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Generation and Utilization of Electrical Energy

Book Description

Generation and Utilization of Electrical Energy is a comprehensive text designed for undergraduate courses in electrical engineering. The text introduces the reader to the generation of electrical energy and then goes on to explain how this energy can be effectively utilized for various applications like welding, electric traction, illumination, and electrolysis. The detailed explanations of practical applications make this an ideal reference book both inside and outside the classroom.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. About the Author
  6. Dedication
  7. Preface
  8. 1 Conventional Power Generation
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Hydropower Generation
    3. 1.2.1 Hydrology
    4. 1.2.2 Stream flow, hydrographs, and flow–duration curves stream flow
    5. 1.2.3 Hydrographs
    6. 1.2.4 Mass curve
    7. 1.2.5 Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectric plants
    8. 1.2.6 Selection of site for hydroelectric plants
    9. 1.2.7 Water power equation
    10. 1.2.8 Classification of hydroelectric plants
    11. 1.2.9 Function of the various components in a hydroelectric generation system
    12. 1.2.10 Location of a hydroelectric station
    13. 1.2.11 Working principle of a hydroelectric plant
    14. 1.3 Thermal Power Stations
    15. 1.3.1 Principle of working of a thermal power station
    16. 1.3.2 Factors to be considered for locating a thermal plant
    17. 1.3.3 Schematic diagram of thermal power station
    18. 1.3.4 One-line diagram of thermal station indicating the various circuits
    19. 1.3.5 Types of boilers
    20. 1.3.6 Methods of firing boilers
    21. 1.3.7 Furnaces
    22. 1.3.8 Superheaters and reheaters
    23. 1.3.9 Steam turbines
    24. 1.3.10 Condensers
    25. 1.3.11 Cooling towers
    26. 1.3.12 Chimneys
    27. 1.4 Nuclear Power Generation
    28. 1.4.1 Working principle of a nuclear power station
    29. 1.4.2 Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power plants
    30. 1.4.3 Location of nuclear power station
    31. 1.4.4 Energy–mass relationship: Einstein's law
    32. 1.4.5 Mass defect and binding energy
    33. 1.4.6 Nuclear reaction
    34. 1.4.7 Nuclear fission
    35. 1.4.8 Nuclear chain reaction
    36. 1.4.9 Main parts of a nuclear rector and their function
    37. 1.4.10 Fuel materials for nuclear reactors (nuclear fuels)
    38. 1.4.11 Control of nuclear reactors
    39. 1.4.12 Classification of nuclear reactors
    40. 1.4.13 Commercial types of reactors
    41. 1.4.14 Boiling water reactor (BWR)
    42. 1.4.15 Gas-cooled reactor
    43. 1.4.16 Radiation
    44. 1.4.17 Types of radiations
    45. 1.4.18 Radiation hazards
    46. 1.4.19 Shielding
    47. 1.5 Gas Power Generation
    48. 1.5.1 A simple gas turbine power plant
    49. 1.5.2 Applications of gas turbine plants
    50. 1.5.3 Advantages and disadvantages of gas turbine plants
    51. 1.6 Diesel Power Generation
    52. 1.6.1 Diesel engine power plant
    53. 1.6.2 Site selection for diesel power plants
    54. 1.6.3 Applications of diesel engine power plants
    55. 1.6.4 Advantages and disadvantages of diesel power plants
    56. Key Notes
    57. Short Questions and Answers
    58. Multiple-choice Questions
    59. Review Questions
    60. Answers
  9. 2 Non-conventional Power Generation
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Generation of Electrical Power by Non-conventional Methods
    3. 2.3 Solar Energy
    4. 2.3.1 Solar energy collector
    5. 2.4 Point-focusing Collector
    6. 2.4.1 Photovoltaic cells or solar cells
    7. 2.4.2 Solar cell characteristics
    8. 2.4.3 Solar power generation
    9. 2.4.4 Advantages and disadvantages of solar power
    10. 2.4.5 Applications of solar energy
    11. 2.5 Wind Energy
    12. 2.5.1 Basic principle of wind energy conversion
    13. 2.5.2 Basic components of wind energy conversion plant
    14. 2.5.3 Types of wind mills
    15. 2.5.4 Site selection for wind energy conversion plant
    16. 2.5.5 Wind power generation
    17. 2.5.6 Advantages and disadvantages of wind power
    18. 2.5.7 Applications of wind energy
    19. 2.6 Tidal Power
    20. 2.6.1 Components of tidal power plant
    21. 2.6.2 Site selection of tidal power plant
    22. 2.6.3 Tidal power generation
    23. 2.6.4 Advantages and disadvantages of tidal power
    24. 2.7 Geothermal Power
    25. 2.7.1 Geothermal resources
    26. 2.7.2 Geothermal power generation
    27. 2.7.3 Advantages and disadvantages of geothermal power
    28. 2.7.4 Applications of geothermal energy
    29. 2.8 Biomass and Biogas
    30. 2.8.1 Biogas generation
    31. 2.8.2 Site selection of biogas plant
    32. 2.8.3 Advantages and disadvantages of biogas
    33. 2.9 MHD Generations
    34. 2.9.1 MHD generation
    35. 2.9.2 Advantages and disadvantages of MHD power generation
    36. Key Notes
    37. Short Questions and Answers
    38. Multiple-choice Questions
    39. Review Questions
    40. Answers
  10. 3 Conservation
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Load Curve
    3. 3.2.1 Load duration curve
    4. 3.2.2 Definition of terms and factors
    5. 3.3 Cost of Electrical Energy
    6. 3.3.1 Cost of generation station
    7. 3.3.2 Annual cost
    8. 3.3.3 Factors influencing the formulation of tariff
    9. 3.3.4 Factors to be considered in fixing up the tariff
    10. 3.3.5 Types of tariffs
    11. 3.4 Need for Electrical Energy Conservation—Methods
    12. 3.4.1 Energy efficient equipment
    13. 3.4.2 Energy management
    14. 3.4.3 Energy auditing
    15. 3.5 Power Factor Improvement
    16. 3.5.1 Causes of low power factor
    17. 3.5.2 Effects or disadvantages of low power factor
    18. 3.5.3 Advantages of power factor improvement
    19. 3.5.4 Methods of improving power factor
    20. 3.5.5 Most economical power factor when the kW demand is constant
    21. 3.5.6 Most economical power factor when the kVA maximum demand is constant
    22. 3.6 Concept of Distributed Generation
    23. 3.7 Deregulation
    24. 3.8 Need for Restructuring
    25. 3.8.1 Motivation for restructuring the power industry
    26. Key Notes
    27. Short Questions and Answers
    28. Multiple-choice Questions
    29. Review Questions
    30. Exercise Problems
    31. Answers
  11. 4 Electric Heating
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Advantages of Electric Heating
    3. 4.3 Modes of Transfer of Heat
    4. 4.3.1 Conduction
    5. 4.3.2 Convection
    6. 4.3.3 Radiation
    7. 4.4 Essential Requirements of Good Heating Element
    8. 4.5 Material for Heating Elements
    9. 4.6 Causes of Failure of Heating Elements
    10. 4.6.1 Formation of hotspots
    11. 4.6.2 Oxidation and intermittency of operation
    12. 4.6.3 Embrittlement causing grain growth
    13. 4.6.4 Contamination and corrosion
    14. 4.7 Design of Heating Elements
    15. 4.8 Methods of Electric Heating
    16. 4.9 Resistance Heating
    17. 4.9.1 Direct resistance heating
    18. 4.9.2 Indirect resistance heating
    19. 4.9.3 Infrared or radiant heating
    20. 4.10 Temperature Control of Resistance Heating
    21. 4.11 Arc Heating
    22. 4.11.1 Electrodes used in the arc furnaces
    23. 4.11.2 Types of arc furnaces
    24. 4.11.3 Power supply and control of arc furnace
    25. 4.12 High-frequency Heating
    26. 4.13 Induction Heating
    27. 4.13.1 Core type furnace
    28. 4.13.2 Coreless type induction furnace
    29. 4.14 Dielectric Heating
    30. Key Notes
    31. Short Questions and Answers
    32. Multiple-choice Questions
    33. Review Questions
    34. Exercise Problems
    35. Answers
  12. 5 Electric Welding
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Welding
    3. 5.3 Electric Welding
    4. 5.4 Resistance Welding
    5. 5.4.1 Types of resistance welding
