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Graphics for Learning: Proven Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Evaluating Visuals in Training Materials

Book Description

Graphics for Learning teaches you how to design effective graphics for print or online and computer-generated materials--multimedia, texts, working aids, and slides--that will maximize learning, understanding, and reasoning. Based on solid research on how people learn, this crucial resource contains best practices and shows you how to go beyond the visible features of graphics to plan visuals that are based on their communication and psychological functions. Written by instructional design experts Ruth Colvin Clark and Chopeta Lyons, Graphics for Learning includes a graphic design model that guides you through the visual planning process--from needs assessment through production. No matter how much or little expertise you have working with graphics, this book will help you boost your return on investment by giving you the information you need to design and implement the most effective visuals. Graphics for Learning shows how to:

  • Select the graphics that can impr ove learning and workplace performance.

  • Plan the most appropriate visual for computer or paper instructional materials.

  • Design the best graphics for instructional content.

  • Tailor visuals for individual learners.

  • Avoid using the wrong visuals for motivational purposes.

  • Understand the characteristics of graphics that support (or disrupt) learning.

  • Follow a systematic graphic design model that helps you plan graphics that match your instructional context.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  3. FOREWORD
  4. INTRODUCTION: GETTING THE MOST FROM THIS RESOURCE
    1. The Lost Potential of Instructional Visuals
    2. What Makes Our Book Different from Other Books on Graphics?
    3. Is This Book for You?
    4. An Overview of Our Book
    5. Our CD-ROM
  5. I. Introduction to Section One: The Foundation
    1. 1. Three Views of Instructional Visuals
      1. 1.1. The Unrealized Potential of Visuals
      2. 1.2. What Is a Graphic?
      3. 1.3. Which Graphics Are Best? No Yellow Brick Road
        1. 1.3.1. Factor 1: Functions of Visuals
          1. 1.3.1.1. Learning Depends on Graphic Functionality.
          2. 1.3.1.2. Communication Functions of Visuals.
          3. 1.3.1.3. Psychological Functions of Visuals.
        2. 1.3.2. Factor 2: Instructional Goals and Lesson Content
        3. 1.3.3. Factor 3: Visuals and Learner Differences
      4. 1.4. Surface versus Functional Taxonomies of Visuals
      5. 1.5. Communication Functions of Graphics
        1. 1.5.1. Decorative
        2. 1.5.2. Representational
        3. 1.5.3. Mnemonic
        4. 1.5.4. Organizational
        5. 1.5.5. Relational
        6. 1.5.6. Transformational
        7. 1.5.7. Interpretive
      6. 1.6. Graphics to Support Psychological Events of Learning
        1. 1.6.1. How Learning Happens
      7. 1.7. Graphics in the Instructional Landscape
      8. 1.8. Our Guiding Principles
        1. 1.8.1. Graphic Effectiveness Depends on Graphic Functionality
        2. 1.8.2. Guidelines for Graphics Should be Based on Research Evidence
        3. 1.8.3. Context Will Influence Use of Visuals
        4. 1.8.4. COMING NEXT
      9. 1.9. For More Information
    2. 2. A Visual Design Model for Planning Graphics Systematically
      1. 2.1. What Can Happen Without a Systematic Approach
      2. 2.2. What Happens When Instructional Designers Follow a Systematic Process
      3. 2.3. A Visual Design Model
        1. 2.3.1. I. Define the Goal
        2. 2.3.2. II. Define the Visual Context
          1. 2.3.2.1. Who Are the Learners?
          2. 2.3.2.2. What Is the Learning Environment?
          3. 2.3.2.3. What Is the Delivery Medium?
          4. 2.3.2.4. What Are Your Constraints?
        3. 2.3.3. III. Design the Visual Approach
          1. 2.3.3.1. Make a Preliminary Assessment of Content Graphic Requirements.
          2. 2.3.3.2. Determine the Image the Package Should Project.
        4. 2.3.4. IV. Identify Communication Function of Visuals to Match Content Types
        5. 2.3.5. V. Apply Principles of Psychological Instructional Events to Visual Design Decisions
        6. 2.3.6. COMING NEXT
      4. 2.4. SUMMARY OF SECTION ONE
        1. 2.4.1. Objective of the Section:
          1. 2.4.1.1. What Makes an Effective Graphic for Learning?
          2. 2.4.1.2. How Do I Plan for Effective Graphics for Learning?
  6. II. Introduction to Section Two: How to Use Visuals to Support Psychological Learning Processes
    1. 3. How Graphics Influence Learning Processes
      1. 3.1. Not All Visuals Are Equal
      2. 3.2. Graphics and Learning Processes
      3. 3.3. A Tale of Two Memories
        1. 3.3.1. Long-Term Memory Influences the Capacity of Working Memory
        2. 3.3.2. Visual and Auditory Components of WM
        3. 3.3.3. Use the Auditory and Visual Subcomponents to Maximize Working Memory Capacity.
      4. 3.4. How Learning Happens
        1. 3.4.1. Drawing Attention to New Content
        2. 3.4.2. Awakening Appropriate Prior Knowledge
        3. 3.4.3. Managing Cognitive Load
        4. 3.4.4. Building Mental Models
        5. 3.4.5. Transferring New Skills After Learning
        6. 3.4.6. Optimizing Motivation
      5. 3.5. How Graphics Promote Learning
        1. 3.5.1. Leveraging the Benefits of Graphics: A Summary
        2. 3.5.2. COMING NEXT
      6. 3.6. For More Information
    2. 4. Plan Graphics That Direct Attention
      1. 4.1. Attention, Learning, and Graphics
        1. 4.1.1. Focused versus Divided Attention
      2. 4.2. Graphics and Focused Attention
      3. 4.3. Guideline 1: Use Signals and Cues to Draw Attention to Important Content
        1. 4.3.1. Research on Graphic Signals
      4. 4.4. Guideline 2: Use Color and Contrast as a Visual Signal to Support Focused Attention
      5. 4.5. Guideline 3: Use Color to Improve Job Performance with High Visual Search Tasks
      6. 4.6. Graphics and Divided Attention
      7. 4.7. Guideline 4: Place Text Close to the Visuals It Describes
        1. 4.7.1. Research on Contiguity
        2. 4.7.2. Applying the Contiguity Principle
      8. 4.8. Guideline 5: Avoid Distracting Visuals
        1. 4.8.1. Use Animation Sparingly as a Visual Signal
        2. 4.8.2. Use Animation Carefully to Communicate Motion
        3. 4.8.3. COMING NEXT
      9. 4.9. For More Information
    3. 5. Plan Graphics That Awaken Prior Knowledge
      1. 5.1. Prior Knowledge, Learning, and Graphics
        1. 5.1.1. Activating or Building Relevant Prior Knowledge
        2. 5.1.2. Instructional Methods and Prior Knowledge
      2. 5.2. What Are Advance Organizers?
        1. 5.2.1. Comparative versus Expository Organizers
      3. 5.3. Guideline 1: Use Comparative Advance Organizers When Learners Have Relevant Prior Knowledge
      4. 5.4. Guideline 2: Use Expository Advance Organizers When Learners Lack Relevant Prior Knowledge
      5. 5.5. Guideline 3: Avoid Seductive Details in Lesson Introductions
        1. 5.5.1. What Are Seductive Visuals?
        2. 5.5.2. How Seductive Details Disrupt Activation of Prior Knowledge
        3. 5.5.3. COMING NEXT
    4. 6. Plan Graphics That Minimize Memory Load
      1. 6.1. What Is Cognitive Load?
        1. 6.1.1. Sources of Cognitive Load
      2. 6.2. Guideline 1: Use Graphics Rather Than Text to Represent Spatial Content
        1. 6.2.1. Evidence for the Value of Visuals to Present Procedural Information
      3. 6.3. Guideline 2: Plan Graphics That Are Consistent in Style and Low in Complexity
      4. 6.4. Guideline 3: Explain Complex Graphics with Words in Audio
        1. 6.4.1. Evidence for Effectiveness of Audio to Describe Visuals
      5. 6.5. Guideline 4: Use Words or Graphics Alone When Information Is Self-Explanatory
        1. 6.5.1. Evidence for When to Add Words to Diagrams
      6. 6.6. Guideline 5: Teach the Components of a Complex Visual Display First When You Need Learners to Acquire Deeper Understanding
        1. 6.6.1. Evidence for Chunking and Sequencing Graphics
      7. 6.7. Graphic Benefits Depend on Graphic Functions
        1. 6.7.1. COMING NEXT
      8. 6.8. For More Information
    5. 7. Plan Graphics to Help Learners Build Mental Models
      1. 7.1. Mental Models, Learning, and Graphics
        1. 7.1.1. What Are Mental Models?
