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Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions

Book Description

Heavy ion collision experiments recreating the quark-gluon plasma that filled the microseconds-old universe have established that it is a nearly perfect liquid that flows with such minimal dissipation that it cannot be seen as made of particles. String theory provides a powerful toolbox for studying matter with such properties. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to gauge/string duality and its applications to the study of the thermal and transport properties of quark-gluon plasma, the dynamics of how it forms, the hydrodynamics of how it flows, and its response to probes including jets and quarkonium mesons. Calculations are discussed in the context of data from RHIC and LHC and results from finite temperature lattice QCD. The book is an ideal reference for students and researchers in string theory, quantum field theory, quantum many-body physics, heavy ion physics and lattice QCD.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half-title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. 1. Opening remarks
  7. 2. A heavy ion phenomenology primer
    1. 2.1 General characteristics of heavy ion collisions
    2. 2.2 Flow
    3. 2.3 Jet quenching
    4. 2.4 Quarkonia in hot matter
  8. 3. Results from lattice QCD at nonzero temperature
    1. 3.1 The QCD equation of state from the lattice
    2. 3.2 Transport coefficients from the lattice
    3. 3.3 Quarkonium spectrum from the lattice
  9. 4. Introducing the gauge/string duality
    1. 4.1 Motivating the duality
    2. 4.2 All you need to know about string theory
    3. 4.3 The AdS/CFT conjecture
  10. 5. A duality toolbox
    1. 5.1 Gauge/gravity duality
    2. 5.2 Generalizations
    3. 5.3 Correlation functions of local operators
    4. 5.4 Wilson loops
    5. 5.5 Introducing fundamental matter
  11. 6. Bulk properties of strongly coupled plasma
    1. 6.1 Thermodynamic properties
    2. 6.2 Transport properties
    3. 6.3 Quasiparticles and spectral functions
    4. 6.4 Quasinormal modes and plasma relaxation
  12. 7. From hydrodynamics to far-from-equilibrium dynamics
    1. 7.1 Hydrodynamics and gauge/gravity duality
    2. 7.2 Constitutive relations from gravity
    3. 7.3 Introduction to far-from-equilibrium dynamics
    4. 7.4 Constructing far-from-equilibrium states
    5. 7.5 Isotropization of homogeneous plasma
    6. 7.6 Isotropization of homogeneous plasma, simplified
    7. 7.7 Hydrodynamization of boost-invariant plasma
    8. 7.8 Colliding sheets of energy
  13. 8. Probing strongly coupled plasma
    1. 8.1 Parton energy loss via a drag on heavy quarks
    2. 8.2 Momentum broadening of a heavy quark
    3. 8.3 Disturbance of the plasma induced by an energetic heavy quark
    4. 8.4 Stopping light quarks
    5. 8.5 Calculating the jet quenching parameter
    6. 8.6 Quenching a beam of strongly coupled gluons
    7. 8.7 Velocity scaling of the screening length and quarkonium suppression
  14. 9. Quarkonium mesons in strongly coupled plasma
    1. 9.1 Adding quarks to N = 4 SYM
    2. 9.2 Zero temperature
    3. 9.3 Nonzero temperature
    4. 9.4 Quarkonium mesons in motion and in decay
    5. 9.5 Black hole embeddings
    6. 9.6 Two universal predictions
  15. 10. Concluding remarks and outlook
  16. Appendix A: Green–Kubo formula for transport coefficients
  17. Appendix B: Hawking temperature of a general black brane metric
  18. Appendix C: Holographic renormalization, one-point functions, and a two-point function
  19. Appendix D: Computation of the holographic stress tensor
    1. D.1 Holographic stress tensor for the AdS black brane
    2. D.2 Computation of the holographic stress tensor for the fluid metric
  20. References
  21. Index