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GAAs High-Speed Devices: Physics, Technology, and Circuit Applications

Book Description

The performance of high-speed semiconductor devices—the genius driving digital computers, advanced electronic systems for digital signal processing, telecommunication systems, and optoelectronics—is inextricably linked to the unique physical and electrical properties of gallium arsenide. Once viewed as a novel alternative to silicon, gallium arsenide has swiftly moved into the forefront of the leading high-tech industries as an irreplaceable material in component fabrication.

GaAs High-Speed Devices provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-science look at the phenomenally expansive range of engineering devices gallium arsenide has made possible—as well as the fabrication methods, operating principles, device models, novel device designs, and the material properties and physics of GaAs that are so keenly integral to their success. In a clear five-part format, the book systematically examines each of these aspects of GaAs device technology, forming the first authoritative study to consider so many important aspects at once and in such detail.

Beginning with chapter 2 of part one, the book discusses such basic subjects as gallium arsenide materials and crystal properties, electron energy band structures, hole and electron transport, crystal growth of GaAs from the melt and defect density analysis. Part two describes the fabrication process of gallium arsenide devices and integrated circuits, shedding light, in chapter 3, on epitaxial growth processes, molecular beam epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Chapter 4 provides an introduction to wafer cleaning techniques and environment control, wet etching methods and chemicals, and dry etching systems, including reactive ion etching, focused ion beam, and laser assisted methods. Chapter 5 provides a clear overview of photolithography and nonoptical lithography techniques that include electron beam, x-ray, and ion beam lithography systems. The advances in fabrication techniques described in previous chapters necessitate an examination of low-dimension device physics, which is carried on in detail in chapter 6 of part three.

Part four includes a discussion of innovative device design and operating principles which deepens and elaborates the ideas introduced in chapter 1. Key areas such as metal-semiconductor contact systems, Schottky Barrier and ohmic contact formation and reliability studies are examined in chapter 7. A detailed discussion of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors, the fabrication technology, and models and parameter extraction for device analyses occurs in chapter 8. The fifth part of the book progresses to an up-to-date discussion of heterostructure field-effect (HEMT in chapter 9), potential-effect (HBT in chapter 10), and quantum-effect devices (chapters 11 and 12), all of which are certain to have a major impact on high-speed integrated circuits and optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) applications.

Every facet of GaAs device technology is placed firmly in a historical context, allowing readers to see instantly the significant developmental changes that have shaped it. Featuring a look at devices still under development and device structures not yet found in the literature, GaAs High-Speed Devices also provides a valuable glimpse into the newest innovations at the center of the latest GaAs technology. An essential text for electrical engineers, materials scientists, physicists, and students, GaAs High-Speed Devices offers the first comprehensive and up-to-date look at these formidable 21st century tools.

The unique physical and electrical properties of gallium arsenide has revolutionized the hardware essential to digital computers, advanced electronic systems for digital signal processing, telecommunication systems, and optoelectronics. GaAs High-Speed Devices provides the first fully comprehensive look at the enormous range of engineering devices gallium arsenide has made possible as well as the backbone of the technology—ication methods, operating principles, and the materials properties and physics of GaAs—device models and novel device designs. Featuring a clear, six-part format, the book covers:

  • GaAs materials and crystal properties

  • Fabrication processes of GaAs devices and integrated circuits

  • Electron beam, x-ray, and ion beam lithography systems

  • Metal-semiconductor contact systems

  • Heterostructure field-effect, potential-effect, and quantum-effect devices

  • GaAs Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits and Digital Integrated Circuits

