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Gateways Into Electronics

Book Description

A unique introduction to the many facets of electronics guided by industrial rather than academic practice, Gateways into Electronics relies on timeless principles rather than special methods and quickly provides the reader with the tools to explore the literature quantitatively and design simple instruments with assurance. It is thus an invaluable resource for scientists and engineers seeking to understand and develop applications of electronics in their fields.

Covering linear systems, circuit theory, operational amplifiers, semiconductor devices, feedback systems, and digital circuits at a level accessible to anyone with a good grasp of elementary calculus and the bare bones of physics, this comprehensive work also offers clear and compact discussions of generalized functions, Laplace and Fourier transforms, the electromagnetic foundations of circuit theory, transmission lines, modulation and detection, random processes and noise, and signal recovery.

Gateways Into Electronics is supplemented by nearly 500 figures and by carefully crafted examples and exercises that extend the material provided in the text or use it in a new context. Results are clearly stated, and thus provide immediate feedback as well as future reference.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. PREFACE
  6. 1: LINEAR SYSTEMS
    1. 1-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 1-2 LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS
    3. 1-3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE
    4. 1-4 STEP RESPONSE
    5. 1-5 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN STEP AND FREQUENCY RESPONSES
    6. 1-6 FILTERS AND THE FREQUENCY CONTENT OF WAVEFORMS
    7. EXERCISES
    8. APPENDIX: STEP AND FREQUENCY RESPONSES OF SECOND-ORDER SYSTEMS
  7. 2: GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS AND INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS
    1. 2-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 2-2 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND
    3. 2-3 CONVOLUTIONS OF FUNCTIONS
    4. 2-4 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS OF FUNCTIONS
    5. 2-5 GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS
    6. 2-6 INTEGRALS AND CONVOLUTIONS OF GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS
    7. 2-7 CONVERGENCE OF GENERAUZED FUNCTIONS
    8. 2-8 LAPLACE TRANSFORMS OF GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS
    9. 2-9 IMPULSE RESPONSE AND CONVOLUTION
    10. 2-10 FOURIER TRANSFORMS
    11. 2-11 SHANNON'S SAMPLING THEOREM
    12. EXERCISES
    13. APPENDIX: TABLE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
  8. 3: CIRCUIT THEORY
    1. 3-1 CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
    2. 3-2 THE BASICS: KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS AND SUPERPOSITION
    3. 3-3 IMPEDANCES AND ADMITTANCES
    4. 3-4 DEPENDENT SOURCES: THE TRANSFORMER
    5. 3-5 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
    6. 3-6 THÉVENIN'S THEOREM
    7. 3-7 SOURCE TRANSFORMATIONS
    8. 3-8 TWO-PORTS
    9. 3-9 POWER AND ENERGY
    10. EXERCISES
  9. 4: FROM FIELDS TO CIRCUITS
    1. 4-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 4-2 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN VACUUM
    3. 4-3 LOW-FREQUENCY POTENTIALS AND FIELDS
    4. 4-4 THE DRUDE–LORENTZ MODEL OF CONDUCTORS
    5. 4-5 RELAXATION TIMES IN CONDUCTORS
    6. 4-6 SURFACE CHARGES IN INDUCTORS
    7. 4-7 THE SKIN EFFECT IN CONDUCTORS
    8. 4-8 POWER IN LUMPED CIRCUITS
    9. 4-9 PARASITIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
    10. EXERCISES
  10. 5: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
    1. 5-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 5-2 IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
    3. 5-3 THE INFINITE-GAIN APPROXIMATION
    4. 5-4 IDEAL GAIN AND LOOP GAIN
    5. 5-5 FURTHER BENEFITS FROM FEEDBACK
    6. 5-6 BLACKMAN'S THEOREM
    7. 5-7 VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AND CURRENT FEEDBACK
    8. 5-8 FEEDBACK TERMINOLOGY
    9. EXERCISES
  11. 6: MODELS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
    1. 6-1 SEMUCONDUCTORS