        2. 7.1.2. How Can We Measure Mental Models in Instruction?
      2. 7.2. How Graphics Help Build Mental Models
      3. 7.3. Guideline 1: Use Organizational Graphics to Communicate Qualitative Relationships
        1. 7.3.1. Research on Graphic Organizers
        2. 7.3.2. When to Use Organizers
      4. 7.4. Guideline 2: Use Charts and Graphs to Communicate Quantitative Relationships
        1. 7.4.1. Select Graphs Most Appropriate to the Task
        2. 7.4.2. Use the Graph Format That Best Builds the Intended Mental Model
      5. 7.5. Guideline 3: Use Transformational Visuals to Communicate Changes in Time or Space
        1. 7.5.1. Graphic Design of Transformational Visuals: Dynamic versus Static Visuals
        2. 7.5.2. Evidence That Static Visuals Teach as Well as Dynamic Visuals
      6. 7.6. Guideline 4: Use Interpretive Visuals to Communicate Cause-and-Effect Relationships
        1. 7.6.1. COMING NEXT
      7. 7.7. For More Information
    6. 8. Plan Graphics That Support Transfer of Learning
      1. 8.1. Transfer and Work Performance
        1. 8.1.1. The Cost of Transfer Failure
        2. 8.1.2. Transfer and Retrieval
      2. 8.2. Near versus Far Transfer Tasks
      3. 8.3. Context Is King for Near Transfer Skills
      4. 8.4. Guideline 1: Use Representational Visuals to Promote Transfer of Near Transfer Skills
      5. 8.5. Mental Models Are King in Far Transfer Learning
        1. 8.5.8.5.1. Teaching for Understanding
      6. 8.7. Guideline 2: Use Visuals to Build Understanding of How It Works
      7. 8.8. Guideline 3: Use Visuals to Make Abstract Ideas Concrete
      8. 8.9. Guideline 4: Use Varied Context Visual Examples to Build Understanding
      9. 8.10. Guideline 5: Use Visuals to Promote Inductive Learning
        1. 8.10.1. Discovery versus Guided Discovery Learning
        2. 8.10.2. When to Use Simulations for Inductive Instruction
      10. 8.11. Guideline 6: Use Visual Mnemonics to Support Memory
        1. 8.11.1. COMING NEXT
      11. 8.12. Suggested Readings
    7. 9. Plan Graphics to Motivate Learning and Manage Sizzle
      1. 9.1. Edutainment and Learning
      2. 9.2. Motivation and Interest
        1. 9.2.1. Liking and Learning
      3. 9.3. Personal versus Situational Interest
      4. 9.4. Guideline 1: Build Materials High in Situational Interest for Learners with Low Personal Interest
      5. 9.5. Guideline 2: Use Visuals That Make Lesson Relevance Obvious
      6. 9.6. How to Draw on Situational Interest
      7. 9.7. Guideline 3: Avoid Graphics That Use Emotional Interest to Motivate Learning
      8. 9.8. Guideline 4: Use Techniques to Build Cognitive Situational Interest to Motivate Learning
      9. 9.9. Techniques to Build Cognitive Interest
        1. 9.9.1. Prepare Understandable and Coherent Lessons
        2. 9.9.2. Use Concrete and Vivid Language and Visuals
        3. 9.9.3. Draw on Familiar Content and Context
        4. 9.9.4. COMING NEXT
      10. 9.10. For More Information
    8. 10. Plan Graphics That Accommodate Learner Differences
      1. 10.1. Visual versus Verbal Learners
        1. 10.1.1. Three Individual Differences
      2. 10.2. Guideline 1: For Low Prior Knowledge Learners, Add Graphics That Are Congruent with Text
        1. 10.3.10.3.1. Why Graphics Help Low Prior Knowledge Learners
      3. 10.4. Guideline 2: For High Prior Knowledge Learners Use Only Words or Only Visuals
      4. 10.5. Guideline 3: Encourage All Learners to Process Visuals Effectively
        1. 10.5.1. Encouraging Visual Literacy
      5. 10.6. Guideline 4: Visual/Verbal Style Preferences May Not Predict Effectiveness of Graphics
        1. 10.6.1. Spatial Preferences versus Spatial Aptitude
      6. 10.7. Three Types of Spatial Ability
        1. 10.7.1. What Is Spatial Span?
