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Future Trends in Microelectronics

Book Description

Presents the developments in microelectronic-related fields, with comprehensive insight from a number of leading industry professionals

The book presents the future developments and innovations in the developing field of microelectronics. The book’s chapters contain contributions from various authors, all of whom are leading industry professionals affiliated either with top universities, major semiconductor companies, or government laboratories, discussing the evolution of their profession. A wide range of microelectronic-related fields are examined, including solid-state electronics, material science, optoelectronics, bioelectronics, and renewable energies. The topics covered range from fundamental physical principles, materials and device technologies, and major new market opportunities.

  • Describes the expansion of the field into hot topics such as energy (photovoltaics) and medicine (bio-nanotechnology)
  • Provides contributions from leading industry professionals in semiconductor micro- and nano-electronics
  • Discusses the importance of micro- and nano-electronics in today’s rapidly changing and expanding information society

Future Trends in Microelectronics: Journey into the Unknown is written for industry professionals and graduate students in engineering, physics, and nanotechnology.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
    1. Copyright
    2. List of Contributors
    3. Preface
      1. References
    4. Acknowledgments
  3. Part I: Future of Digital Silicon
    1. 1.1: Prospects of Future Si Technologies in the Data-Driven World
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Memory – DRAM
      3. 3 Memory – NAND
      4. 4 Logic technology
      5. 5 CMOS image sensors
      6. 6 Packaging technology
      7. 7 Silicon photonics technology
      8. 8 Concluding remarks
      9. Acknowledgments
      10. References
    2. 1.2: How Lithography Enables Moore's Law
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Moore's Law and the contribution of lithography
      3. 3 Lithography technology: past and present
      4. 4 Lithography technology: future
      5. 5 Summary
      6. 6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    3. 1.3: What Happened to Post-CMOS?
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 General constraints on speed and energy
      3. 3 Guidelines for success
      4. 4 Benchmarking and examples
      5. 5 Discussion
      6. 6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    4. 1.4: Three-Dimensional Integration of Ge and Two-Dimensional Materials for One-Dimensional Devices
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 FEOL technology and materials for 3D integration
      3. 3 Integration of “more than Moore” functionality
      4. 4 Implications of 3D integration at the system level
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    5. 1.5: Challenges to Ultralow-Power Semiconductor Device Operation
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Ultimate MOS transistors
      3. 3 Small slope switches
      4. 4 Conclusion
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    6. 1.6: A Universal Nonvolatile Processing Environment
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Universal nonvolatile processing environment
      3. 3 Bias-field-free spin-torque oscillator
      4. 4 Summary
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    7. 1.7: Can MRAM (Finally) Be a Factor?
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 What is MRAM?
      3. 3 Current limitations for stand-alone memories
      4. 4 Immediate opportunities: embedded memories
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. References
    8. 1.8: Nanomanufacturing for Electronics or Optoelectronics
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Nano-LEGO®
      3. 3 Tunnel devices
      4. 4 Split-gate transistors
      5. 5 Other nanoscale systems
      6. 6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
  4. Part II: New Materials and New Physics
    1. 2.1: Surface Waves Everywhere
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Water waves
      3. 3 Surface acoustic waves
      4. 4 Surface plasma waves and polaritons
      5. 5 Plasma waves in two-dimensional structures
      6. 6 Electronic surface states in solids
      7. 7 Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs)
      8. References
    2. 2.2: Graphene and Atom-Thick 2D Materials: Device Application Prospects
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Conventional low-dimensional systems
      3. 3 New atomically thin material systems
      4. 4 Device application of new material systems
      5. 5 Components in Si technology
      6. 6 Graphene on Ge
      7. 7 Conclusion
      8. References
    3. 2.3: Computing with Coupled Relaxation Oscillators
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Vanadium dioxide-based relaxation oscillators
      3. 3 Experimental demonstration of pairwise coupled HVFET oscillators
      4. 4 Computing with pairwise coupled HVFET oscillators
      5. 5 Associative computing using pairwise coupled oscillators
      6. 6 Conclusion
      7. References