    6. 5.5 Choice of Welding Time
    7. 5.6 Electric Arc Welding
    8. 5.6.1 Carbon arc welding
    9. 5.6.2 Metal arc welding
    10. 5.6.3 Atomic hydrogen arc welding
    11. 5.6.4 Inert gas metal arc welding
    12. 5.7 Submerged Arc Welding
    13. 5.8 Electron Beam Welding
    14. 5.9 Laser Beam Welding
    15. 5.10 Types of Welding Electrodes
    16. 5.10.1 Non-consumable electrodes
    17. 5.10.2 Consumable electrodes
    18. 5.11 Comparison between Resistance and Arc Weldings
    19. 5.12 Electric Welding Equipment
    20. 5.12.1 Electric welding power sets
    21. 5.12.2 Electrode holder
    22. 5.12.3 Welding cables
    23. 5.12.4 Chipping hammer and wire brush
    24. 5.13 Comparison between AC and DC Weldings
    25. Key Notes
    26. Short Questions and Answers
    27. Multiple-choice Questions
    28. Review Questions
    29. Answers
  13. 6 Fundamentals of Illumination
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.1.1 Nature of light
    3. 6.2 Terms Used in Illumination
    4. 6.2.1 Radiant efficiency
    5. 6.2.2 Plane angle
    6. 6.2.3 Solid angle
    7. 6.3 Laws of Illumination
    8. 6.3.1 Inverse square law
    9. 6.3.2 Lambert's cosine law
    10. 6.4 Polar Curves
    11. 6.4.1 Rousseau's construction
    12. 6.5 Photometry
    13. 6.5.1 Principle of simple photometer
    14. 6.5.2 Photometer heads
    15. 6.6 Photo Cells (for Photometric Measurements)
    16. 6.6.1 Photo voltaic cell
    17. 6.6.2 Photo emissive cell
    18. 6.7 Integrating Sphere
    19. 6.8 Sources of Light
    20. 6.8.1 By temperature effect
    21. 6.8.2 By establishing an arc between two electrodes
    22. 6.8.3 Discharge lamps
    23. Key Notes
    24. Short Questions and Answers
    25. Multiple-choice Questions
    26. Review Questions
    27. Exercise Problems
    28. Answers
  14. 7 Various Illumination Methods
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Types of Sources of Illumination
    3. 7.2.1 Electric arc lamps
    4. 7.2.2 Incandescent lamps
    5. 7.2.3 Gaseous discharge lamps
    6. 7.2.4 Fluorescent lamps
    7. 7.3 Arc Lamps
    8. 7.3.1 Carbon arc lamp
    9. 7.3.2 Flame arc lamp
    10. 7.3.3 Magnetic arc lamp
    11. 7.4 Incandescent Lamp
    12. 7.4.1 Choice of material for filament
    13. 7.4.2 Comparisons of carbon, osmium, tantalum, and tungsten used for making the filament
    14. 7.5 Discharge Lamps
    15. 7.5.1 Types of discharge lamps
    16. 7.5.2 Drawbacks
    17. 7.6 Neon Discharge Lamp
    18. 7.7 Sodium Vapor Lamp
    19. 7.7.1 Working
    20. 7.8 High-Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp
    21. 7.8.1 MA type lamp
    22. 7.8.2 MAT type lamp
    23. 7.8.3 MB type lamp
    24. 7.9 Fluorescent Lamp (Low-pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp)
    25. 7.9.1 Construction
    26. 7.9.2 Working
    27. 7.9.3 Startless fluorescent lamp
    28. 7.9.4 Fluorescent lamp on DC supply
    29. 7.10 Comparison between Tungsten Filament Lamps and Fluorescent Lamps
    30. 7.11 Basic Principles of Light Control
    31. 7.11.1 Reflection
    32. 7.11.2 Refraction
    33. 7.11.3 Diffusion
    34. 7.11.4 Absorption
    35. 7.12 Types of Lighting Schemes
    36. 7.12.1 Direct lighting schemes
    37. 7.12.2 Semidirect lighting schemes
    38. 7.12.3 Indirect lighting schemes
    39. 7.12.4 Semi-indirect lighting schemes
    40. 7.12.5 General lighting scheme
    41. 7.13 Design of Lighting Schemes
    42. 7.13.1 Illumination level
    43. 7.13.2 Size of the room
    44. 7.13.3 Mounting height and space of fittings
    45. 7.14 Street Lighting
    46. 7.14.1 Diffusion principle
    47. 7.14.2 Specular reflection principle
    48. 7.14.3 Illumination level, mounting height, and the types of lamps for street lighting
    49. 7.15 Factory Lighting
    50. 7.16 Floodlighting
    51. 7.16.1 Esthetic floodlighting
    52. 7.16.2 Industrial and commercial floodlighting
    53. 7.16.3 Advertising
    54. 7.16.4 Floodlighting calculations
    55. 7.17 Methods of Lighting Calculations
    56. 7.17.1 Watts-per-square-meter method
    57. 7.17.2 Lumen or light flux method
    58. 7.17.3 Point-to-point or inverse square law method
    59. Key Notes
    60. Short Questions and Answers
    61. Multiple-choice Questions
    62. Review Questions
    63. Exercise Problems
    64. Answers
  15. 8 Electric Drives
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Block Diagram of Electric Drive
    3. 8.2.1 Source
    4. 8.2.2 Power modulator
    5. 8.2.3 Electrical motors
    6. 8.2.4 Load
    7. 8.2.5 Control unit
    8. 8.2.6 Sensing unit
    9. 8.3 Types of Electric Drives
    10. 8.3.1 Group drives
    11. 8.3.2 Individual drive
    12. 8.3.3 Multi-motor drive
    13. 8.4 Choice of Motors
    14. 8.5 Characteristics of DC Motor
    15. 8.5.1 Characteristics of shunt motor
    16. 8.5.2 Characteristics of DC series motor
    17. 8.5.3 Characteristics of DC compound wound motors
    18. 8.6 Three-phase Induction Motor
    19. 8.6.1 Torque equation
    20. 8.6.2 Torque ratios
    21. 8.6.3 Torque−speed and torque−slip characteristics
    22. 8.7 Speed Control of DC Motors
    23. 8.7.1 Speed control of DC shunt motors
    24. 8.7.2 Speed control of DC series motor
    25. 8.7.3 Ward–Leonard method of speed control
    26. 8.8 Speed Control of Induction Motors
    27. 8.8.1 From stator side
    28. 8.8.2 From rotor side
    29. 8.8.3 Stator side control
    30. 8.8.4 Control on rotor side
    31. 8.9 Rating of Motor
    32. 8.9.1 Temperature raise of motor
    33. 8.9.2 Cooling of motor
    34. 8.10 Types of Loads
    35. 8.10.1 Classification of loads with respect to time
    36. 8.10.2 Classification of loads with respect to duty cycle
    37. 8.11 Rating of Motor
    38. 8.11.1 Equivalent current method
    39. 8.11.2 Equivalent power method
    40. 8.11.3 Equivalent torque method
    41. 8.12 Load Equalization
    42. 8.12.1 Function of flywheel
    43. Key Notes
    44. Short Questions and Answers
    45. Multiple-choice Questions
    46. Review Questions
    47. Exercise Problems
    48. Answers
  16. 9 Electric Traction-I
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.1.1 Requirements of ideal traction system
    3. 9.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of electric traction
    4. 9.2 Review of Existing Electric Traction System in India
    5. 9.3 System of Traction
    6. 9.3.1 Self-contained locomotives
    7. 9.3.2 Petrol electric traction
    8. 9.3.3 Battery drives
    9. 9.3.4 Electric vehicles fed from distribution network
    10. 9.4 System of Track Electrification
    11. 9.4.1 DC system
    12. 9.4.2 Single-phase AC system
    13. 9.4.3 Three-phase AC system
    14. 9.4.4 Composite system
    15. 9.5 Comparison of DC and AC Tractions
    16. 9.6 Special Features of Traction Motors
    17. 9.6.1 Mechanical features
    18. 9.6.2 Electrical features
    19. 9.7 Traction Motors
    20. 9.7.1 DC series motor
    21. 9.7.2 DC shunt motor
    22. 9.7.3 AC series motor
    23. 9.7.4 Three-phase induction motor
    24. 9.7.5 Linear induction motor
    25. 9.7.6 Synchronous motor
    26. 9.8 Braking
    27. 9.8.1 Electric braking
    28. 9.8.2 Mechanical braking
    29. 9.9 Types of Electric Braking
    30. 9.9.1 Plugging
    31. 9.9.2 Rheostatic or dynamic braking
    32. 9.9.3 Regenerative braking
    33. 9.10 Traction Motor Control
    34. 9.10.1 Control of DC motors
    35. 9.10.2 Series–parallel control
    36. 9.11 Over Head Equipment
    37. 9.11.1 Current collectors
    38. 9.11.2 Single catenary and compound catenary construction of railways
    39. 9.12 Auxiliary Equipment
    40. 9.12.1 Motor–generator set
    41. 9.12.2 Battery
    42. 9.12.3 Rectifier unit
    43. 9.12.4 Transformer or autotransformer
    44. 9.12.5 Driving axles and gear arrangements
    45. 9.13 Transmission of Drive
    46. 9.13.1 Gearless drive
    47. Key Notes
