You are previewing Gaze Interaction and Applications of Eye Tracking.
O'Reilly logo
Gaze Interaction and Applications of Eye Tracking

Book Description

Gaze Interaction and Applications of Eye Tracking: Advances in Assistive Technologies focuses on interactive communication and control tools based on gaze tracking, including eye typing, computer control, and gaming, with special attention to assistive technologies. For researchers and practitioners interested in the applied use of gaze tracking, the book offers instructions for building a basic eye tracker from off-the-shelf components, gives practical hints on building interactive applications, presents smooth and efficient interaction techniques, and summarizes the results of effective research on cutting edge gaze interaction applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. Motivation
    2. Why This Book
    3. Outline of the Content
    4. Conclusion
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. Section 1: Introduction
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Gaze Interaction
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Brief History and Background of Modern Gaze Tracking
      4. Applications of Eye Tracking
      5. Gaze Trackers for Assistive Technology
      6. Common Terms
      7. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 2: Eye Anatomy, Eye Movements and Vision
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
    3. Chapter 3: Basics of Camera-Based Gaze Tracking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Basic Setup
      4. Components of a Camera-based Gaze Tracker
      5. Calibration and Accuracy
      6. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 5: A Model for Gaze Control Assessments and Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TAKING A CLIENT-CENTRED APPROACH
      4. OUTCOMES AND DISCUSSION
  8. Section 2: User Involvement
    1. Chapter 4: Features of Gaze Control Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHOOSING THE BEST SYSTEM FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL
      4. MATCHING THE SOFTWARE WITH EACH INDIVIDUAL’S INTEREST AND NEEDS
      5. BEING READY TO CHANGE AND EVOLVE
    2. Chapter 6: The Impact of Gaze Controlled Technology on Quality of Life
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FIRST PHASE
      4. SECOND PHASE
      5. OUTCOMES AND DISCUSSION
    3. Chapter 7: Participatory Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CASE STUDIES
      4. CASE STUDIES
      5. OUTCOMES AND DISCUSSION
  9. Section 3: Gaze Interaction and Interface Design Issues
    1. Chapter 8: Communication and Text Entry by Gaze
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAZE-BASED TEXT ENTRY METHODS
      4. COMMUNICATION VS. TEXT ENTRY
      5. METHODS TO SPEED UP TEXT ENTRY
      6. INTERFACE DESIGN ISSUES:
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 9: Computer Control by Gaze
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DWELL-BASED SELECTION
      4. DEDICATED INTERFACE WIDGETS
      5. SUPPORTING ACCESS TO SMALL TARGETS
      6. GESTURE-BASED ACTIVATIONS
      7. BEYOND LEFT CLICKS
      8. USING EYE GAZE IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER MODALITIES
      9. BROWSING AND NAVIGATION OF INFORMATION SPACES
      10. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 10: Beyond Communication and Control
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAZE-BASED ENVIRONMENT CONTROL
      4. GAZE-BASED MOBILITY CONTROL
  10. Section 4: Attentive and Gaze-Aware Interfaces
    1. Chapter 11: Eye Movements and Attention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS AND TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS
      4. ATTENTION
      5. EYE MOVEMENTS and SUBJECTIVE STATES
      6. SUMMARY
    2. Chapter 12: Brain–Computer Interfaces and Visual Activity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EEG-BASED BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES
      4. EVOKED POTENTIALS INDEPENDENT OF GAZE
      5. CURRENT APPLICATIONS
      6. HYBRID BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES
      7. OTHER ASPECTS OF BCI RESEARCH
    3. Chapter 13: Gaze-Aware Systems and Attentive Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOWARD ATTENTIVE SYSTEMS
      4. BACKGROUND TO DESIGN AND BUILDING OF ATTENTIVE SYSTEMS
      5. IDENTIFYING THE CURRENT STATE OF A USER OF AN ATTENTIVE SYSTEM
      6. Appropriate System Responses: Examples from Attentive Systems
      7. SUMMARY
  11. Section 5: Methods and Measures
    1. Chapter 14: Methods and Measures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMMON METRICS IN GAZE INTERACTION STUDIES
      4. GENERAL DISCUSSION
    2. Chapter 15: Evaluating Eye Tracking Systems for Computer Input
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Computer Input
      4. Eye Input
      5. Example 1: Dwell-Time vs. Key-based Selection
      6. Example 2: Blink-Based vs. Dwell-Time Selection
      7. Experimental Variables
      8. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 16: Gaze Data Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Classification of Visualisation Techniques
      4. Eye Movement Data Clustering
      5. Some Common Commercial Tools
      6. Tools Developed In Laboratories
      7. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 17: Usability Evaluation of Gaze Interaction
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Gaze Research and Usability Evaluation
      4. Practical Guidelines for Usability Testing
      5. Examples of Usability Evaluation Studies for Gaze Interaction
      6. Collecting Gaze Information to Support Usability Analysis
      7. From Usability Analysis to Understanding Behaviour Patterns
      8. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 18: A Client-Focused Methodology for Gaze Control Assessment, Implementation and Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. The KEE Methodology
      4. The KEE Approach
      5. Conclusion
  12. Section 6: Building an Eye Tracker
    1. Chapter 19: Introduction to Eye and Gaze Trackers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BASICS OF GAZE MODELLING
      4. PHYSIOLOGY AND KINEMATICS OF THE EYE
      5. IMAGE FORMATION
      6. DISCUSSION
    2. Chapter 20: Image Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS IN THE IMAGE?
      4. PREPROCESSING
      5. DETECTION OF RELEVANT FEATURES
      6. ESTIMATION OF POSITIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 21: Gaze Estimation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAZE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES
      4. Geometry Based Methods
      5. A. Fully Calibrated Set-Ups
      6. B. Uncalibrated Set-Ups
      7. INTERPOLATION METHODS
      8. HEAD-MOUNTED GAZE TRACKERS
      9. FIXATION ESTIMATION
      10. LIST OF SYMBOLS
      11. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 22: Eye Tracker Hardware Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CAMERA
      4. INTERFACE
      5. OPTICAL SYSTEM
      6. LEDs, FILTERS, AND CAMERA MOUNTS
      7. ADDITIONAL HARDWARE
      8. DYNAMIC VISION SENSOR
      9. DISCUSSION
    5. Chapter 23: Safety Issues and Infrared Light
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: EYE TRACKERS AND INFRARED LIGHT
      3. LIGHT AND THE EYE
      4. INTRODUCTION TO RADIOMETRY: KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
      5. MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS
      6. MEASUREMENT OF SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS
      7. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIGHT EMITTED
      8. OPTICAL RADIATION SAFETY STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
      9. MEDICAL ISSUES AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES
      12. DISCUSSION
    6. Chapter 24: Discussion and Future Directions for Eye Tracker Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DISCUSSION
      3. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      4. CONCLUSION
  13. Section 7: Future Directions
    1. Chapter 25: Conclusion and a Look to the Future
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Future Improvements for Gaze-based Assistive Technology
      4. EYE TRACKING FOR ALL
      5. CONCLUSION
  14. About the Contributors
  15. Additional Reading
  16. Index