    4. 2.4: On the Field-Induced Insulator–Metal Transition in VO2 Films
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Electron concentration-induced transition
      3. 3 Field-induced transition in a film
      4. 4 Need for a ground plane
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. References
    5. 2.5: Group IV Alloys for Advanced Nano- and Optoelectronic Applications
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Epitaxial growth of GeSn layers by reactive gas source epitaxy
      3. 3 Optically pumped GeSn laser
      4. 4 Potential of GeSn alloys for electronic devices
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    6. 2.6: High Sn-Content GeSn Light Emitters for Silicon Photonics
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Experimental details of the GeSn material system
      3. 3 Direct bandgap GeSn light emitting diodes
      4. 4 Group IV GeSn microdisk laser on Si(100)
      5. 5 Conclusion and outlook
      6. References
    7. 2.7: Gallium Nitride-Based Lateral and Vertical Nanowire Devices
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Crystallographic study of GaN nanowires using TMAH wet etching
      3. 3 Ω-shaped-gate lateral AlGaN/GaN FETs
      4. 4 Gate-all-around vertical GaN FETs
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    8. 2.8: Scribing Graphene Circuits
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Graphene oxide from graphite
      3. 3 GO exfoliation
      4. 4 Selective reduction of graphene oxide
      5. 5 Raman spectroscopy
      6. 6 Electrical properties of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide
      7. 7 Future perspectives
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    9. 2.9: Structure and Electron Transport in Irradiated Monolayer Graphene
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Samples
      3. 3 Raman scattering (RS) spectra
      4. 4 Sample resistance
      5. 5 Hopping magnetoresistance
      6. References
    10. 2.10: Interplay of Coulomb Blockade and Luttinger-Liquid Physics in Disordered 1D InAs Nanowires with Strong Spin–Orbit Coupling
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Sample preparation and the experimental setup
      3. 3 Experimental results
      4. 4 Conclusion
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
  5. Part III: Microelectronics in Health, Energy Harvesting, and Communications
    1. 3.1: Image-Guided Intervention and Therapy: The First Time Right
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Societal challenge: Rapid rise of cardiovascular diseases
      3. 3 Societal challenge: Rapid rise of cancer
      4. 4 Drivers of change in healthcare
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    2. 3.2: Rewiring the Nervous System, Without Wires
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Why go wireless?
      3. 3 One wireless recording solution used to explore primary motor cortex control of locomotion
      4. 4 Writing into the nervous system with epidural electrical stimulation of spinal circuits effectively modulates gait
      5. 5 Genetic technology brings a better model to neuroscience
      6. 6 The wireless bridge for closed-loop control and rehabilitation
      7. 7 Conclusion
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    3. 3.3: Nanopower-Integrated Electronics for Energy Harvesting, Conversion, and Management
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Commercial ICs for micropower harvesting
      3. 3 State-of-the-art integrated nanocurrent power converters for energy-harvesting applications
      4. 4 A multisource-integrated energy-harvesting circuit
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    4. 3.4: Will Composite Nanomaterials Replace Piezoelectric Thin Films for Energy Transduction Applications?
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Thin film piezoelectric materials and applications
      3. 3 Individual ZnO and GaN piezoelectric nanowires: experiments and simulations
      4. 4 Piezoelectric composite materials using nanowires
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    5. 3.5: New Generation of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Interconnects
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 VCSEL requirements
      3. 3 Optical leakage
      4. 4 Experiment
      5. 5 Simulation
      6. 6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    6. 3.6: Reconfigurable Infrared Photodetector Based on Asymmetrically Doped Double Quantum Wells for Multicolor and Remote Temperature Sensing
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Fabrication of DQWIP with asymmetrical doping
      3. 3 Optoelectronic characterization of DQWIPs
      4. 4 Temperature sensing
      5. 5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. References
    7. 3.7: Tunable Photonic Molecules for Spectral Engineering in Dense Photonic Integration
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Photonic molecules and their spectral features
      3. 3 Coupling-controlled mode-splitting: GHz-operation on a tight footprint
      4. 4 Reconfigurable spectral control
      5. 5 Toward reconfigurable mode-splitting control
      6. 6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    8. Index
  6. End User License Agreement