      7. 10.8. Guideline 5: Minimize Demands on Spatial Span by Displaying Visuals in a Synchronized Rather Than a Successive Manner
        1. 10.8.1. Iconic versus Spatial Visualizers
      8. 10.9. Guideline 6: For Spatial Tasks, Provide Visual Support to Help Low Spatial Learners Succeed
        1. 10.9.1. Identifying Low Spatial Ability Learners
      9. 10.10. Accommodating Individual Differences: A Summary
        1. 10.10.1. COMING NEXT
      10. 10.11. For More Information
        1. 10.11.1. Graphics and Prior Knowledge
        2. 10.11.2. Graphics and Spatial Span
        3. 10.11.3. Iconic versus Spatial Visualizers
        4. 10.11.4. Measures of Spatial Ability
      11. 10.12. SUMMARY OF SECTION TWO
        1. 10.12.1. Objective of the Section
        2. 10.12.2. Summary of Guidelines
          1. 10.12.2.1. Attention
          2. 10.12.2.2. Prior Knowledge
          3. 10.12.2.3. Memory Load
          4. 10.12.2.4. Building Mental Models
          5. 10.12.2.5. Transfer
          6. 10.12.2.6. Motivation
          7. 10.12.2.7. Individual Differences
  7. III. Introduction to Section Three: How to Visualize Lesson Content
    1. 11. How to Visualize Procedures
      1. 11.1. What Are Procedures?
      2. 11.2. Teaching Procedures
        1. 11.2.1. Performance Aids for By-Passing Training
      3. 11.3. How to Visualize Procedures
      4. 11.4. Guideline 1: Provide Demonstrations That Combine Transformational and Representational Visuals
      5. 11.5. Guideline 2: Design Transformational Visuals That Show Activity Flows from the Performers' Perspective in the Work Environment
        1. 11.5.1. Show Actions in Context
        2. 11.5.2. Use Transformational Visuals in Manuals that Show Action Flows
      6. 11.6. Guideline 3: Manage Cognitive Load for Complex Procedures, Novice Learners, and Instructionally Paced Materials
        1. 11.6.1. 1. Use Visual Cues to Direct Attention
        2. 11.6.2. 2. Provide Memory Support for Use During and After Training
        3. 11.6.3. 3. Use Audio to Explain Animated Demonstrations
        4. 11.6.4. 4. Place Text Close to the Visuals It Describes
        5. 11.6.5. 5. Use Diagrams to Illustrate Instructions That Involve Spatial Complexity
        6. 11.6.6. 6. Eliminate Extraneous Detail
      7. 11.7. Guideline 4: Use Visuals to Draw Attention to and Illustrate Warnings
      8. 11.8. Guideline 5: For Online Practice of Computer Procedures, Support Transformational Visuals with Onscreen Contiguous Text for Directions, Feedback, and Memory Support
        1. 11.8.1. Visualization of Feedback During Simulations
        2. 11.8.2. Memory Support
      9. 11.9. Tips for Visualizing Procedures
        1. 11.9.1. Common Mistakes to Avoid When Visualizing Procedures
        2. 11.9.2. COMING NEXT
      10. 11.10. For More Information
    2. 12. How to Visualize Concepts
      1. 12.1. What Are Concepts?
        1. 12.1.1. Concrete versus Abstract Concepts
      2. 12.2. Teaching Concepts
      3. 12.3. How to Visualize Concepts
      4. 12.4. Guideline 1: Display Two or More Representational Graphic Examples Contiguous to Each Other and to Text Definitions
      5. 12.5. Guideline 2: Create a Visual Counterexample to Help the Learner Build Accurate Mental Models
      6. 12.6. Guideline 3: Use Visual Analogies Especially for More Abstract or Unfamiliar Concepts
      7. 12.7. Guideline 4: Display Related Concepts Together Applying the Contiguity Principle
      8. 12.8. Guideline 5: Use Organizational Visuals to Display Related Concepts and Their Features
      9. 12.9. Guideline 6: Promote Learner Engagement with Concept Visuals
      10. 12.10. Tips for Visualizing Concepts
        1. 12.10.1. Common Mistakes to Avoid when Visualizing Concepts
        2. 12.10.2. COMING NEXT
      11. 12.11. For More Information
    3. 13. How to Visualize Facts
      1. 13.1. What Are Facts?
