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Genomics and Bioethics

Book Description

Today's world is one in which science and technology play an essential role in almost every aspect of life. Almost all of the changes that are taking place are due to advances in science and technology, as can be seen in the emergence of the Internet, which has enabled information to explode exponentially in the past few years, and biotechnology, which has made such scenarios as human cloning and genetic manipulation of organisms an everyday reality.Genomics and Bioethics: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Technologies and Advancements contributes to the existing gap in interdisciplinary research on comparative studies of cultural, social and ethical implications of genomics and bioinformatics. This work focuses on ethical, social, cultural, and legal implications of genetics, genomics and genetic databanking as they relate to concrete cultural and historical traditions.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. Section 1: Theoretical Concerns
    1. Chapter 1: Buddhism and Human Genetic Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE CONCEPT OF PERSONHOOD IN BUDDHISM
      3. THE BUDDHIST APPROACH TO GENETIC RESEARCH
    2. Chapter 2: Genomics and Population Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Some Pertinent Questions from the SARS Epidemic
      3. LESSONS FROM POPULATION HEALTH
      4. RE-EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    3. Chapter 3: International Organizations as Fora for International Bioethical Debate
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
    4. Chapter 4: The Value of Life of the Embryo Observed from Two Different Lenses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ETHICAL INTRODUCTION: AN ARGUMENT OF POTENTIALITY
      4. BROADER INTERPRETATION OF THE EMBRYO’S POTENTIALITY: THE CONTEXT OF REALIZATION OF THE POTENTIALITY
      5. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTER-INDIVIDUAL GENETIC VARIATIONS
      4. GENETIC TESTING
      5. DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER GENETIC TESTING
      6. THE INCIDENTALOME, MUTATIONS LINKED TO SEVERAL CONDITIONS, AND THE EXAMPLE OF APOE
      7. GENETIC TESTING IN MINORS AND INDIVIDUALS UNABLE TO CONSENT
    6. Chapter 6: The Applications of Omics Technologies and the Challenges of Ethics in Nutritional Sciences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. HUMAN GENOME TO APPLIED OMICS
      3. FUNCTIONAL FOODS
      4. ETHICAL ISSUES
      5. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: Beyond Informed Consent
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INFORMED CONSENT PARADIGM FOR RESEARCH ETHICS
      3. CHALLENGES TO THE INFORMED CONSENT PARADIGM
      4. CROSS-MATCHING OF DATABASES
      5. GENETIC DATABASES AND CONSENT
      6. OWNERSHIP AND CONSENT
      7. INFORMED CONSENT AND PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS
      8. GENETIC INFORMATION AS INTIMATE TO ONE’S PERSONHOOD
      9. ELEMENTS OF A PROPOSED BROAD CONSENT REGIME
      10. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 8: Genomics and Genetic Engineering
      1. ABSTACT
      2. THE NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN GENETICS
      3. PLAYING GOD: THE MEANING
      4. PLAYING GOD: WE SHOULD NOT DO IT
      5. PLAYING GOD: WE MUST DO IT
      6. PLAYING GOD: AN ORIENTAL CHRISTIAN RESPONSE
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: A Philosophical Exploration of the Concept of ‘Property’ in Genetics and Databanking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WHAT IS AT STAKE
      3. THE CONCEPTUAL DEBATE
      4. INTEGRATING DIVERSE NORMATIVE CULTURES TOWARDS AN ADVANCED FRAMEWORK
      5. WHAT CAN PHILOSOPHY DO TO CONTRIBUTE TO ETHICS OF GENETICS?
  8. Section 2: Country Experiences
    1. Chapter 10: Biotechnological Patents and Morality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEMS OF BIOTECH PATENTING
      4. PUBLIC ORDER AND MORALITY UNDER PATENT LAW
      5. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 11: Social Issues Related To Gene Patenting in Latin America
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADVANCES IN GENOMIC RESEARCH IN LATIN AMERICA
      4. SOCIAL ISSUES RELATED TO HUMAN GENE PATENTING
      5. APPLICATIONS OF HUMAN GENE PATENTING
      6. SPECIFIC CONCERNS
      7. SOCIAL ISSUES REGARDING PATENTING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
      8. MEDIA ROLE
    3. Chapter 12: Indonesian Legal Perspectives on Biotechnology and Intellectual Property Rights
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INDONESIAN LAW AND POLICIES ON BIODIVERSITY, BIOSAFETY, AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
      4. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ISSUES
      5. BIOPROSPECTING AND BIOPIRACY
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 13: Human Biobanks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COUNTRIES
      4. DNA BANK IN ESTONIA
      5. DNA BANKS IN ISRAEL
      6. MACEDONIAN DNA BANK (HDNAMKD)
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 14: The Regulation of Genetic Testing and the Protection of Genetic and Medical Information in Singapore
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE BACKGROUND
      3. THE BAC REPORTS
      4. THE GENETIC TESTING REPORT AND THE PERSONAL INFORMATION REPORT
      5. GENETIC EXCEPTIONALISM AND LIFE INSURANCE
      6. PROPORTIONALITY
      7. GENETIC TESTING PROCEDURES
      8. THE SINGAPORE REGULATORY LANDSCAPE
    6. Chapter 15: Legal Aspects of Bioethics in Tajikistan
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. LOCATION
      3. HISTORICAL INSIGHT
      4. CURRENT SITUATION
      5. LEGAL REGULATIONS
      6. BIOSAFETY REGULATION IN TAJIKISTAN
      7. STRUCTURE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE BIOSAFETY SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 16: Genetic Testing and Protection of Genetic Privacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PUBLIC VIEWS ON GENETIC TESTING AND USE OF GENETIC INFORMATION IN EUROPE AND AUSTRALIA
      4. REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS FOR THE PROTECTION OF GENETIC PRIVACY
      5. THE RIGHT TO KNOW AND NOT TO KNOW
      6. PRIVACY, CONFIDENTIALITY AND DISCLOSURE TO THIRD PARTIES
      7. GENETIC PRIVACY AND DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER TESTING
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 17: Property, Personality Rights and Data Protection with Regard to Biobanks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROPERTY IN HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL
      4. GENERAL PERSONAL RIGHT
      5. CLAIMS FOR PROPERTY OF HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS
      6. CONCLUSION
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors