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Geographic Information Systems

Book Description

Developments in technologies have evolved in a much wider use of technology throughout science, government, and business; resulting in the expansion of geographic information systems. GIS is the academic study and practice of presenting geographical data through a system designed to capture, store, analyze, and manage geographic information. Geographic Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a collection of knowledge on the latest advancements and research of geographic information systems. This book aims to be useful for academics and practitioners involved in geographical data.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Showing the Past
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH CONTEXT
      4. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE VIRTUAL MAP ROOM
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ADVANCES
    2. Chapter 2: Location-Based Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UBIQUITOUS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
      4. LOCATION-ADAPTED SERVICES
      5. LOCATION-ADAPTED TECHNOLOGY
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: Location Privacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRIVACY IN LOCATION-AWARE ENVIRONMENTS
      4. PROTECTING LOCATION PRIVACY
      5. FUTURE OF LOCATION PRIVACY
    4. Chapter 4: Location-Based Performance Tuning in Mobile Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MOBILE SENSOR NETWORKS
      3. PERFORMANCE TUNING IN MOBILE SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. ALGEBRAIC OPTIMIZATION
      5. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Routing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEMS
      5. SOLUTION PROCEDURES FOR ROUTING PROBLEMS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS IN ROUTING RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: Web-Based Geospatial Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GEO-ELCA: COLLABORATIVE GISERVICE ARCHITECTURE
      4. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: A Brief Cartography of Smart Cameras
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VISIBILITY, PERCEPTION, AND ATTENTION
      4. MOBILE BODIES, ACTION, AND INFORMATION
      5. REAL TIME, PREDICTION, AND PROACTIVITY
    8. Chapter 8: GIS, Grid Computing and RFID in Healthcare Information Supply Chain
      1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    9. Chapter 9: On Modeling and Analysis of Multidimensional Geographic Databases
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SPATIO-MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATABASES: MODELS AND TOOLS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 10: Technology and the Multipolar Global Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 11: Coupling GPS and GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTEGRATION OF GPS AND GIS
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 12: Using Geospatial Techniques to Analyze Landscape Factors Controlling Ionic Composition of Arctic Lakes, Toolik Lake Region, Alaska
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. ANALYSIS
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX A
    13. Chapter 13: Mobile Geographic Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM CONVENTIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) TO MOBILE GIS
      4. THE PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES OF MOBILE GIS
      5. MOBILE GIS FOR LOCATION-BASED SERVICES (LBS)
      6. APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE GIS FOR SMART PHONES
      7. PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF MOBILE GIS
      8. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 14: A Review of Geospatial Information Technology for Natural Disaster Management in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
      5. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SOFTWARE
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 15: Virtual Environments for Geospatial Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GEO-VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: EVOLUTION OVER THE YEARS
      4. APPLICATIONS OF GEO-VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 16: GIS Technique for Territorial Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DECISION SUPPORT FOR TERRITORIAL ANALYSIS
      3. MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS AND GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION
      4. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
      5. SPATIAL MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 17: Cognitively Ergonomic Route Directions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF ROUTE DIRECTIONS
      3. APPROACHES TO REPRESENTING ROUTE KNOWLEDGE
      4. CORE ASPECTS OF COGNITIVELY ERGONOMIC ROUTE DIRECTIONS
      5. THE MULTIMODAL PRESENTATION OF ROUTE KNOWLEDGE
      6. SUMMARY
    3. Chapter 18: Design and Implementation Approaches for Location-Based, Tourism-Related Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
      5. MOBILE TOURISM SERVICES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX: ACRONYMS
    4. Chapter 19: Methodical Spatial Database Design with Topological Polygon Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRANSFORMATIONAL DESIGN OF SPATIAL DATABASES
      4. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRANSFORMATIONAL SPATIAL DATABASE DESIGN
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    5. Chapter 20: Methodologies for Augmented Discovery of Geospatial Resources
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DISCOVERY AUGMENTATION METHODOLOGY: HIGH-LEVEL APPROACHES
      4. AN ARCHITECTURE TO INTEGRATE AND ANNOTATE USER RESOURCES
      5. SEMANTIC AUGMENTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 21: Semantic Interoperability of Geospatial Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GIS SERVICES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF E-GOVERNMENT
      4. EPISTEMOLOGY OF INTEROPERABLE AGENTS IN BUSINESS PROCESSES
      5. ONTOLOGY FOR SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
      6. CRAFTING ONTOLOGY-SEMANTIC WEB INITIATIVES
      7. ONTOLOGY-BASED SPATIAL RESOURCES INTEGRATION SERVICES (OSIRIS)
      8. MULTI-AGENT AGENT ARCHITECTURE OF OSIRIS
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 22: New Discovery Methodologies in GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
      4. INDEX CONSTRUCTION WORKFLOW
      5. QUERY EVALUATION SERVICE
      6. USER INTERFACES
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 23: A Multidimensional Model for Correct Aggregation of Geographic Measures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. RESEARCH MOTIVATIONS
      6. CORRECT GEOGRAPHIC MULTIDIMENSIONAL AGGREGATION
      7. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
    9. Chapter 24: Location Privacy in Automotive Telematics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRIVACY ATTACKS
      5. PRIVACY DEFENSES
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 25: Diagnostic Modeling of Digital Systems with Multi-Level Decision Diagrams
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DECISION DIAGRAMS AND DIGITAL TEST
      5. MODELING DIGITAL CIRCUITS WITH MULTIPLE INPUT SSBDDS
      6. MODELING DIGITAL SYSTEMS WITH HIGH LEVEL DECISION DIAGRAMS
      7. SYNTHESIS OF HIGH-LEVEL DECISION DIAGRAMS FROM THE NETWORK OF COMPONENTS
      8. SYNTHESIS OF HIGH-LEVEL DECISION DIAGRAMS FROM PROCEDURAL DESCRIPTIONS
      9. VECTOR HIGH-LEVEL DECISION DIAGRAMS
      10. FUNCTIONAL FAULT MODELING IN DIGITAL SYSTEMS
      11. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 26: Semantic Annotation of Geospatial RESTful Services Using External Resources
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
      4. AN APPROACH FOR AUTOMATIC SEMANTIC ANNOTATION OF GEOSPATIAL RESTFUL SERVICES
      5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 27: Framework for Graphical User Interfaces of Geospatial Early Warning Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. MOTIVATION AND PRECONDITIONS
      5. COMMAND AND CONTROL USER INTERFACE
      6. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH CONTINUED AS FOSS INITIATIVE
      7. APPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 28: User-Friendly Geoportal Interfaces for Geospatial Resource Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OGC CATALOG SERVICES SPECIFICATION
      4. WEB CLIENT APPLICATION
      5. A WEB SEARCHING STUDY
      6. ACTIONS FOR FRIENDLY USER INTERFACE
      7. SERVER SIDE VS. CLIENT SIDE COMPLEXITY
      8. FUTURE WORK: A WEB SEMANTIC APPROACH
    14. Chapter 29: Development and Application of a Spreadsheet-Based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF SPREADSHEET-SDSS EXTENSION
      4. EXAMPLE APPLICATION
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    15. Chapter 30: A Package-Based Architecture for Customized GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW
      5. FURTHER FEATURES
      6. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 31: Algorithms for 3D Map Segment Registration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE MAPPING WITH COLOR POINT CLOUD SCANNERS
      4. ALGORITHMS FOR REGISTERING MAP SEGMENTS
      5. HUE-ASSISTED ITERATIVE CLOSEST POINT (H-ICP) ALGORITHM
      6. MAP REGISTRATION WITH ICP AND H-ICP
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 32: TVAL-Farm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE STUDY AREA
      4. AN ENHANCED LESA MODEL
      5. SUMMARY
    3. Chapter 33: OpenStreetMap
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPENSTREETMAP PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
      4. INTERACTING WITH OPENSTREETMAP
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 34: GeoCache
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. CACHE STRUCTURE FOR GEOGRAPHICAL QUERIES IN GML
      5. GEOGRAPHICAL QUERY PROCESSING
      6. EXPERIMENTATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 35: PDE-Based Image Processing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PDE-BASED IMAGE PROCESSING
      4. APPLICATION AREAS
      5. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT METRICS
      6. IMAGE RESTORATION USING PDES FORMALISM
      7. ADDITIVE NOISE REMOVAL FROM DIGITAL IMAGES
      8. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
      9. MULTIPLICATIVE SPECKLE NOISE REDUCTION FROM DIGITAL IMAGES
      10. SPECKLE NOISE REDUCTION TECHNIQUES
      11. EXAMPLES
      12. RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 36: Multicast over Location-Based Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MULTICASTING
      5. THE LOCATION-AWARE MULTICAST
      6. LBM GEOCASTING AND IP MULTICASTING
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 37: A New Image Distortion Measure Based on Natural Scene Statistics Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IQA PROPOSED SCHEME
      4. THE BI-DIMENSIONAL EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION
      5. DISTORTION MEASURE
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 38: Modern Navigation Systems and Related Spatial Query
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODERN NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
      4. NAVIGATION RELATED SPATIAL QUERY ALGORITHMS
      5. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 39: Managing Schema Evolution in a Federated Spatial Database System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCEPTUAL AUTOMATIC SCHEMA EVOLUTION FRAMEWORK
      5. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 40: Map Matching Algorithms for Intelligent Transport Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGIES USED IN MAP MATCHING ALGORITHMS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 41: Describing and Selecting Collections of Georeferenced Media Items in Peer-to-Peer Information Retrieval Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PEER-TO-PEER INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS FOR GEOSPATIAL SEARCH
      4. RESOURCE SELECTION BASED ON DESCRIPTIONS OF GEOSPATIAL FOOTPRINTS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 42: Cognitive Mapping and GIS for Community-Based Resource Identification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADAPTATION OF MAPPING METHODS FOR RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION
      4. GIS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
      5. GIS ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES
      6. SELECTED RESULTS
      7. LESSONS LEARNED
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. APPENDIX
    13. Chapter 43: Complementary Part Detection and Reassembly of 3D Fragments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SCANNING OF FRAGMENTS
      5. ROUGHNESS DETECTION DESCRIPTOR
      6. CLEAVAGE SITE DETECTION
      7. COMPLEMENTARY PART DETECTION
      8. REGISTRATION
      9. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      10. FUTURE WORK
      11. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 44: Biometric Authentication in Broadband Networks for Location-Based Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOMETRIC ID
      4. BIOMETRICS IN ATHLETICS
      5. MULTIFUNCTIONAL BSPs
      6. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 45: Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Identifying a Suitable Location for Groundwater Pumping Wells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 4. MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS
      5. 5. GROUNDWATER MODELLING
      6. 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 7. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 46: Last Online Deposits Spatial Data in the Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF CARTOGRAPHY ART
      4. ONE POINT ON THE TERRESTRIAL SURFACE LOCALIZATION
      5. THE CURVES OF LEVEL
      6. PRODUCTION OF A CARD
      7. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
      8. PROXIMITY ANALYSIS
      9. SPATIAL ANALYSIS
      10. WEB MAPPING
      11. GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF A CARTOGRAPHIC WORKING SERVER
      12. SOLUTIONS CLIENT SIDE
      13. THE DM SOLUTIONS PRODUCTS
      14. SERVERS TO THE NORM WEB MAP SERVICE (WMS) OF THE OGC
      15. THE CARTOWE3 PRESENTATION
      16. SPECIFICATIONS
      17. ADVANTAGES OF USE
      18. ARCHITECTURE OF WEB CARTO
      19. CREATION OF A PROJECT OF WEB MAPPING
      20. DATA OF LOADING
      21. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 47: Spatial Modeling of Natural Phenomena and Events with Artificial Neural Networks and GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE MODELLING METHOD FOR SPATIAL EVENTS
      4. METHOD: ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
      5. INTEGRATION OF THE METHOD INTO GIS
      6. CASE STUDY 1: EROSION PATTERN PREDICTION
      7. CASE STUDY 2: PREDICTION OF MINERAL RESOURCES
      8. CASE STUDY 3: FOREST PEST VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS
      9. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 48: Stereo-Vision-Based Fire Detection and Suppression Robot for Buildings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FIRE DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION ROBOT
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. STEREO-VISION-BASED FIRE EXTINGUISHING MOBILE ROBOT