In addition, this comprehensive volume places every facet of the technology in an historical context and gives readers an unusual glimpse at devices still under development and device structures not yet found in the literature.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. PREFACE
  6. 1: THE DEVELOPMENT OF GALLIUM ARSENIDE DEVICES AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
    1. 1.1 GALLIUM ARSENIDE DEVICE DEVELOPMENT
    2. 1.2 GaAs FOUNDRY
  7. 2: GALLIUM ARSENIDE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND GROWTH
    1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 2.2 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
    3. 2.3 ELECTRON ENERGY-BAND STRUCTURE
    4. 2.4 ELECTRON AND HOLE TRANSPORT
    5. 2.5 CRYSTAL GROWTH OF SEMI-INSULATING GaAs FROM MELT
    6. 2.6 EL2 CENTERS IN GaAs
  8. 3: EPITAXIAL GROWTH PROCESSES
    1. 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO EPITAXIAL GROWTH PROCESSES
    2. 3.2 MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY
    3. 3.3 METAL–ORGANIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION
    4. 3.4 CHEMICAL BEAM EPITAXY
    5. 3.5 ATOMIC LAYER EPITAXY AND MOLECULAR LAYER EPITAXY
    6. 3.6 VAPOR TRANSPORT EPITAXY
  9. 4: PROCESS TECHNIQUES
    1. 4.1 INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS TECHNIQUES
    2. 4.2 CLEANING AND CLEANLINESS
    3. 4.3 ETCHING
    4. 4.4 PLASMA-ENHANCED DEPOSITION
    5. 4.5 RAPID THERMAL PROCESS
  10. 5: LITHOGRAPHY
    1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION TO LITHOGRAPHY
    2. 5.2 PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY
    3. 5.3 NONOPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY
  11. 6: DEVICE-RELATED PHYSICS AND PRINCIPLES
    1. 6.1 SOME BASIC ELECTRONIC CONCEPTS IN LOW-DIMENSIONAL PHYSICS
    2. 6.2 BAND STRUCTURE, IMPURITIES, AND EXCITONS IN SUPERLATTICES
    3. 6.3 SCATTERING THEORY
    4. 6.4 BALLISTIC TRANSPORT IN GaAs SCATTERING
    5. 6.5 THE MONTE CARLO METHOD
  12. 7: METAL-TO-GaAs CONTACTS
    1. 7.1 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACTS
    2. 7.2 THE PHYSICS OF METAL-GaAs SYSTEMS
    3. 7.3 UNPINNED SCHOTTKY BARRIER FORMATION
    4. 7.4 OHMIC CONTACT
    5. 7.5 INTERCONNECT METAL SYSTEMS
  13. 8: GaAs METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR
    1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION TO MESFET
    2. 8.2 FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY
    3. 8.3 MODELS
    4. 8.4 PARAMETER EXTRACTION
    5. 8.5 PARASITIC EFFECTS
    6. 8.6 NOISE THEORY OF GaAs MESFETs
  14. 9: HIGH ELECTRON-MOBILITY TRANSISTOR (HEMT)
    1. 9.1 INRODUCTION TO HEMT
    2. 9.2 THE BASIC HEMT STRUCTURE
    3. 9.3 HETEROJUNCTION INTERFACE SHEET CARRIER CONCENTRATION
    4. 9.4 TRANSPORT IN HEMT STRUCTURES
    5. 9.5 CAPACITANCE-VOLTAGE AND CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS
    6. 9.6 PERSISTENT PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY AND DRAIN I–V COLLAPSE
    7. 9.7 INVERTED HEMT
    8. 9.8 PSEUDOMORPHIC HEMT
    9. 9.9 PULSED-DOPED HEMT
    10. 9.10 SUBTHRESHOLD CURRENT IN HEMT
    11. 9.11 VLSI GaAs HEMT ICs
  15. 10: HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
    1. 10.1 INTRODUCTION TO HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
    2. 10.2 THE STRUCTURES OF HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
    3. 10.3 DEVICE TECHNOLOGY
    4. 10.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF HETEROJUNCTION TRANSISTORS
    5. 10.5 FIGURES OF MERIT FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY TRANSISTORS
    6. 10.6 POWER DENSITY IN THE HBT
  16. 11: RESONANT-TUNNELING TRANSISTORS
    1. 11.1 INTRODUCTION TO RESONANT-TUNNELING TRANSISTORS
    2. 11.2 WAVE PROPERTY OF ELECTRONS AND RESONANT TUNNELING
    3. 11.3 STRUCTURE OF THE RESONANT-TUNNELING DIODE
    4. 11.4 THE REALIZATION OF RESONANT-TUNNELING TRANSISTORS
  17. 12: HOT-ELECTRON TRANSISTORS AND NOVEL DEVICES
    1. 12.1 BALLISTIC-INJECTION DEVICES
    2. 12.2 REAL-SPACE TRANSFER DEVICES
    3. 12.3 QUANTUM DEVICES
    4. 12.4 QUASI-ONE-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL DEVICES
    5. 12.5 QUANTUM INTERFERENCE DEVICES
    6. 12.6 QUANTUM POINT CONTACTS
  18. 13: GaAs FET AMPLIFIERS AND MONOLITHIC MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
    1. 13.1 INTRODUCTION TO MONOLITHIC MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
    2. 13.2 COMPARISON OF THE HYBRID AND MONOLITHIC APPROACHES
    3. 13.3 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    4. 13.4 LOW-NOISE AMPLIFIER
    5. 13.5 HIGH-POWER GaAs MMIC
    6. 13.6 LARGE-SIGNAL CIRCUIT MODEL FOR NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
    7. 13.7 APPLICATIONS OF GaAs ICs
  19. 14: GaAs DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
    1. 14.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 14.2 HIGH-SPEED GaAs DEVICES AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
    3. 14.3 GaAs LOGIC FAMILIES
    4. 14.4 GALLIUM ARSENIDE CIRCUITS
    5. 14.5 GaAs MICROPROCESSOR
    6. 14.6 DIGITAL PACKAGING
  20. 15: HIGH-SPEED PHOTONIC DEVICES
    1. 15.1 INTRODUCTION TO PHOTONIC DEVICES
    2. 15.2 LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
    3. 15.3 SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS
    4. 15.4 Pin PHOTODETECTORS
    5. 15.5 AVALANCHE PHOTODIODES
    6. 15.6 HYBRID INTEGRATION
    7. 15.7 OPTICAL INTERCONNECTS
    8. 15.8 QUANTUM WELL OPTICAL MODULATORS
  21. INDEX