Do some learners benefit from visuals more than others? In this chapter we look at three individual differences that have been shown to moderate the effect of visuals on learning: prior knowledge of lesson content, visual literacy skills, and spatial ability. We present research, psychological rationale, and examples to support the following guidelines for adapting visuals to individual learners:
For low prior knowledge learners, add related visuals to lesson text and use visual design techniques that reduce cognitive load
For high prior knowledge learners, present most content with either text or visuals alone; two representations are often redundant
Encourage all learners ...