      7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 49: Children’s Maps in GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICATION OF THE METHOD IN REAL-WORLD USE IN TÄBY
      5. REPRESENTATION OF DATA
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 50: Landscape Biodiversity Characterization in Ecoregion 29 Using MODIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. STUDY AREA
      4. 3. DATA USED
      5. 4. BIODIVERSITY RICHNESS ESTIMATION MODEL
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 51: The Spatially Interactive Literature Analysis System Study Tool
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAPPING AS A CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
      4. METHODS OF TAGGING MAP DATA WITH KNOWLEDGE
      5. SILAS.ST FOR DATA RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION
      6. SILAS.ST FOR DATA DISCOVERY AND REPRESENTATION
      7. NEXT STEPS AND CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 52: Geographic Visual Query Languages and Ambiguities Treatment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VISUAL QUERY LANGUAGES FOR SPATIAL DATABASES
      4. QUERY’S AMBIGUITY PROBLEM
      5. VISUAL SPATIAL QUERY LANGUAGES AND THE AMBIGUITY PROBLEM
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 53: Multi Depot Probabilistic Vehicle Routing Problems with a Time Window
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. MODEL DEVELOPMENT
      5. ANALYTICAL RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 54: Estimating Potential Woody Biomass in Communal Savanna Woodlands from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 55: OOSTethys/Oceans IE Service Registry Based on Catalog Service for Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE AND OGC WEB SERVICES
      4. THE OGC CSW STANDARD
      5. THE OGC OCEANS INTEROPERABILITY EXPERIMENT
      6. THE OCEANS IE CSW-COMPLIANT SERVICE REGISTRY
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 56: A Multi-Criteria GIS Site Selection for Sustainable Cocoa Development in West Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
    9. Chapter 57: The Columbia Regional Geospatial Service Center System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MODEL
      4. OPERATIONAL MODEL
      5. PROOF OF CONCEPT
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 58: Mapping the Distribution of Tsetse Flies in Eastern Uganda
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. STUDY AREA
      4. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      5. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 59: Open Source Based Deployment of Environmental Data into Geospatial Information Infrastructures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGNING INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES
      4. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES
      5. GEOSPATIAL OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGIES
      6. FRAMEWORK FOR DEPLOYMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
      7. OPEN SOURCE BASED COMPONENTS
      8. USE CASE
      9. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 60: Application of Topographical Capture Techniques for Modelling Virtual Reality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIRTUAL REALITY DEVICES TO CAPTURE INFORMATION
      4. TOPOGRAPHIC AND CARTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES AS AN ALTERNATIVE
      5. DESCRIPTION OF CAPTURE SYSTEM
      6. CAPTURE AND PROCESSING SOFTWARE
      7. THE CAPTURE OF THE STATIC OBJECT RESULTS OBTAINED IN FIELD WORKS
      8. HUMAN REPRESENTATION ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE FIELD WORKS
      9. TECHNIQUES USED TODAY IN BIOMECHANICS
      10. A NEW PROPOSAL BY THE USE OF SYSTEMS BASED ON LASER CAPTURE
      11. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 61: GIS Implementation in Malaysian Statutory Development Plan System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN GIS APPLICATION IN MALAYSIAN STATUTORY DEVELOPMENT PLAN SYSTEM
      5. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 62: 3D City Modeling and Visualization for Smart Phone Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ACQUISITION OF GEOMETRY FOR 3D CITY MODELS
      4. ACQUISITION OF PHOTOREALISTIC TEXTURES FOR 3D CITY MODELS
      5. SMARTPHONE 3D VISUALIZATION FOR NAVIGATION AND LBS: APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES
      6. A CASE STUDY: 3D MODELS FOR TAPIOLA AREA (ESPOO, FINLAND)
      7. FUTURE ASPECTS AND CHALLENGES
    15. Chapter 63: Assessing the Success of an Industrial Cluster
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE
      4. THE NORTHWEST OHIO GREENHOUSE CLUSTER
      5. DATA
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 64: A Geospatial Analysis of Convective Rainfall Regions within Tropical Cyclones after Landfall
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DATA
      5. ANALYSIS
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 65: The Digital Geography Lab at Salem State University
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OUTREACH WITHIN AND OUTSIDE THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
      4. FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX: FACULTY AND STAFF CREDENTIALS, EXPERTISE
    2. Chapter 66: Analysis of Tourist Behavior Based on Tracking Data Collected by GPS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART
      4. TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
      5. TRACK-TOUR: A TOURIST MOBILITY ANALYSIS SYSTEM
      6. PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND PENDING RESEARCH CHALLENGES
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 67: The RiskCity Training Package on Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RISKCITY TRAINING PACKAGE
      4. RISK CONCEPTS
      5. ABOUT THE STUDY AREA
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 68: Automatic Classification of Decorative Patterns in the Minoan Pottery of Kamares Style
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KAMARES SHAPE ANALYSIS: SYSTEM OVERVIEW
      4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    5. Chapter 69: Cultural Dasymetric Population Mapping with Historical GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DASYMETRIC MAPPING
      4. CASE STUDY: CULTURAL DASYMETRIC MAPPING OF HISTORIC SOUTHERN APPALACHIA
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 70: Using Volunteered Geographic Information to Assess the Spatial Distribution of West Nile Virus in Detroit, Michigan
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEST NILE VIRUS
      4. VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
      5. DATA PREPROCESSING
      6. SPATIAL STATISTICS
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 71: GIS Application of Healthcare Data for Advancing Epidemiological Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GIS
      4. RESEARCH RESULT
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. PRACTITIONER IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    8. Chapter 72: Colorado 14ers, Pixel by Pixel
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE STATEMENT
      4. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      5. THE EXERCISE
      6. REAL-WORLD CLIENTS
      7. STUDENT ENGAGEMENT TIME
      8. APPENDIX A:COLORADO 14ERS, PIXEL BY PIXEL:
      9. APPENDIX B: COLORADO 14ERS, PIXEL BY PIXEL (STUDENT HANDOUT)
      10. APPENDIX C: ANSWER KEY TO CLASS EXERCISE 'COLORADO 14ERS, PIXEL BY PIXEL'
    9. Chapter 73: A Component-Based 3D Geographic Simulation Framework and its Integration with a Legacy GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPONENT-BASED FRAMEWORK
      4. APPLICATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 74: Collaborative Mapping and GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COLLABORATIVE MAPPING
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 75: Provision of Web 2.0 Services by Interoperable GIS-Powered Local Administration Portal Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GIS POWERED WEB 2.0 SERVICES FOR LOCAL ADMINISTRATION
      5. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 76: Sharing Environmental Data through GEOSS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NEED FOR DATA SHARING AND INTEGRATION
      4. SERVING DATA INTO GEOSS
      5. TECHNICAL COMPARISON AND COMMON GROUNDS
      6. CHALLENGES AND PROMISES
      7. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 77: Agriculture and Conservation in the Natura 2000 Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NATURA 2000: AGRICULTURE RELATION USING GIS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 78: A Neural Network for Modeling Multicategorical Parcel Use Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODS
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 79: Historical GIS as a Platform for Public Memory at Mammoth Cave National Park
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOWARDS A NEW UNDERSTANDING OF A NATIONAL PARK LANDSCAPE
      4. MAPPING RURAL HOUSEHOLDS FROM THE CENSUS
      5. DISSEMINATING PRE-PARK HISTORY
      6. PARTICIPATORY GIS AS A FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC MEMORY
      7. REPRESENTATION AND REPRESENTATIVENESS
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 80: Applied Geospatial Perspectives on the Rock Art of the Lake of the Woods Region of Ontario, Canada
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PICTOGRAPHIC ROCK ART IN NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO
      4. SURVEY METHODOLOGY
      5. ANALYSIS
      6. ROCK ART AS MEDIUM TO STRUCTURE MOBILITY
      7. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 81: Cartography and Stability to Enhance and Self Regulate Proactive Routing in MANETs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. NETWORK CARTOGRAPHY
      5. SUITABILITY OF THE PROPOSED ROUTING PROTOCOL
      6. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 82: Learning Geospatial Concepts as Part of a Non-Formal Education Robotics Experience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUMMARY
    19. Chapter 83: A Reflection on the Ph.D. Program in Spatially Integrated Social Science at the University of Toledo
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHY SPATIALLY INTEGRATED SOCIAL SCIENCE?
