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Governance, Risk, and Compliance Handbook: Technology, Finance, Environmental, and International Guidance and Best Practices by Anthony Tarantino

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CHAPTER 36

PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPARENCY—HOW IS IT REGULATED IN EUROPE?

Massimiliano Claps

36.1 INTRODUCTION: THE ROLE OF TRANSPARENCY FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE

36.2 RIGHT OF ACCESS TO PUBLIC SECTOR INFORMATION IN EUROPE

(a) France

(b) Germany

(c) Italy

(d) Spain

(e) United Kingdom

36.3 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

36.1 INTRODUCTION: THE ROLE OF TRANSPARENCY FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE

International institutions and policy science scholars have widely thought about what good governance means. For instance, in 2004, the Independent Commission on Good Governance in Public Services established by the UK Office for Public Management (OPM) and the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA), identified a set of good governance standards for public services:

  • Good governance means focusing on the organization's purpose and on outcomes for citizens and service users.
  • Good governance means performing effectively in clearly defined functions and roles.
  • Good governance means promoting values for the whole organization and demonstrating the values of good governance through behavior.
  • Good governance means taking informed, transparent decisions and managing risk.
  • Good governance means developing the capacity and capability of the governing body to be effective.
  • Good governance means engaging stakeholders and making accountability real.

Among those principles, transparency of information occupies a primary role. As Thomas Jefferson said: "Information is the currency of democracy."

Transparency ...

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