    48. Short Questions and Answers
    49. Multiple-choice Questions
    50. Review Questions
    51. Answers
  17. 10 Electric Traction-II
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Types of Services
    3. 10.2.1 Main line services
    4. 10.2.2 Urban service
    5. 10.2.3 Suburban service
    6. 10.3 Speed–Time and Speed–Distance Curves for Different Services
    7. 10.3.1 Speed–time curve for main line service
    8. 10.3.2 Speed–time curve for suburban service
    9. 10.3.3 Speed–time curve for urban or city service
    10. 10.4 Some Definitions
    11. 10.4.1 Crest speed
    12. 10.4.2 Average speed
    13. 10.4.3 Schedule speed
    14. 10.4.4 Schedule time
    15. 10.5 Factors Affecting the Schedule Speed of a Train
    16. 10.5.1 Crest speed
    17. 10.5.2 Duration of stops
    18. 10.5.3 Distance between the stops
    19. 10.5.4 Acceleration
    20. 10.5.5 Breaking retardation
    21. 10.6 Simplified Trapezoidal and Quadrilateral Speed Time Curves
    22. 10.6.1 Analysis of trapezoidal speed–time curve
    23. 10.6.2 Analysis of quadrilateral speed–time curve
    24. 10.7 Tractive Effort (Ft)
    25. 10.7.1 Mechanics of train movement
    26. 10.7.2 Tractive effort required for propulsion of train
    27. 10.7.3 Power output from the driving axle
    28. 10.8 Specific Energy Consumption
    29. 10.8.1 Determination of specific energy output from simplified speed–time curve
    30. 10.8.2 Factors affecting the specific energy consumption
    31. 10.9 Important Definitions
    32. 10.9.1 Dead weight
    33. 10.9.2 Accelerating weight
    34. 10.9.3 Adhesive weight
    35. 10.9.4 Coefficient of adhesion
    36. 10.10 Calculation of Energy Returned to the Supply During Regenerative Braking
    37. 10.10.1 Advantages of regenerative breaking
    38. 10.10.2 Disadvantages
    39. Key Notes
    40. Short Questions and Answers
    41. Multiple-choice Questions
    42. Review Questions
    43. Exercise Problems
    44. Answers
  18. 11 Electrolysis
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Principle of Electrolysis
    3. 11.3 Laws of Electrolysis
    4. 11.3.1 Faraday's first law
    5. 11.3.2 Faraday's second law
    6. 11.4 Various Terms Related to Electrolyte Process
    7. 11.5 Applications of Electrolytic Process
    8. 11.5.1 Manufacturers of chemicals
    9. 11.5.2 Electro metallurgy
    10. 11.5.3 Electrodeposition
    11. 11.5.4 Electroplating
    12. 11.5.5 Electrometallization
    13. 11.5.6 Electropolishing
    14. 11.5.7 Electrotyping
    15. 11.5.8 Electroparting or electrostripping
    16. 11.5.9 Anodizing
    17. 11.6 Power Supply for Electrolytic Process
    18. Key Notes
    19. Short Questions and Answers
    20. Multiple-choice Questions
    21. Review Questions
    22. Exercise Problems
    23. Answers
  19. 12 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Refrigeration
    3. 12.3 Refrigerator
    4. 12.4 Principle of Refrigerator
    5. 12.5 Refrigerant
    6. 12.6 Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle
    7. 12.6.1 Evaporation
    8. 12.6.2 Compression
    9. 12.6.3 Condensation
    10. 12.6.4 Pressure reduction
    11. 12.7 Electrical Circuit of Refrigerator
    12. 12.7.1 Lamp and switch
    13. 12.7.2 Thermostat switch
    14. 12.7.3 Thermal overload release
    15. 12.7.4 Starting relay
    16. 12.8 Common Faults in Refrigerator
    17. 12.8.1 Fault in the starting relay
    18. 12.8.2 Fault in capacitor
    19. 12.8.3 Fault in thermostat
    20. 12.9 Applications of Refrigeration
    21. 12.10 Air-conditioning
    22. 12.10.1 Temperature control
    23. 12.10.2 Humidity control
    24. 12.10.3 Air movement and circulation
    25. 12.11 Electric Circuit of an Air-conditioner
    26. 12.12 Summer Air-conditioning System
    27. 12.13 Room Air-conditioners
    28. Key Notes
    29. Short Questions and Answers
    30. Multiple-choice Questions
    31. Review Questions
    32. Answers
  20. Acknowledgments
  21. Copyright