      4. THE SISS PROGRAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO
      5. EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION TO NORTHWEST OHIO’S ECONOMY
      6. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 84: Urban Geospatial Management System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. URBAN GEOSPATIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      5. MIMUV (MONITORAGGIO INTERVENTI MANUTENZIONE URBANA VENEZIA – MONITORING THE URBAN MAINTENANCE JOBS IN VENICE)
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 85: Technical and Economical Feasibility of Biomass Use for Power Generation in Sicily
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SOLUTION
      4. 3. CHOICE OF THE AREA USING GIS METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION.
      6. 5. COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 86: Managing Uncertainty in Geospatial Predictive Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. SPATIAL PREDICTION AND CLASSIFICATION
      3. 2. UNCERTAINTY IN SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION
      4. 3. TYPOLOGIES OF CLASSIFICATION UNCERTAINTY
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 87: Participatory GIS for Integrating Local and Expert Knowledge in Landscape Planning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PARTICIPATORY GIS (P-GIS) METHODS
      4. LANDSCAPE PLANNING AND PARTICIPATION OF LOCAL PEOPLE: GOALS, CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
      5. LANDSCAPE PLANNING AND PARTICIPATION OF LOCAL PEOPLE: INFORM AND CONSULT
      6. LANDSCAPE PLANNING AND PARTICIPATION OF LOCAL PEOPLE: INVOLVE AND COLLABORATE
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 88: Location Management in PCS Networks Using Base Areas (BAs) and 2 Level Paging (2LP) Schemes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
