You are previewing Granular Media.
O'Reilly logo
Granular Media

Book Description

Sand, rice, sugar, snow, cement... Although ubiquitous in our daily lives, granular media still challenge engineers and fascinate researchers. This book provides the state-of-the-art of the physics of granular media and recent advances in the field. The book presents the fundamental properties of granular materials: interactions between grains; solid, liquid and gaseous behaviours; coupling with a fluid; and sediment transport and formation of geological structures. Descriptions of the phenomena combine qualitative and formal arguments, coming from areas as diverse as elasticity, plasticity, statistical physics, fluid mechanics and geomorphology. Many examples of the astonishing behaviours of granular media are presented, including avalanches, segregation, dune song and quicksand. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in physics, applied mathematics and engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Definition and examples of granular media
    2. 1.2 Between solid and liquid: what makes granular matter so difficult to describe?
    3. 1.3 A sketch of the book
  8. 2 Interactions at the grain level
    1. 2.1 Solid contact forces
      1. 2.1.1 Elastic contact: the Hertz law
      2. 2.1.2 Solid friction
      3. 2.1.3 Collision between two particles
    2. 2.2 Cohesion forces
      1. 2.2.1 Electrostatic effects
      2. 2.2.2 Adhesion
      3. 2.2.3 Capillary cohesion
      4. 2.2.4 Real surfaces and the role of rugosity
      5. 2.2.5 Solid bridges
    3. 2.3 Forces in a flow
      1. 2.3.1 The force on a grain in a uniform and steady flow
      2. 2.3.2 Force in unsteady and inhomogeneous flows
      3. 2.3.3 Hydrodynamic forces between grains: lubrication
  9. 3 The granular solid: statics and elasticity
    1. 3.1 Granular packings
      1. 3.1.1 Volume fraction
      2. 3.1.2 Monodisperse packings of spheres
      3. 3.1.3 Packings of spheres of different sizes
      4. 3.1.4 Compaction
    2. 3.2 Forces in a granular packing
      1. 3.2.1 The role of friction and isostaticity
      2. 3.2.2 Force distribution
    3. 3.3 From forces to stresses
      1. 3.3.1 Definition of stresses in a granular medium
    4. 3.4 Stress distribution in static configurations
      1. 3.4.1 Stress distribution in a silo: Janssen’s model
      2. 3.4.2 Stresses under a sand pile
    5. 3.5 Elasticity
      1. 3.5.1 Elasticity of a one-dimensional chain of beads
      2. 3.5.2 Elastic moduli of a granular packing
      3. 3.5.3 The constitutive relation
      4. 3.5.4 Acoustics in granular media
  10. 4 The granular solid: plasticity
    1. 4.1 Phenomenology
    2. 4.2 The different levels of description: a scalar approach
    3. 4.3 The Mohr–Coulomb model
    4. 4.4 The role of the volume fraction: critical-state theory
    5. 4.5 Towards a more refined description of the plasticity
    6. 4.6 Plasticity of cohesive materials
  11. 5 Granular gases
    1. 5.1 Analogies and differences with a molecular gas
    2. 5.2 A heuristic approach to the kinetic theory
    3. 5.3 A formal approach to the kinetic theory: the Boltzmann equation
    4. 5.4 Applications
    5. 5.5 Limits of the kinetic theory
  12. 6 The granular liquid
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Rheology
    3. 6.3 The depth-averaged approach
    4. 6.4 Segregation in granular flows
  13. 7 Immersed granular media
    1. 7.1 Two-phase flow equations
    2. 7.2 The role of the fluid in static piles
    3. 7.3 The role of the interstitial fluid during changes of volume fraction
    4. 7.4 The role of fluid in granular flows
  14. 8 Erosion and sediment transport
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 The static transport threshold
    3. 8.3 A description of transport
    4. 8.4 Bed load
    5. 8.5 Aeolian transport: saltation and reptation
    6. 8.6 Turbulent suspension
  15. 9 Geomorphology
    1. 9.1 Slope processes and gravity-driven flows
    2. 9.2 Ripples and dunes
    3. 9.3 Coastal processes
    4. 9.4 Rivers
  16. References
  17. Index