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GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling: Principles and Applications

Book Description

Explains how GIS enhances the development of chemical fate and transport models

Over the past decade, researchers have discovered that geographic information systems (GIS) are not only excellent tools for managing and displaying maps, but also useful in the analysis of chemical fate and transport in the environment. Among its many benefits, GIS facilitates the identification of critical factors that drive chemical fate and transport. Moreover, GIS makes it easier to communicate and explain key model assumptions.

Based on the author's firsthand experience in environmental assessment, GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling explores both GIS and chemical fate and transport modeling fundamentals, creating an interface between the two domains. It then explains how GIS analytical functions enable scientists to develop simple, yet comprehensive spatially explicit chemical fate and transport models that support real-world applications. In addition, the book features:

  • Practical examples of GIS based model calculations that serve as templates for the development of new applications

  • Exercises enabling readers to create their own GIS based models

  • Accompanying website featuring downloadable datasets used in the book's examples and exercises

  • References to the literature, websites, data repositories, and online reports to facilitate further research

  • Coverage of important topics such as spatial decision support systems and multi-criteria analysis as well as ecological and human health risk assessment in a spatial context

  • GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling makes a unique contribution to the environmental sciences by explaining how GIS analytical functions enhance the development and interpretation of chemical fate and transport models. Environmental scientists should turn to this book to gain a deeper understanding of the role of GIS in describing what happens to chemicals when they are released into the environment.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. Preface
    5. Contributors
    6. Chapter 1: Chemicals, Models, and GIS: Introduction
      1. 1.1 Chemistry, Modeling, and Geography
      2. 1.2 Mr. Palomar and Models
      3. 1.3 What Makes a Model Different?
      4. 1.4 Simple, Complex, or Tiered?
      5. 1.5 For Whom is this Book Written?
      6. References
    7. Chapter 2: Basics of Chemical Compartment Models and Their Implementation with GIS Functions
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Phase Partitioning
      3. 2.3 Diffusion, Dispersion, and Advection
      4. 2.4 Fluxes at the Interfaces
      5. 2.5 Reactions
      6. 2.6 Transport within An Environmental Medium: The Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE)
      7. 2.7 Analytical Solutions
      8. 2.8 Box Models, Multimedia and Multispecies Fate and Transport
      9. 2.9 Spatial Models: Implicit, Explicit, Detailed Explicit, and GIS-Based Schemes
      10. References
    8. Chapter 3: Basics of GIS Operations
      1. 3.1 What is GIS?
      2. 3.2 GIS Data
      3. 3.3 GIS Software
      4. 3.4 GIS Standards
      5. 3.5 A Classification of GIS Operations for Chemical Fate Modeling
      6. 3.6 Spatial Thinking
      7. 3.7 Beyond GIS
      8. 3.8 Further Progress on GIS
      9. References
    9. Chapter 4: Map Algebra
      1. 4.1 MAP Algebra Operators and Syntaxes
      2. 4.2 Using MAP Algebra to Compute a Gaussian Plume
      3. 4.3 Using MAP Algebra to Implement Isolated box Models
      4. References
    10. Chapter 5: Distance Calculations
      1. 5.1 Concepts of Distance Calculations
      2. 5.2 Distance Along a Surface and Vertical Distance
      3. 5.3 Applications of Euclidean Distance in Pollution Problems
      4. 5.4 Cost Distance
      5. References
    11. Chapter 6: Spatial Statistics and Neighborhood Modeling in GIS
      1. 6.1 Variograms: Analyzing Spatial Patterns
      2. 6.2 Interpolation
      3. 6.3 Zonal Statistics
      4. 6.4 Neighborhood Statistics and Filters
      5. References
    12. Chapter 7: Digital Elevation Models, Topographic Controls, and Hydrologic Modeling in GIS
      1. 7.1 Basic Surface Analysis
      2. 7.2 Drainage
      3. 7.3 Using GIS Hydrological Functions in Chemical Fate and Transport Modeling
      4. 7.4 Non-D8 Methods and the TauDEM Algorithms
      5. 7.5 ESRI's “Darcy Flow” and “Porous Puff” Functions
      6. References
    13. Chapter 8: Elements of Dynamic Modeling in GIS
      1. 8.1 Dynamic GIS Models
      2. 8.2 Studying Time-Dependent Effects with Simple Map Algebra
      3. 8.3 Decoupling Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Models: The Mappe Global Approach
      4. References
    14. Chapter 9: Metamodeling and Source–Receptor Relationship Modeling in GIS
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Metamodeling
      3. 9.3 Source–Receptor Relationships
      4. References
    15. Chapter 10: Spatial Data Management in GIS and the Coupling of GIS and Environmental Models
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Historical Perspective of Emergence of Spatial Databases in Environmental Domain
      3. 10.3 Spatial Data Management in GIS: Theory and History
      4. 10.4 Spatial Database Solutions
      5. 10.5 Simple environmental spatiotemporal database skeleton and GIS: hands-on examples
      6. 10.6 Generalized Environmental Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton and Geographic Mashups
      7. References
    16. Chapter 11: Soft Computing Methods for the Overlaying of Chemical Data with Other Spatially Varying Parameters
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Fuzzy Logic and Expert Judgment
      3. 11.3 Spatial Multicriteria Analysis
      4. 11.4 An Example of Vulnerability Mapping of Water Resources to Pollution
      5. References
    17. Chapter 12: Types of Data Required for Chemical Fate Modeling
      1. 12.1 Climate and Atmospheric Data
      2. 12.2 Soil Data
      3. 12.3 Impervious Surface Area
      4. 12.4 Vegetation
      5. 12.5 Hydrological Data
      6. 12.6 Elevation Data
      7. 12.7 Hydrography
      8. 12.8 Lakes
      9. 12.9 Stream Network Hydraulic Data
      10. 12.10 Ocean Parameters
      11. 12.11 Human Activity
      12. 12.12 Using Satellite Images for the Extraction of Environmental Parameters
      13. 12.13 Compilations of Data for Chemical Fate and Transport Modeling
      14. References
    18. Chapter 13: Retrieval and Analysis of Emission Data
      1. 13.1 Characterization of emissions
      2. 13.2 Emissions based on production volumes
      3. 13.3 Estimation from usage or release inventories
      4. 13.4 Emission factors
      5. 13.5 Spatial and temporal distribution of emissions
      6. 13.6 Modeling traffic flows
      7. References
    19. Chapter 14: Characterization of Environmental Properties and Processes
      1. 14.1 Physicochemical Properties and Partition Coefficients
      2. 14.2 Aerosol and Suspended Sediments
      3. 14.3 Diffusive Processes
      4. 14.4 Dispersion
      5. 14.5 Advective Processes
      6. 14.6 River and Lake Hydraulic Geometry
      7. References
    20. Chapter 15: Complex Models, GIS, and Data Assimilation
      1. 15.1 Atmospheric Transport Models
      2. 15.2 Transport in Groundwater and the Analytic Element Method
      3. 15.3 GIS Functions of Modeling Systems and Data Assimilation
      4. References
    21. Chapter 16: The Issue of Monitoring Data and the Evaluation of Spatial Models of Chemical Fate
      1. 16.1 Existing Monitoring Programs
      2. 16.2 Distributed Sampling
      3. 16.3 Methods for the Comparison of Measured and Modeled Concentrations
      4. References
    22. Chapter 17: From Fate to Exposure and Risk Modeling with GIS
      1. 17.1 Exposure and Risk for Human Health
      2. 17.2 Models for the Quantification of Chemical Intake by Humans
      3. 17.3 Ecological and Environmental Risk Assessment
      4. 17.4 Data for GIS Based Risk Assessment
      5. References
    23. Chapter 18: GIS Based Models in Practice: The Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment (MAPPE) Model
      1. 18.1 Introduction
      2. 18.2 Environmental Compartments Considered in the Model
      3. 18.3 Implementation in GIS: Example with Lindane
      4. 18.4 Using the Model For Scenario Assessment
      5. References
    24. Chapter 19: Inverse Modeling and Its Application to Water Contaminants
      1. 19.1 Introduction
      2. References
    25. Chapter 20: Chemical Fate and Transport Indicators and the Modeling of Contamination Patterns
      1. 20.1 The Relative Risk Model
      2. 20.2 Use of Chemical Fate and Transport Indicators in the Context of Relative Risk Assessment: An Example with Contaminants Applied to Soil
      3. References
    26. Chapter 21: Perspectives: The Challenge of Cumulative Impacts and Planetary Boundaries
      1. References
    27. Index