      4. PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 89: The Role of GIS in City Competitiveness
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORIGINS OF COMPETITIVENESS
      4. CITIES IN THE INFORMATION ERA
      5. URBAN DYNAMICS AND REGIONAL COMPETITION
      6. FUNCTIONS OF COMPETITION BETWEEN CITIES AND REGIONS
      7. URBAN PLACE MARKETING PERSPECTIVE
      8. MODELS OF COMPETITIVENESS
      9. GIS AND SPATIAL ECONOMICS
      10. IMPLICATIONS OF CHANGING GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENTS FOR GIS CREATION AND USE
      11. FROM GOVERNMENT TO GOVERNANCE
      12. HARD AND SOFT NETWORK FOR COMPETITIVENESS
      13. EVALUATING URBAN QUALITY OF LIFE USING GIS: AN EXAMPLE IN PORTUGAL
      14. HOW DOES PARTICIPATORY SPATIAL PLANNING (PSP) RELATE TO GIS, GOVERNANCE AND COMPETITIVENESS?
      15. CREATING ONLINE MONITORING COMMUNITIES
      16. FURTHER RESEARCH GUIDANCE REGARDING CITY COMPETITIVENESS
      17. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 90: Using Geospatial Information Systems for Strategic Planning and Institutional Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE STUDIES
      5. CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. QUESTION AND ANSWERS ON THE CASE STUDY
    8. Chapter 91: Harnessing Nigeria’s Investment in Satellite Technology for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA
      4. NIGERIA’S INVESTMENT IN SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
      5. ROLE OF NIGERIA’S SPACE PROGRAMME IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY
      6. NASRDA PROJECTS ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 92: E-Planning through the Wisconsin Land Information Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. WISCONSIN LAND RECORDS MODERNIZATION
      5. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 93: Rapid Evaluation of Arid Lands (REAL)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. STUDY SITE
      5. POLYGON MAPPING
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
    11. Chapter 94: Environmental Quality Monitoring, Using GIS as a Tool of Visualization, Management and Decision-Making
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN ASPECTS CONCERNING THE EU WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE
      4. RELATED REGULATIONS
      5. INTERCALIBRATION AS DEFINED IN WFD
      6. ECONOMIC APPROACH OF WFD
      7. WATER BODY TYPES AS CLASSIFIED IN WFD
      8. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: A REQUIREMENT OF WFD
      9. TIMETABLE
      10. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
      11. WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND EU WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE: RESOURCES MANAGEMENT USING GIS
      12. GIS IN RISK ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
      13. THE USE OF MODELING TO COPE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE WFD
      14. DECISION MAKING PROCESSES
      15. FUTURE CHALLENGES
      16. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 95: Disaster Management and Virtual Globes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GEOINFORMATION FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT
      4. THE CAPACITIES OF VIRTUAL GLOBES
      5. PROPOSED CONCEPT
      6. DATA SET DESCRIPTION
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 96: Global Emergency-Response System Using GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 97: Leveraging the Science of Geographic Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW
      3. APPROACH TO RESEARCH
      4. PROJECTS
      5. THE FUTURE
    15. Chapter 98: Formalizing Cross-Parameter Conditions for Geoprocessing Service Chain Validation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. FORMALIZING CROSS-PARAMETER CONDITIONS
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 99: Qualitative Spatial Reasoning for Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THREE APPLICATION AREAS FOR QSTR
      4. 3. QSTR SUPPORT FOR APPLICATIONS
      5. 4. THE SPARQ TOOLBOX
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
    2. Chapter 100: Applied Geography Education in Focus
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STRATEGY DISCUSSION
      4. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 101: Temporal and Spatial Consistency
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CAUSES OF INCONSISTENCY
      4. APPROACHES TO COPING WITH INCONSISTENCY
      5. TIME SERIES MIGRATION TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 102: Validation Approaches to Volcanic Explosive Phenomenology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL APPROACH
      4. 3. ANALOG VALIDATION APPROACHES
      5. 4. FIELD VALIDATION APPROACHES
      6. 6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 103: Target Evaluation and Correlation Method (TECM) as an Assessment Approach to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
      4. SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND CHARACTERISTICS’ ATTRIBUTES
      5. TYPES OF SYSTEMS
      6. TARGET EVALUATION AND CORRELATION METHOD (TECM)
      7. TARGET CORRELATION MATRIX (TCM) AND THE TECM PROCESS (ALGORITHM)
      8. TARGET EVALUATION AND CORRELATION METHOD (TECM) FOR GEOSS
      9. TCM ORIGINATION PROCESS BASED ON EVALUATION OF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC ATTRIBUTES
      10. TCM ORIGINATION AND THE TECM APPLICATION FOR GEOSS TARGETS
      11. APPLICATION OF THE TECM ALGORITHM TO GEOSS TARGETS
      12. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 104: Integrated Ontologies for Spatial Scene Descriptions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INTEGRATED SCENE DESCRIPTION ONTOLOGIES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 105: Embracing Geographic Analysis beyond Geography
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. HARVARD RETURNED TO GEOGRAPHY
      3. A CENTER THAT SERVES ALL
      4. UNSTOPPABLE GROWTH OF DEMAND
      5. RESEARCH WITH GIS AND RESEARCH ON GIS
      6. WHAT COMES NEXT?
    8. Chapter 106: Distributed Geospatial Data Management for Entomological and Epidemiological Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE PORTUGUESE BT THEMATIC SDI
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 107: An Assessment of Several Taxonomies of Volunteered Geographic Information
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ASSESSMENT OF UGC/VGI TAXONOMIES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 108: Logistics for the Garbage Collection through the use of Ant Colony Algorithms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM
      4. 3. ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION
      5. 4. ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM TO SOLVE THE WASTE COLLECTION ROUTE PROBLEM
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    11. Chapter 109: The Efficacy of Aerial Search during the Battle of Midway
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MARITIME AERIAL SEARCH DURING THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 110: Communities, Cartography and GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE LEARNING IN GEOGRAPHY
      3. DEVELOPING A SERVICE LEARNING EXPERIENCE
      4. ASSESSING THE BENEFITS OF SERVICE LEARNING FOR STUDENTS AND COMMUNITIES
      5. THE CHALLENGES OF SERVICE LEARNING
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 111: Relating Transportation Quality Indicators to Economic Conditions in the South-Central U.S.
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION AND STUDY AREA
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. DATA AND METHODS
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 112: Monitoring, Analyzing and Understanding the Dynamics of Complex Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESULTS
      5. REFLECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX
    15. Chapter 113: Spatial Model Approach for Deforestation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 114: Geo-Informatics for Land Use and Biodiversity Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LAND USE/LAND COVER CHARACTERIZATION
      4. 3. LU/LC AND BIODIVERSITY
      5. 4. GEO-INFORMATICS
      6. 5. SPATIAL MAPPING: MODELING
      7. 6. BIODIVERSITY CHARACTERIZATION
      8. 7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 115: Neogeography
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. NEOGEOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGIES
      4. CONTROVERIES AND ISSUES IN NEOGEOGRAPHY
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 116: Estimating Fractional Snow Cover in Mountain Environments with Fuzzy Classification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS WORK
      4. STUDY SITE
      5. METHODS
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 117: Virtual Neighborhoods and E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NEIGHBORHOOD THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS
      4. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      6. CASE STUDIES
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 118: Fractal Estimation Using Extended Triangularisation and Box Counting Algorithm for any Geo-Referenced Point Data in GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DATA SOURCE
      4. BACKGROUND CONCEPTS
      5. METHODS
      6. RESULT AND ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 119: Data Mining Location-Based Social Networks for Geospatial Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 120: Discovering Geosensor Data By Means of an Event Abstraction Layer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EVENT PROCESSING OF GEOSENSOR DATA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 121: Towards a Rwandan NSDI
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SDI RELATED EFFORTS IN RWANDA
      4. PRESSING ISSUES
      5. EXAMPLES OF SDI MODELS
      6. MULTILEVEL STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION IN RWANDA
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 122: Intelligent Freight Transportation System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. MAIN FINDINGS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SUPPLY CHAIN INNOVATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 123: Visualizing Plant Community Change Using Historical Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 124: Sustainable Land Use and Watershed Management in Response to Climate Change Impacts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DEFINITION AND BACKGROUND OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT APPROACH
      4. 3. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATIONS
      5. 4. COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEM FOR SUPPORTING SPATIAL DECISION
      6. 5. AN EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND USE AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN DONG NAI WATERSHED, VIETNAM
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 125: Modeling Species Distribution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CONCEPTS
      4. 3. MODELING ELEPHANT DISTRIBUTION
      5. 4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 126: A GIS Methodology for Assessing the Safety Hazards of Abandoned Mine Lands (AMLs)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY AND DATA
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 127: Innovative ICT Applications in Transport and Logistics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. ICT DIFFUSION IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN ASIA
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. SOME SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SUPPLY CHAIN INNOVATION
      7. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 128: 3D Camera Tracking for Mixed Reality using Multi-Sensors Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART
      4. MULTI-SENSORS SYSTEM USING ASSISTANCE SCHEME
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
    15. Chapter 129: Automatic Metadata Generation for Geospatial Resource Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METADATA POINTS OF VIEW
      4. METADATA GENERATION METHODS AND TOOLS: CURRENT STATE
      5. NEW APPROACHES TO THE METADATA GENERATION PROBLEM
      6. SUMMARY
      7. FUTURE WORKS
    16. Chapter 130: Semantic Enrichment for Geospatial Information in a Tourism Recommender System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SIGTUR/E-DESTINATION: A TOURIST RECOMMENDER SYSTEM BASED ON THE INTERACTION OF GIS AND ONTOLOGIES
      5. SIGTUR/E-DESTINATION: HYBRID METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR FILTERING SPATIAL INFORMATION
      6. FUTURE LINES OF RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION