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General Chemistry

Book Description

General Chemistry presents the fundamental concepts of general chemistry in a precise and comprehensive manner for undergraduate students of chemistry and life science at all Indian universities. Adhering strictly to the UGC curriculum, the contents are written in a simple and lucid language enriched with a large number of examples and illustrations.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1: Chemical Foundations
    1. Theories of atoms, molecules, and ions
    2. First atomic model
    3. Periodic Table of elements
    4. Stoichiometry
    5. Understanding Chemical Foundation
    6. Review Questions
  7. Chapter 2: Quantum Chemistry
    1. Limitations of classical theories and old quantum theories
    2. Need for quantum chemistry
    3. Electromagnetic radiation
    4. Photoelectric effect
    5. de Broglie Equation
    6. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle or Heisenberg’s complimentary principle
    7. Absorption and emission spectra
    8. Atomic spectrum of hydrogen
    9. Quantum mechanical approach for the atom
    10. Schrodinger’s time-independent equation
    11. Hermitian operators
    12. Quantum numbers
    13. Valence electrons
    14. The particle in a box
    15. Harmonic oscillator
    16. Rigid rotor
    17. Understanding Quantum Chemistry
    18. Review Questions
  8. Chapter 3: Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry
    1. Basic terms
    2. Types of energy
    3. The first law of thermodynamics
    4. The second law of thermodynamics
    5. Other applications of thermodynamics
    6. Maxwell’s equations
    7. Joule–Thomson coefficient, μJT
    8. Third law of thermodynamics
    9. Properties of liquid helium
    10. Understanding Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry
    11. Review Questions
  9. Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics
    1. Rates of reaction in general
    2. Order and molecularity
    3. Rate laws or rate equations
    4. Model for chemical kinetics
    5. Activated complex theory
    6. Uni-molecular reaction
    7. Catalysis
    8. Photo-catalysis
    9. Understanding Chemical Kinetics
    10. Review Questions
  10. Chapter 5: Photochemistry
    1. Difference between thermal and photochemical reactions
    2. Absorption and emission of energy
    3. First law of photochemistry (or Grotthus and Draper law)
    4. Second law of photochemistry (Einstein’s law of photochemical equivalence)
    5. Aspects of chain reaction
    6. Understanding Photochemistry
    7. Review Questions
  11. Chapter 6: Chemical Equilibrium
    1. Reversible and irreversible reactions
    2. Chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant
    3. Understanding Chemical Equilibrium
    4. Review Questions
  12. Chapter 7: Chemical Bonding
    1. Bonding between different atoms
    2. Bonding between identical atoms
    3. Types of chemical bonding
    4. Coordinate bond
    5. Hydrogen bonding
    6. van der Waal’s Forces
    7. Understanding Chemical Bonding
    8. Review Questions
  13. Chapter 8: Ideal Gas Laws and van der Waal’s Gas Equation of Real Gas
    1. Boyle’s law
    2. Charles law
    3. Gay–Lussac’s law
    4. Avogadro’s law
    5. The ideal gas law
    6. Molar mass of gas
    7. Dalton’s law of partial pressures
    8. Concept of mole fraction of gas in the mixture
    9. Kinetic molecular theory of gases
    10. Root mean square velocity
    11. Graham’s law of rate of diffusion/effusion
    12. Understanding Ideal Gas Laws and van der Waal’s Gas Equation of Real Gas
    13. Review Questions
  14. Chapter 9: Properties of Solutions (Colligative Properties)
    1. Terms required to understand colligative properties
    2. Properties of a solvent
    3. Effect of solute on vapour pressure of solution
    4. Effect of added non-volatile, non-electrolyte Solute on the boiling point of a solvent
    5. Effect of added non-volatile, non-electrolyte solute on the freezing point of a solvent
    6. Osmosis
    7. van’t Hoff’s law of osmotic pressure
    8. Experimental measurement of osmotic pressure of a solution
    9. Abnormal molecular weight
    10. Subnormal (lower) molecular weight for electrolyte solution
    11. van’t Hoff’s Factor, i
    12. Reverse osmosis
    13. Important equations to remember in this chapter
    14. Understanding Properties of Solutions (Colligative Properties)
    15. Review Questions
  15. Chapter 10: Phase Rule
    1. Terms used in phase rule
    2. Derivation of Willard Gibbs phase rule
    3. Application of phase rule
    4. Phase diagram
    5. Understanding Phase Rule
    6. Review Questions
  16. Chapter 11: Acids and Bases
    1. Classical definition
    2. Arrhenius theory of acids and bases
    3. Lowry–bronsted theory
    4. Lewis theory of acids and bases
    5. Ostwald’s acid–base theory
    6. Understanding Acids and Bases
    7. Review Questions
  17. Chapter 12: Electrochemistry
    1. Types of conductors
    2. Basic laws of electrochemistry
    3. Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions
    4. Galvanic cell (definition and property)
    5. Relationship between cell potential and free energy
    6. Concentration cell
    7. Irreversible cells (electrolysis)
    8. Batteries
    9. Fuel cells
    10. Balancing the redox reactions
    11. Corrosion
    12. Potentiometic titrations
    13. Hall process of production of aluminium
    14. Understanding Electrochemistry
    15. Review Questions
  18. Chapter 13: Colloidal State
    1. Definition of colloids
    2. Solids in liquids (sols)
    3. Liquids in liquids (Emulsions)
    4. Liquids in solids (gels)
    5. Understanding Colloidal State
    6. Review Questions
  19. Chapter 14: Chemistry of s-Block Elements and Their Useful Compounds
    1. Occurrence and preparation of alkali elements
    2. Physical properties of alkali elements
    3. Chemical properties of alkali elements
    4. Uses of alkali metals
    5. Sodium hydroxide
    6. Occurrence and preparation of alkaline earth metals
    7. Physical properties of alkaline earth metals
    8. Chemical properties of alkaline earth metals
    9. Cements
    10. Hard water
    11. Understanding Chemistry of s-Block Elements and Their Useful Compounds
    12. Review Questions
  20. Chapter 15: Main Group Chemistry
    1. Boron chemistry
    2. Chemistry of nitrogen
    3. Chemistry of phosphorus
    4. Chemistry of sulphur
    5. Chemistry of oxygen
    6. Chemistry of halogens
    7. Chemistry of interhalogen compounds
    8. Understanding Main Group Chemistry
    9. Review Questions
  21. Chapter 16: Coordination Chemistry
    1. Complex or coordination compunds and their types
    2. Ligands and their types
    3. Types of ligands
    4. Lewis acids and bases in complex compounds
    5. Chelates, chelate effect, and steric effect
    6. Kinetics and thermodynamic stability
    7. Theories for complex compounds
    8. Crystal field theory (CFT)
    9. Molecular orbital theory
    10. Isomerism
    11. Nomenclature
    12. Understanding Coordination Chemistry
    13. Review Questions
  22. Chapter 17: Chemistry of Lanthanides and Actinides
    1. Chemistry of lanthanides
    2. Chemistry of actinides
    3. Understanding Chemistry of Lanthanides and Actinides
    4. Review Questions
  23. Chapter 18: Solid State Chemistry
    1. Synthesis of solid state materials
    2. Structures of some simple and complex materials
    3. Crystallography and general characterizations
    4. Liquid crystal
    5. Theory of liquid crystals (the Swarm Theory)
    6. Glass or vitreous state
    7. Experimental techniques
    8. Exotic properties and exciting applications
    9. Heterogeneous catalysis—three-way catalysts
    10. Recent trends in solid state chemistry
    11. High-temperature superconductors and Meisner effect
    12. Understanding Solid State Chemistry
    13. Review Questions
  24. Chapter 19: Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives
    1. Chemistry of alkanes (hydrocarbons)
    2. Chemistry of alkenes and alkynes
    3. Chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons
    4. Chemistry of alcohols and phenols
    5. Chemistry of carbonyl compounds
    6. Chemistry of carboxylic acids and esters
    7. Chemistry of amines
    8. Hofmann and Curtius rearrangements
    9. Some important named reactions
    10. Understanding Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives
    11. Review Questions
  25. Chapter 20: Chemistry of Synthetic and Natural Polymers
    1. Definition and examples
    2. Polymer synthesis and its mechanism
    3. Thermoplastic and thermoset plastics
    4. Synthetic polymers and their uses
    5. Elastomers
    6. Fire retardant polymers
    7. Silicones
    8. Natural polymers
    9. Understanding Chemistry of Synthetic and Natural Polymers
    10. Review Questions
  26. Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Definition of basic terms
    2. Radioactive elements and their decay
    3. Nuclear stability
    4. Magic numbers
    5. Types of radioactive decay
    6. Artificial radioactivity
    7. Nuclear fission
    8. Nuclear fusion
    9. Hydrogen bomb
    10. Mass defect—Binding energy of the nucleus
    11. Kinetics of radioactive decay
    12. Radioactive series
    13. Nuclear reactors
    14. Understanding Nuclear Chemistry
    15. Review Questions
  27. Notes
  28. Acknowledgements
  29. Copyright
  30. Back Cover