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Geothermal Power Plants, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Now in its 3e, this single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation using fundamental scientific and engineering principles. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader's understanding of geothermal energy conversion and provide a unique compilation of hard-to-obtain data and experience.

Important new chapters cover Hot Dry Rock, Enhanced Geothermal Systems, and Deep Hydrothermal Systems. New, international case studies provide practical, hands-on knowledge.



  • Provides coverage of all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation from fundamental scientific and engineering principles
  • International case studies from real plants provide a unique compilation of hard-to-obtain data and experience
  • Includes pivotal updates on advances in Hot Dry Rock, Enhanced Geothermal Systems, and Deep Hydrothermal Systems

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword to the Third Edition
  7. Preface and Acknowledgements to the Third Edition
  8. Preface and Acknowledgements to the Second Edition
  9. Preface and Acknowledgments to the First Edition
  10. Part 1. Resource Identification and Development
    1. Chapter 1. Geology of Geothermal Regions
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 The Earth and its atmosphere
      3. 1.3 Active geothermal regions
      4. 1.4 Model of a hydrothermal geothermal resource
      5. 1.5 Other types of geothermal resources
      6. REFERENCES
      7. Problems
    2. Chapter 2. Exploration Strategies and Techniques
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Objectives of an exploration program
      3. 2.3 Phases of an exploration program
      4. 2.4 Synthesis and interpretation
      5. 2.5 The next step: Drilling
      6. REFERENCES
      7. Problems
    3. Chapter 3. Geothermal Well Drilling
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Site preparation and drilling equipment
      3. 3.3 Drilling operations
      4. 3.4 Safety precautions
      5. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4. Reservoir Engineering
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Reservoir and well flow
      3. 4.3 Well testing
      4. 4.4 Calcite scaling in well casings
      5. 4.5 Reservoir modeling and simulation
      6. REFERENCES
      7. Problems
  11. Part 2. Geothermal Power Generating Systems
    1. Chapter 5. Single-Flash Steam Power Plants
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Gathering system design considerations
      3. 5.3 Energy conversion system
      4. 5.4 Thermodynamics of the conversion process
      5. 5.5 Example: Single-flash optimization
      6. 5.6 Optimum separator temperature: An approximate formulation
      7. 5.7 Environmental aspects for single-flash plants
      8. 5.8 Equipment list for single-flash plants
      9. REFERENCES
      10. Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 5
      11. Problems
    2. Chapter 6. Double-Flash Steam Power Plants
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Gathering system design considerations
      3. 6.3 Energy conversion system
      4. 6.4 Thermodynamics of the conversion process
      5. 6.5 Example: Double-flash optimization
      6. 6.6 Scale potential in waste brine
      7. 6.7 Environmental aspects for double-flash plants
      8. 6.8 Equipment list for double-flash plants
      9. REFERENCES
      10. Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 6
      11. Problems
    3. Chapter 7. Dry-Steam Power Plants
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Origins and nature of dry-steam resources
      3. 7.3 Steam gathering system
      4. 7.4 Energy conversion system
      5. 7.5 Example: Optimum wellhead pressure
      6. 7.6 Environmental aspects of dry-steam plants
      7. 7.7 Equipment list for dry-steam plants
      8. REFERENCES
      9. Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 7
      10. Problems
    4. Chapter 8. Binary Cycle Power Plants
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Basic binary systems
      3. 8.3 Working fluid selection
      4. 8.4 Advanced binary cycles
      5. 8.5 Example of binary cycle analysis
      6. 8.6 Environmental impact of binary cycles
      7. 8.7 Equipment list for basic binary plants
      8. REFERENCES
      9. Problems
    5. Chapter 9. Advanced Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Hybrid single-flash and double-flash systems
      3. 9.3 Hybrid flash-binary systems
      4. 9.4 Example: Integrated flash-binary hybrid system
      5. 9.5 Total-flow systems
      6. 9.6 Hybrid fossil-geothermal systems
      7. 9.7 Combined heat and power plants
      8. 9.8 Power plants for hypersaline brines
      9. 9.9 Solar-geothermal hybrid plants
      10. REFERENCES
      11. Problems
    6. Chapter 10. Exergy Analysis Applied to Geothermal Power Systems
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 First Law for open, steady systems
      3. 10.3 Second Law for open, steady systems
      4. 10.4 Exergy
      5. 10.5 Exergy accounting for open, steady systems
      6. 10.6 Exergy efficiencies and applications to geothermal plants
      7. REFERENCES
      8. Problems
  12. Part 3. Geothermal Power Plant Case Studies
    1. Chapter 11. Larderello Dry-Steam Power Plants, Tuscany, Italy
      1. 11.1 History of development
      2. 11.2 Geology and reservoir characteristics
      3. 11.3 Power plants
      4. 11.4 Mitigation of environmental impact
      5. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 12. The Geysers Dry-Steam Power Plants, Sonoma and Lake Counties, California, USA
      1. 12.1 History and early power plants
      2. 12.2 Geographic and geologic setting
      3. 12.3 Well drilling
      4. 12.4 Steam pipeline system
      5. 12.5 Power plants
      6. 12.6 Recharging the reservoir
      7. 12.7 Toward sustainability
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 13. Cerro Prieto Power Station, Baja California Norte, Mexico
      1. 13.1 Overview of Mexican geothermal development
      2. 13.2 Cerro Prieto geographical and geological setting
      3. 13.3 Cerro Prieto power plants
      4. 13.4 Expansion of Cerro Prieto and nearby prospects
      5. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 14. Hatchobaru Power Station, Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan
      1. 14.1 Overview of Japanese geothermal development
      2. 14.2 Hatchobaru geothermal field
      3. 14.3 Hatchobaru power units
      4. 14.4 Conclusion and forecast
      5. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 15. Mutnovsky Flash-Steam Power Plant, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia
      1. 15.1 Setting, exploration, and early developments
      2. 15.2 Conceptual model of Mutnovsky geothermal field
      3. 15.3 Verkhne-Mutnovsky 12 MW power plant
      4. 15.4 Mutnovsky first-stage 50 MW power plant
      5. 15.5 Future power units at Mutnovsky
      6. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 16. Miravalles Power Station, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica
      1. 16.1 Traveling to Miravalles
      2. 16.2 History of geothermal development
      3. 16.3 Wells
      4. 16.4 Power generation
      5. 16.5 Calcite inhibition system
      6. 16.6 Acid neutralization system
      7. 16.7 Environmental protection and monitoring
      8. 16.8 Other geothermal power projects
      9. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 17. Heber Binary Plants, Imperial Valley, California, USA
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Exploration and discovery
      3. 17.3 The first Heber binary plant
      4. 17.4 The second Heber binary plant
      5. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 18. Magmamax Binary Power Plant, East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA
      1. 18.1 Setting and exploration
      2. 18.2 Magmamax binary power plant
      3. 18.3 Modified Magmamax binary power plant
      4. 18.4 Conclusion
      5. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 19. Nesjavellir and Hellisheidi Plants, Iceland
      1. 19.1 Introduction
      2. 19.2 Geology and geosciences
      3. 19.3 Nesjavellir power plant
      4. 19.4 Hellisheidi power plant
      5. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 20. Raft River Plants, Idaho, USA
      1. 20.1 Introduction
      2. 20.2 Geology and geosciences
      3. 20.3 Original development – DOE pilot plant
      4. 20.4 New development – U.S. Geothermal plant
      5. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 21. Geothermal Power Plants in Turkey
      1. 21.1 Geologic setting
      2. 21.2 Kızıldere single-flash plant
      3. 21.3 Salavatlı binary plants
      4. 21.4 Germencik double-flash plant
      5. 21.5 Environmental impact
      6. 21.6 Current state and future prospects of geothermal power
      7. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 22. Enhanced Geothermal Systems – Projects and Plants
      1. 22.1 Definitions
      2. 22.2 Early projects
      3. 22.3 Later projects
      4. 22.4 EGS power plants
      5. 22.5 Proposed projects
      6. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 23. Environmental Impact of Geothermal Power Plants
      1. 23.1 Overview
      2. 23.2 Regulations
      3. 23.3 General impacts of electricity generation
      4. 23.4 Environmental advantages of geothermal plants
      5. 23.5 Environmental challenges of geothermal plants
      6. 23.6 Summary
      7. REFERENCES
  13. APPENDIX A. Worldwide State of Geothermal Power Plant Development as of August 2011
  14. APPENDIX B. Units Conversions
  15. APPENDIX C. Energy Equivalents
  16. APPENDIX D. Elements of Thermodynamics
  17. APPENDIX E. Answers to Selected Practice Problems
  18. APPENDIX F. Supplementary Problems
  19. APPENDIX G. Answers to Selected Supplementary Problems
  20. APPENDIX H. REFPROP Tutorial with Application to Geothermal Binary Cycles
  21. Index