    2. 6-2 THE p-n JUNCTION
    3. 6-3 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
    4. 6-4 FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS
    5. EXERCISES
  12. 7: LOW-FREQUENCY CIRCUIT FRAGMENTS
    1. 7-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 7-2 COMMON-EMITTER CONFIGURATION
    3. 7-3 COMMON-COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION
    4. 7-4 COMMON-BASE CONFIGURATION
    5. 7-5 CURRENT MIRRORS
    6. 7-6 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
    7. 7-7 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER WITH AN ACTIVE LOAD
    8. 7-8 CIRCUITS WITH JFETs AND MOSFETs
    9. 7-9 EXAMPLE: HIGH-SPEED OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
    10. 7-10 EXAMPLE: CURRENT-FEEDBACK INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER
    11. 7-11 EXAMPLE: BANDGAP VOLTAGE REFERENCE
    12. 7-12 EXAMPLE: THE GILBERT MULTIPLIER
    13. EXERCISES
  13. 8: DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF SEMICONDUCTOR CIRCUITS
    1. 8-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 8-2 PREUMINARY EXERCISE: THE SHORT-CIRCUIT FORWARD CURRENT GAIN
    3. 8-3 THE COMMON-EMITTER AMPLIFIER AND THE MILLER EFFECT
    4. 8-4 THE COMMON-BASE FRAGMENT
    5. 8-5 THE EMITTER FOLLOWER
    6. 8-6 AMPLIFIERS WITH SMALL EMITTER DEGENERATION
    7. 8-7 EXAMPLE: VIDEO AMPLIFIER
    8. 8-8 EXAMPLE: COMPENSATED OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
    9. 8-9 THE TIME-DEPENDENT DIFFUSION EQUATION
    10. 8-10 LARGE-SIGNAL DYNAMIC RESPONSES
    11. EXERCISES
  14. 9: BANDWIDTH AND STABILITY OF OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS
    1. 9-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 9-2 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER GAIN
    3. 9-3 DYNAMICS OF THE DIRECT AMPLIFIER
    4. 9-4 DYNAMICS AND THE LOOP GAIN
    5. 9-5 THE PHASE-MARGIN CRITERION
    6. 9-6 EXAMPLE: UNREALIZABLE IDEAL GAINS—THE DIFFERENTIATOR
    7. 9-7 EXAMPLE: EFFECTS OF OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER INPUT IMPEDANCE
    8. 9-8 EXAMPLE: RC INTEGRATOR
    9. 9-9 EXAMPLE: PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER
    10. 9-10 EXAMPLE: IDENTIFYING AN OPERATIONAL AMPUFIER IN TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS
    11. 9-11 EXAMPLE: CIRCUITS WITH SEVERAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
    12. EXERCISES
  15. 10: DIGITAL CIRCUITS
    1. 10-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 10-2 BINARY ARITHMETIC IN THE 2'S COMPLEMENT REPRESENTATION
    3. 10-3 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA, LOGICAL VARIABLES, AND WGICAL FUNCTIONS
    4. 10-4 LOGIC GATES
    5. 10-5 TRANSISTOR GATES AND LOGIC FAMILIES
    6. 10-6 GATE DELAYS
    7. 10-7 COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS
    8. 10-8 ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS WITH LOGIC CIRCUITS
    9. 10-9 RS FLIP-FLOPS
    10. 10-10 METASTABILI1Y IN RS FLIP-FLOPS
    11. 10-11 CLOCKED FLIP-FLOPS AND SYNCHRONOUS SYSTEMS
    12. 10-12 STATE MACHINES
    13. 10-13 SYNCHRONIZERS
    14. 10-14 CMOS CIRCUITS
    15. EXERCISES
  16. 11: TRANSMISSION LINES
    1. 11-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 11-2 THE TEM MODE IN IDEAL LINES
    3. 11-3 LC LADDER NETWORKS
    4. 11-4 LOSSY LINES
    5. 11-5 FINITE LINES
    6. 11-6 WIDEBAND TRANSIENTS IN LOSSLESS LINES
    7. 11-7 LOSSLESS NARROWBAND CIRCUITS
    8. 11-8 PERIODICALLY LOADED LINES
    9. 11-9 COUPLED LINES
    10. 11-10 SCATTERING PARAMETERS
    11. EXERCISES
  17. 12: RANDOM PROCESSES AND NOISE
    1. 12-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 12-2 RANDOM VARIABLES
    3. 12-3 STATIONARY RANDOM PROCESSES
    4. 12-4 FUNDAMENTAL NOISE PROCESSES
    5. EXERCISES
  18. 13: SIGNAL RECOVERY
    1. 13-1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 13-2 NOISE MODELS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
    3. 13-3 LINEAR AMPLIFIERS
    4. 13-4 NONUNEAR DEVICES
    5. 13-5 OPTIMAL SIGNAL RECOVERY
    6. 13-6 SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS
    7. EXERCISES
  19. REFERENCES
    1. General
    2. Chapter 1
    3. Chapter 2
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 11
    10. Chapter 12
    11. Chapter 13
  20. INDEX