        1. 13.1.1. Concrete versus Discrete Facts
      2. 13.2. Teaching Facts
        1. 13.2.1. Teach in Context
        2. 13.2.2. Provide Memory Support
        3. 13.2.3. On Automatic
      3. 13.3. How to Visualize Facts
      4. 13.4. Guideline 1: Use Representational Visuals Placed in Job Context to Illustrate Concrete Facts
        1. 13.4.1. When the Main Lesson Content is Facts
      5. 13.5. Guideline 2: Display Discrete Factual Data Where It Can Easily Be Seen When Needed
      6. 13.6. Guideline 3: Use Organizational Visuals to Display Multiple Discrete Facts
      7. 13.7. Guideline 4: Use Mnemonic Visuals When Physical Memory Aids Are Not Available
      8. 13.8. Guideline 5: Use Relational Visuals to Illustrate or Support Discovery of Relationships or Trends in Numeric Data
      9. 13.9. Guideline 6: Promote Engagement with Important Factual Visuals
        1. 13.9.1. Tips for Visualizing Facts
        2. 13.9.2. Common Mistakes to Avoid When Visualizing Factual Information
        3. 13.9.3. COMING NEXT
      10. 13.10. For More Information
    4. 14. How to Visualize Processes
      1. 14.1. What Are Processes?
        1. 14.1.1. Who Needs Process Knowledge?
      2. 14.2. Teaching Processes
      3. 14.3. How to Visualize Processes
      4. 14.4. Guideline 1: Use Transformational Visuals to Show State Changes in Processes
        1. 14.4.1. Are Animations Better for Learning Processes Than Static Drawings?
      5. 14.5. Guideline 2: Manage Load by Teaching System Components First, Presenting Words in Audio, and Directing Attention
        1. 14.5.1. Teach System Components Prior to Teaching the Entire System
        2. 14.5.2. Present Words in Audio versus Text in Multimedia Lessons
        3. 14.5.3. Focus the Learner's Attention
      6. 14.6. Guideline 3: Use Interpretive Visuals to Represent Abstract Processes
      7. 14.7. Guideline 4: Promote Engagement with Visuals in Ways That Help Learners Build a Cause-and-Effect Model of the System
      8. 14.8. Tips for Visualizing Processes
        1. 14.8.1. Common Mistakes to Avoid When Visualizing Processes
        2. 14.8.2. COMING NEXT
      9. 14.9. For More Information
    5. 15. How to Visualize Principles
      1. 15.1. What Are Principles?
        1. 15.1.1. The Transfer Challenge for Far-Transfer Tasks
      2. 15.2. Problem-Centered Learning Environments
        1. 15.2.1. Design of PCL
      3. 15.3. Retrospective Case-Based Learning
      4. 15.4. Teaching Principles As Laws or Theories
      5. 15.5. How to Visualize Principles
      6. 15.6. Guideline 1: Use Representational Visuals of the Job Environment to Display a PCL Lesson
        1. 15.6.1. Do More Realistic Visuals Promote More Learning?
      7. 15.7. Guideline 2: Use Graphic Design Devices to Manage Cognitive Load During PCL
      8. 15.8. Guideline 3: Assign Analysis of Video-Taped Cases for Learning of Principles That Involve a High Degree of Interpersonal Skill
      9. 15.9. Guideline 4: Engage Learners with Explanatory Visuals to Build Rich Mental Models That Underlie Principles
        1. 15.9.1. Use Simple Interpretive Visuals
        2. 15.9.2. Engagement with Interpretive Visuals
      10. 15.10. Tips for Visualizing Principles
        1. 15.10.1. Common Mistakes to Avoid When Visualizing Principles
        2. 15.10.2. COMING NEXT
      11. 15.11. For More Information
      12. 15.12. SUMMARY OF SECTION THREE
        1. 15.12.1. Objective of the Section
        2. 15.12.2. Summary of Guidelines
          1. 15.12.2.1. Procedures
          2. 15.12.2.2. Concepts
          3. 15.12.2.3. Facts
          4. 15.12.2.4. Processes
          5. 15.12.2.5. Principles
  8. IV. Introduction to Section Four: How to Plan and Communicate Your Visuals
    1. 16. Define the Visual Context
      1. 16.1. What to Decide and When
      2. 16.2. Assess the Learning Landscape
        1. 16.2.1. Profile the Learner
        2. 16.2.2. Analyze the Environment in Which the Learning Materials Will Be Used
        3. 16.2.3. Determine the Delivery Medium
      3. 16.3. Consider Production
        1. 16.3.1. The Equipment
        2. 16.3.2. Formats
        3. 16.3.3. Schedules
        4. 16.3.4. Programming As Production
      4. 16.4. Avoiding Unhappy Endings
        1. 16.4.1. COMING NEXT
      5. 16.5. Resources and Organizations
        1. 16.5.1. Print Organizations and Publications
        2. 16.5.2. Computer Graphics Organizations
    2. 17. Design the Visual Approach
      1. 17.1. Planning Your Visual Approach
      2. 17.2. Treatment Meetings
        1. 17.2.1. Does Your Project Warrant a Treatment Meeting?
