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GIMP 2.8 for Photographers

Book Description

Image editing is a crucial element in the photographic workflow. Image editing tools, most notably Photoshop, are usually sophisticated and deep applications, and are fairly expensive. The only open source tool in this market is the GIMP, which has developed into a powerful, multiplatform system running on Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows.

GIMP 2.8 for Photographers is a beginner's guide to the only open source image editing tool that provides a no-cost alternative to expensive programs such as Photoshop. Topics include the new user interface and tools, the basics of image editing and simple adjustments, advanced techniques using layers and masks, developing RAW images, working with the improved text tool, and preparing high-quality black-and-white images. The most important editing functions are presented in individual, easy-to-follow workshops. A bonus section on the included DVD describes special techniques for web graphics.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Table of Contents
  5. 1 Basics
    1. 1.1 Preface
    2. 1.2 Introduction
      1. 1.2.1 Using GIMP 2.8—About This Book
      2. 1.2.2 About GIMP 2.8
        1. Image Editing
        2. Video Editing
      3. 1.2.3 Overview of the Most Important Improvements and Changes in GIMP 2.8
    3. 1.3 Introduction to Digital Image Editing
      1. 1.3.1 Characteristics of Pixel Images
        1. Problems with Pixel Images
      2. 1.3.2 Resolution
      3. 1.3.3 Screen Colors—Color Models and GEGL, the New Graphics Library
        1. Indexed Colors
        2. The CMYK Color Model—Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key (Black)
      4. 1.3.4 Important File Formats for Practical Work
        1. XCF: GIMP’s Native File Format
        2. PSD: Adobe Photoshop’s Native File Format
        3. PNG: Portable Network Graphics
        4. JPG/JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group
        5. GIF: Graphics Interchange Format
        6. BMP: Windows Bitmap
        7. TIF/TIFF: Tagged Image File Format
        8. DNG: Adobe’s Digital Negative
        9. PDF: Portable Document Format
    4. 1.4 Loading and Managing Digital Photos on the Computer
      1. 1.4.1 Using the Operating System’s File Management Tools to Import Images from a Camera
      2. 1.4.2 Using Wizards to Import Images
      3. 1.4.3 Using the Operating System’s File Management to Organize Photo Collections
      4. 1.4.4 Helpers: Image Management Programs for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X
      5. 1.4.5 Converting Camera RAW Image Formats under Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux: Freeware and Plug-Ins
    5. 1.5 Get GIMP Running
      1. 1.5.1 Where Can I Get GIMP?
      2. 1.5.2 Installing GIMP and Plug-Ins
        1. Installing GIMP under Windows
        2. Installing GIMP under Mac OS X
        3. GIMP and Linux
        4. Expanding GIMP: Plug-ins and Script-Fus—Additional Program Functions
        5. Installing GIMP Plug-ins
        6. Starting GIMP for the First Time
      3. 1.5.3 Is GIMP Insecure? Some Comments and Tips
        1. The Worst Case
      4. 1.5.4 The GIMP’s Program Windows
      5. 1.5.5 Using and Customizing the Program Interface—Important Menus
        1. Program Settings for the Undo History
        2. The Toolbox
      6. 1.5.6 Real Help—GIMP’s Help Function
        1. Using the Help Function
  6. 2 Using GIMP: Correcting and Touching Up Your Images
    1. 2.1 Working with GIMP: Image Adjustment and Retouching
      1. 2.1.1 Opening, Setting, and Storing an Image: The Steps
      2. 2.1.2 Opening an Image
      3. 2.1.3 The Image Window—Your Workspace
      4. 2.1.4 Rotating an Image by Fixed Values
      5. 2.1.5 Changing the Image View Size (Zooming)
      6. 2.1.6 Cropping (Clipping) an Image
        1. Cropping with the Crop Tool
        2. Cropping the Image by Numeric Input with the Image > Canvas Size Option
        3. The Procedure
      7. 2.1.7 Setting the Image Size and Resolution
      8. 2.1.8 Scaling the Print Size of Images—Converting Resolution and Size
      9. 2.1.9 Saving Your Image
      10. 2.1.10 Before Printing—Calibrating Monitors and Color Management
        1. Essential Monitor Settings
        2. Selecting a Ready-Made Color Profile
        3. Adjusting the Display with a Calibrating Program
        4. Color Management in GIMP
      11. 2.1.11 Printing Images
    2. 2.2 Working with Scanned Images
      1. 2.2.1 Prerequisites for Scanning
      2. 2.2.2 How Scanners Work
      3. 2.2.3 Problems When Scanning Printed Originals—the Moiré Effect
      4. 2.2.4 Calculations to Consider before Scanning
        1. Selecting a Resolution
        2. Formula for the Scanning Resolution
        3. Example
      5. 2.2.5 Scanning and Editing an Image
        1. The Procedure
      6. 2.2.6 Typical Errors in Scanned Images
      7. 2.2.7 Setting the Image and Determining the Angle—Measuring
      8. 2.2.8 Rotating an Image—Using the Rotate Tool
        1. Rotate a Layer, Selection, or Path
      9. 2.2.9 Cropping an Image—the Crop Tool
      10. 2.2.10 Using the Gaussian Blur Filter to Remove the Moiré Effect
    3. 2.3 Adjusting and Improving Color and Exposure
      1. 2.3.1 Levels (Tonality Correction)
      2. 2.3.2 Curves
        1. The Options of the Function Curves
        2. Using the Gradation Curve to Correct the Tonality
        3. Using the Gradation Curve to Set the Brightness
        4. Shadows-Highlights—Correcting Backlit Photographs with the Gradation Curve
        5. Solarization Effects with Gradation Curves
      3. 2.3.3 Adjusting Hue and Saturation
      4. 2.3.4 Overview of the Functions in the Image > Colors Menu
      5. 2.3.5 Saving an Image in Compressed Format (JPG/JPEG) for the Internet
        1. Exporting to JPEG
        2. Settings for Advanced Options
    4. 2.4 Touchup Work 1—Color Casts
      1. 2.4.1 What Is Touchup Work?
        1. How Are Color Casts Created?
      2. 2.4.2 Color Correction Options
      3. 2.4.3 Using the Levels Function to Correct Color Casts
      4. 2.4.4 A Second Method of Removing Color Casts—Color Balance
    5. 2.5 Touchup Work 2—Removing Spots, Dust, and Scratches
      1. 2.5.1 Why You Need Smooth Brushes—the Clone Tool
      2. 2.5.2 Creating New Brush Pointers in GIMP and Importing Adobe Photoshop Brushes
        1. Importing Brush Pointers from Adobe Photoshop into GIMP
      3. 2.5.3 Selecting the Clone Tool Options
      4. 2.5.4 Using the Clone Tool for Touchup Work
        1. Collecting Image Information and Adding It to the Image
        2. Changing Brush and View
        3. Undoing a Step
      5. 2.5.5 The Healing Tool
    6. 2.6 Performing Magic—Editing Photographs with Graphic Filters
      1. 2.6.1 Sharpening Images and Image Elements
        1. The Sharpen Filter
        2. The Unsharp Mask Filter
      2. 2.6.2 Noise Reduction and “Smoothening” Images
        1. The Despeckle Filter
        2. The Filter Selective Gaussian Blur
        3. The NL Filter
        4. Removing Dust and Other Small Irregularities
      3. 2.6.3 Simulating Film Grain—Covering Up Blemishes with Noise and Pixels
        1. Covering Up Blemishes
        2. Covering Up Images with Noise
  7. 3 Using Masks and Layers—Painting, Filling, and Color Tools
    1. 3.1 Introduction to Masks and Selections
      1. 3.1.1 Overview of Select Tools in the Toolbox
      2. 3.1.2 Tips for Handling Select Tools
      3. 3.1.3 The Select Menu
      4. 3.1.4 The Edit Menu
    2. 3.2 Touchup Work 3—Removing Red Eyes
      1. 3.2.1 Avoiding Red Eye—Using the Flash Correctly
      2. 3.2.2 Eliminating the Red-Eye Effect
    3. 3.3 Introduction to Working with Layers
      1. 3.3.1 The Layers Dialog
      2. 3.3.2 The Context Menu in the Layers Dialog
      3. 3.3.3 Background or Layer with an Alpha Channel
      4. 3.3.4 Working with Several Images—Inserting Layers from Another Image
    4. 3.4 Touchup Work 4—Correcting Overexposed or Underexposed Images
      1. 3.4.1 The Mode Settings in the Layers Dialog
      2. 3.4.2 Editing Overexposed Images
      3. 3.4.3 Editing Underexposed Images
    5. 3.5 Touchup Work 5—Using Perspective Correction to Remove Converging Verticals
      1. 3.5.1 Trying to Avoid Converging Verticals When Taking Shots
      2. 3.5.2 Steps Involved and Description of Work
      3. 3.5.3 Removing Converging Verticals from an Image
        1. Transform Tool Options
      4. 3.5.4 Removing Lens Distortion, Making Perspective Corrections, and Reducing Vignetting
      5. 3.5.5 The Perspective Clone Tool
        1. Copying Image Content and Inserting the Image in the Correct Perspective
        2. The Procedure
    6. 3.6 Touchup Work 6—Freshening Up a “Dull Sky”
      1. 3.6.1 Steps Involved and Description of Work
      2. 3.6.2 Step 1: Selecting an Area by Color, Deleting It, and Replacing It with Color Fill
        1. Select Tool Options
        2. Example: Select by Color Tool
        3. The Color Picker Tool—Using the Eyedropper to Select a Foreground Color from the Image
        4. The Color Area in the Toolbox
        5. The Change Foreground Color Window
        6. The Bucket Fill Tool
        7. Creating a Sky Graphically—the Difference Clouds Filter
      3. 3.6.3 Step 2: Creating and Positioning an Image Object on a New Layer
        1. Positioning Layers and Objects with the Move Tool
        2. The Move Tool Options
      4. 3.6.4 Step 3: Creating a Multicolor Sky—the Blend Tool
        1. Creating a Gradient—the Gradient Select and Gradient Editor Windows
        2. The Blend Tool Options
        3. Using the Blend Tool
        4. Painting with the Blend Tool
        5. The Gradient Map Filter
      5. 3.6.5 Step 4: Adding a New Object or Layer (Sky) to an Image
        1. Transformations—Scaling a Layer
    7. 3.7 Typing in GIMP—Adding Text to an Image
      1. 3.7.1 Introduction to Fonts
      2. 3.7.2 Typing in GIMP—the Text Tool
      3. 3.7.3 Typing Text and Defining the Text Attributes
      4. 3.7.4 Creating Three-Dimensional Text and a Drop Shadow
        1. Using the Text Tool and Drop Shadow—a Practical Exercise
        2. The Script-Fu Layer Effects
    8. 3.8 Creating Your Own Image Frames and Vignettes
      1. 3.8.1 Single-Color Image Frames
        1. The Procedure
      2. 3.8.2 Creating a Frame with a Pattern
        1. The Procedure
      3. 3.8.3 Vignettes for Images
    9. 3.9 Creating and Editing Image Elements—Lighting Effects and Shadow Layers
      1. 3.9.1 Overview of Step 1—Creating a New Image and New Image Objects
      2. 3.9.2 Creating a New Image
      3. 3.9.3 Transforming a Selection
      4. 3.9.4 Using the Paintbrush Tool to Create Lighting and Shadow Effects: Glazing Technique
      5. 3.9.5 Inserting and Duplicating Layers and Layer Groups
      6. 3.9.6 Changing the Color of an Image Object—the Hue-Saturation Function
    10. 3.10 Extracting Image Objects with Select and Masking Tools
      1. 3.10.1 The Polygon Lasso and Intelligent Scissors Select Tools
      2. 3.10.2 Extracting a Wine Glass with the Polygon Lasso
        1. The Procedure
      3. 3.10.3 Creating a Selection with the Polygon Lasso, Following a Contour
    11. 3.11 Using the Paths Tool to Create Vector Forms and Selections—Using Filters for Light Effects
      1. 3.11.1 Copying a Wine Glass and Creating a Drop Shadow—Overview of the Steps Involved
      2. 3.11.2 Creating and Editing a Path—the Design Editing Mode
      3. 3.11.3 The Path Editing Mode
      4. 3.11.4 The Paths Dialog
      5. 3.11.5 Transforming Paths—the Shear Tool
      6. 3.11.6 Creating Lighting Effects with Brushes and Filters
        1. Constructing Light Reflections with Paths
        2. Painting Light Reflections with Star-Shaped Paintbrushes
        3. Creating Light Reflection with Filters
        4. The Lighting Effects Filter
        5. The Lens Flare Filter
      7. 3.11.7 Paths and Text
        1. Text along Path
        2. Create Path from Text
    12. 3.12 Aligning Images—the Alignment Tool
    13. 3.13 The Cage Transform Tool
    14. 3.14 Cross-Fading with Masks and Selections
      1. 3.14.1 Cross-Fading Part 1—Cross-Fading Two Images with Two Different Motifs
        1. The Procedure
      2. 3.14.2 The Canvas and Canvas Size
      3. 3.14.3 Cross-Fading Part 2—Assembling Panoramic Images
        1. Panoramic Photos
        2. The Procedure
      4. 3.14.4 Programs for Creating Panoramas Automatically
    15. 3.15 Composites—Using Masks and Selections to Cut and Paste Image Objects
      1. 3.15.1 Copying an Image Object with the Help of a Selection and Inserting It into Another Image—the Procedure
      2. 3.15.2 The Mode Options in the Layers Dialog
      3. 3.15.3 The Foreground Select Tool—Extracting Images Automatically
      4. 3.15.4 Drawing a Mask Using Paint Tools with Various Edge Attributes
        1. Extracting an Image Object with the Help of a Painted Mask
        2. The Procedure
    16. 3.16 GIMP and HDR
      1. 3.16.1 What Is HDR?
      2. 3.16.2 HDR Software
        1. Freeware Programs for Creating HDR Images
      3. 3.16.3 Cross-Fading Part 3—Merging Images into One Pseudo HDR
        1. The Procedure
      4. 3.16.4 A Short Introduction to Working with Layer Masks
        1. The Procedure
  8. 4 Working with Black-and-White and Color Images
    1. 4.1 Converting Color Images Partly or Entirely into Grayscale Images
      1. 4.1.1 Hints for Working in Grayscale and RGB Modes
      2. 4.1.2 Removing Color Partly or Entirely
      3. 4.1.3 Developing Black-and-White Images with the Channel Mixer
      4. 4.1.4 The Graphical Library GEGL—Developing Black-and-White Images with GEGL Operations
      5. 4.1.5 Converting Images into Black-and-White Graphics
      6. 4.1.6 Graphic Effects with Gray Levels—an Example
      7. 4.1.7 Partial Desaturation
      8. 4.1.8 Infrared Effects
    2. 4.2 Touching Up Black-and-White Images—Levels, Brightness, Contrast
    3. 4.3 Extracting Hair from the Background—a Tricky Task
      1. 4.3.1 The Threshold Function
      2. 4.3.2 Using the Threshold Function to Extract Hair—the Task
      3. 4.3.3 Using Channels to Extract an Object from the Background
        1. What Are Channels?
        2. Decomposing and Composing the Channels of an Image
        3. The Channels Dialog
        4. Using Channels to Extract Hair from the Background—the Procedure
    4. 4.4 Coloring Grayscale Images
      1. 4.4.1 Using the Colorize Function to Color an Image
      2. 4.4.2 Using the Levels Function to Color an Image
      3. 4.4.3 Using the Curves Function to Color an Image with One or More Colors
      4. 4.4.4 Using the Colorify Filter to Color an Image
      5. 4.4.5 Using Transparency and the Colorize Filter to Color Image Areas by Brightness
      6. 4.4.6 Using the Sample Colorize Function to Color an Image
      7. 4.4.7 Using Filters to Color and Bleach an Image
    5. 4.5 “Hand-Colored” Images from Black-and-White Photos
  9. 5 Working with Other File Formats
    1. 5.1 Opening and Processing RAW-Format “Digital Negatives”
      1. 5.1.1 Capturing and Processing RAW Image Files
      2. 5.1.2 GIMP and UFRaw
      3. 5.1.3 Working with UFRaw
      4. 5.1.4 Features and Elements of UFRaw’s Main Window
        1. The RAW Color Histogram
        2. Spot Values
        3. Exposure
        4. WB White Balance
        5. Spot White Balance
        6. Interpolation
        7. Wavelet Denoising
        8. Hot Pixels
        9. Dark Frame Subtraction
        10. Grayscale
        11. Lens Correction
        12. Base Curve
        13. Color Management Using Color Profiles
        14. Correcting Luminosity and Saturation
        15. Lightness Adjustments (Adapting Image Brightness)
        16. Crop and Rotate
        17. Saving Your Image
        18. EXIF
        19. Live Histogram
        20. Options Under the Preview Window of UFRaw
        21. The Zoom Tool
        22. Delete
        23. Cancel
        24. Save
        25. Send image to GIMP
      5. 5.1.5 RawTherapee for Developing RAW Images
    2. 5.2 Using the PDF Format to Share Print Layouts
      1. 5.2.1 Opening PDF Files in GIMP
      2. 5.2.2 Using GIMP to Create PDFs
      3. 5.2.3 Free Alternative PDF Creation and Viewing Software
    3. 5.3 PSD Files
      1. 5.3.1 Opening Adobe PSD Files in GIMP
      2. 5.3.2 PSD Files Exported from GIMP and Opened in Photoshop
  10. Appendix
    1. A.1 The IWarp Filter— a Closing Comment
    2. A.2 So Far, So Good—How to Proceed from Here: Tips and References
    3. A.3 The Future of GIMP
      1. A.3.1 Downloading and Installing Developer’s Versions of GIMP
    4. A.4 Thank You!
    5. A.5 Further Reading on GIMP: References
    6. A.6 What’s on the DVD
    7. A.7 Native GIMP File Formats
  11. Index