?
      4. WHY E-WASTE IS A PROBLEM?
      5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF E-WASTE – (ANTI GREEN) FACTORS
      6. The Geographical Outlook On e-Waste
      7. STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND COMPLIANCE OUTLOOK ON EWASTE
      8. E-WASTE METRICS AND MEASUREMENTS
      9. STRATEGIES FOR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT & CONTROL
      10. FUTURE DIRECTION
      11. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 708: From Cleaner Production to Greening the Local Economy
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ACTIVITIES OF EFA NRW FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION
      4. ACTIVITIES OF THE EcoBusinessPlan Vienna (EBP)
      5. DISCUSSIONS AND IMPLICATION: TOWARD GREENING THE LOCAL ECONOMY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    19. Chapter 709: Identifying and Clustering of Target Customers of Green Products
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Literature Review
      4. Methodology
      5. Clustering Analysis of Case Study
      6. Price Setting for the Target Customers
      7. Conclusion
      8. Future Research Directions
    20. Chapter 710: Information and Communication Technologies for the Good Society
      1. ABSTRACT
    21. Chapter 711: Information and Communication Technology as Key Infrastructure for Sustainable Cities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    22. Chapter 712: Natural Resources Accounting for Sustainable Development
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN INDIA
    23. Chapter 713: Sustainable Business Initiatives in the Context of Emerging Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING INTERNATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY
      4. ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
      6. BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT EFFORTS ON SUSTAINABILITY IN BRIC COUNTRIES
      7. ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS & REGULATION IN EMERGING ECONOMIES
      8. INTERNATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES IN PRACTICE
      9. FUTURE DIRECTION
      10. CONCLUSION
    24. Chapter 714: Sustainable Water Provision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE FRESHWATER CHALLENGE
      4. ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO WATER PROVISION AND INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    25. Chapter 715: The Influences of Savings and Investments on Sustainable Development and the Role of Information Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GROWTH SUSTAINABILITY AND E-MONEY GOVERNMENT
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    26. Chapter 716: Traffic and Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Conclusion
    27. Chapter 717: Understanding the Context of Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING GREEN ICT
      4. GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEN HOUSE GASES
      5. ROLE OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE IN GREEN ICT
      6. CARBON EMISSION AND EMISSION FACTOR
      7. INNOVATION IN ICT
      8. DECISION MAKER’S PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS GREEN ICT
      9. Contributors for Promoting Green ICT
      10. Green Initiatives Include
      11. CONCLUSION
    28. Chapter 801: Improving Energy-Efficiency of Computational Grids via Scheduling
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Background
      4. 3. Grid System Architecture
      5. 4. Grid Scheduling Framework
      6. 5. Task Analyzer
      7. 6. Energy-Efficient Scheduling
      8. 7. Performance Evaluation
      9. 8. Conclusion
    29. Chapter 802: Infrastructure Sharing & Renewable Energy Use In Telecommunication Industry for Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Key Approaches to decrease CO2 emissions
      4. Conclusion
    30. Chapter 803: Innovation and Sustainable Development
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Innovation and Sustainability
      4. Innovation in the Context of Neoclassical and Ecological Economics
      5. Innovation, Growth and Sustainability
      6. Summary
    31. Chapter 804: Low Power Techniques for Greener Hardware
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSONAL ICT DEVICES
      4. WIRELESS DEVICES
      5. USER INTERFACE
      6. PROTOCOLS FOR REDUCING POWER CONSUMPTION FOR BATTERY POWERED DEVICES
      7. ROUTERS
      8. DATA CENTRES
      9. FUTURE DIRECTION
      10. CONCLUSION
    32. Chapter 805: Paving the Way towards Virtual Biorefineries
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Biomass Characteristics
      4. Computerizing the Search for Credible Counterparts
      5. Meta-Data Driven Acquisition, Search and Procurement of Biomass within a Web-Based Marketplace
      6. Adding Sustainability by Virtual Biorefineries
      7. Comparison of the Discussed Approaches
      8. Conclusion
    33. Chapter 806: Planning for Sustainable Urban Futures
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Conclusion
    34. Chapter 807: Strategic Business Trends in the Context of Green ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GREEN ICT WITHIN BUSINESS DRIVERS
      4. STRATEGIC BUSINESS TRENDS AND THE ROLE OF GREEN ICT
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    35. Chapter 808: Technological Change and the Transformation of Global Agriculture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Technical Change in Agriculture
      4. The Green Revolution and the Transformation of Agriculture
      5. Future Paths for Agricultural Technology Development: A Nano Revolution?
      6. Conclusion
    36. Chapter 809: The idealization of an Integrated BIM, Lean, and Green Model (BLG)
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 3. Building the Argument: Separate Knowledge Domains
      4. 4. Future Trends: Global Push
      5. 5. The Problem Conclusions
    37. Chapter 810: The Optimizing WEB
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION ARCHITECTURES
      4. DISTRIBUTED OPTIMIZATION: THE OPEN QUESTIONS
      5. THE SBDO APPROACH TO DISTRIBUTED OPTIMIZATION
      6. SBDO: DETAILS
      7. OpTIMIZATION IN MULTI-AGENT PLANNING
      8. Conclusion