        2. 17.2.2. Who Attends?
        3. 17.2.3. What Are the Prerequisites?
        4. 17.2.4. What Is the Outcome?
      3. 17.3. What to Consider
        1. 17.3.1. Determine Overall Instructional Strategy
        2. 17.3.2. Decide What Carries the Story Line
        3. 17.3.3. Decide the Size and Orientation
      4. 17.4. Rough Out the Layout: Style and Available Real Estate
        1. 17.4.1. Style
        2. 17.4.2. Available Real Estate
        3. 17.4.3. Navigational and Functionality Needs
      5. 17.5. A Semi-Fictional Case Study
        1. 17.5.1. COMING NEXT
      6. 17.6. Resources
    3. 18. Visualize Individual Graphics
      1. 18.1. Creating Individual Visuals That Work
      2. 18.2. Roles in Graphics Development
        1. 18.2.1. Three Structures of the Design Team
      3. 18.3. Getting Beyond Clip Art: Tips to Visualize Your Individual Graphics
        1. 18.3.1. Start Thinking Visually from the Onset
        2. 18.3.2. Use Tools to Help You Capture Details
        3. 18.3.3. Design Graphics That Will Be Used Throughout the Course Early in Your Process
        4. 18.3.4. Collect Different Visual Data Depending on the Types of Content
        5. 18.3.5. Watch Movies with a Visual Eye
        6. 18.3.6. Get the Big Picture
        7. 18.3.7. Work from the Visuals; Work from the Content
        8. 18.3.8. Stetch
        9. 18.3.9. Test It Out
      4. 18.4. A Case Study Continued: Sanji's Graphic
        1. 18.4.1. COMING NEXT
      5. 18.5. Resources
    4. 19. Communicate Your Graphic Plans
      1. 19.1. Who Needs to Know
      2. 19.2. Communicating the Look and Feel
        1. 19.2.1. Samples
      3. 19.3. Communicating Ideas for the Development of Individual Graphics
      4. 19.4. Communicating Graphic Layout Plans
        1. 19.4.1. Flavors of Storyboards—Layout Design in e-Learning
        2. 19.4.2. Difference Between a Storyboard and a Script
        3. 19.4.3. Communicating Graphics to Production Staff
      5. 19.5. Case Study: Sanji Talks to the Artist
        1. 19.5.1. COMING NEXT
      6. 19.6. Resources
    5. 20. Apply the Principles
      1. 20.1. The End-User System Application Training
        1. 20.1.1. Establish the Instructional Goal
        2. 20.1.2. Determine the Context
        3. 20.1.3. Design the Visual Approach
        4. 20.1.4. Identify the Communication Function of Visual to Match Content Types
        5. 20.1.5. Apply Principles of Psychological Instructional Events to Visual Design Decisions
        6. 20.1.6. Alternative Training Delivery Medium
      2. 20.2. The Investment Club's Financial Basics Training
        1. 20.2.1. Define Goals
        2. 20.2.2. Determine the Context
        3. 20.2.3. Design Visual Approach
        4. 20.2.4. Identify Communication Function of Visuals to Match Content Types
        5. 20.2.5. Apply Principles of Psychological Instructional Events to Visual Design Decisions
        6. 20.2.6. Alternative Training Delivery Medium
      3. 20.3. SUMMARY OF SECTION FOUR
        1. 20.3.1. Objective of the Section
        2. 20.3.2. Summary of Tips and Guidelines
          1. 20.3.2.1. Define the Visual Context
          2. 20.3.2.2. Design the Visual Approach
          3. 20.3.2.3. Visualize Individual Graphics
          4. 20.3.2.4. Communicate Your Graphic Plans
  9. GLOSSARY
  10. REFERENCES
  11. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
  12. LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
  13. Pfeiffer Publications Guide