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Fundamentals of Wireless Communication

Book Description

The past decade has seen many advances in physical layer wireless communication theory and their implementation in wireless systems. This textbook takes a unified view of the fundamentals of wireless communication and explains the web of concepts underpinning these advances at a level accessible to an audience with a basic background in probability and digital communication. Topics covered include MIMO (multi-input, multi-output) communication, space-time coding, opportunistic communication, OFDM and CDMA. The concepts are illustrated using many examples from real wireless systems such as GSM, IS-95 (CDMA), IS-856 (1 x EV-DO), Flash OFDM and UWB (ultra-wideband). Particular emphasis is placed on the interplay between concepts and their implementation in real systems. An abundant supply of exercises and figures reinforce the material in the text. This book is intended for use on graduate courses in electrical and computer engineering and will also be of great interest to practising engineers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. List of notation
  10. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Book objective
    2. 1.2 Wireless systems
    3. 1.3 Book outline
  11. 2. The wireless channel
    1. 2.1 Physical modeling for wireless channels
      1. 2.1.1 Free space, fixed transmit and receive antennas
      2. 2.1.2 Free space, moving antenna
      3. 2.1.3 Reflecting wall, fixed antenna
      4. 2.1.4 Reflecting wall, moving antenna
      5. 2.1.5 Reflection from a ground plane
      6. 2.1.6 Power decay with distance and shadowing
      7. 2.1.7 Moving antenna, multiple reflectors
    2. 2.2 Input/output model of the wireless channel
      1. 2.2.1 The wireless channel as a linear time-varying system
      2. 2.2.2 Baseband equivalent model
      3. 2.2.3 A discrete-time baseband model
        1. Discussion 2.1 Degrees of freedom
      4. 2.2.4 Additive white noise
    3. 2.3 Time and frequency coherence
      1. 2.3.1 Doppler spread and coherence time
      2. 2.3.2 Delay spread and coherence bandwidth
    4. 2.4 Statistical channel models
      1. 2.4.1 Modeling philosophy
      2. 2.4.2 Rayleigh and Rician fading
      3. 2.4.3 Tap gain auto-correlation function
        1. Example 2.2 Clarke’s model
        2. Chapter 2 The main plot
    5. 2.5 Bibliographical notes
    6. 2.6 Exercises
  12. 3. Point-to-point communication: detection, diversity and channel uncertainty
    1. 3.1 Detection in a Rayleigh fading channel
      1. 3.1.1 Non-coherent detection
      2. 3.1.2 Coherent detection
      3. 3.1.3 From BPSK to QPSK: exploiting the degrees of freedom
      4. 3.1.4 Diversity
    2. 3.2 Time diversity
      1. 3.2.1 Repetition coding
      2. 3.2.2 Beyond repetition coding
        1. Summary 3.1 Time diversity code design criterion
        2. Example 3.1 Time diversity in GSM
    3. 3.3 Antenna diversity
      1. 3.3.1 Receive diversity
      2. 3.3.2 Transmit diversity: space-time codes
      3. 3.3.3 MIMO: a 2 × 2 example
        1. Summary 3.2 2 × 2 MIMO schemes
    4. 3.4 Frequency diversity
      1. 3.4.1 Basic concept
      2. 3.4.2 Single-carrier with ISI equalization
      3. 3.4.3 Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
      4. 3.4.4 Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
        1. Summary 3.3 Communication over frequency-selective channels
    5. 3.5 Impact of channel uncertainty
      1. 3.5.1 Non-coherent detection for DS spread-spectrum
      2. 3.5.2 Channel estimation
      3. 3.5.3 Other diversity scenarios
        1. Chapter 3 The main plot
    6. 3.6 Bibliographical notes
    7. 3.7 Exercises
  13. 4. Cellular systems: multiple access and interference management
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Narrowband cellular systems
      1. 4.2.1 Narrowband allocations: GSM system
      2. 4.2.2 Impact on network and system design
      3. 4.2.3 Impact on frequency reuse
        1. Summary 4.1 Narrowband systems
    3. 4.3 Wideband systems: CDMA
      1. 4.3.1 CDMA uplink
      2. 4.3.2 CDMA downlink
      3. 4.3.3 System issues
        1. Summary 4.2 CDMA
    4. 4.4 Wideband systems: OFDM
      1. 4.4.1 Allocation design principles
      2. 4.4.2 Hopping pattern
      3. 4.4.3 Signal characteristics and receiver design
      4. 4.4.4 Sectorization
        1. Example 4.1 Flash-OFDM
        2. Chapter 4 The main plot
    5. 4.5 Bibliographical notes
    6. 4.6 Exercises
  14. 5. Capacity of wireless channels
    1. 5.1 AWGN channel capacity
      1. 5.1.1 Repetition coding
      2. 5.1.2 Packing spheres
        1. Discussion 5.1 Capacity-achieving AWGN channel codes
        2. Summary 5.1 Reliable rate of communication and capacity
    2. 5.2 Resources of the AWGN channel
      1. 5.2.1 Continuous-time AWGN channel
      2. 5.2.2 Power and bandwidth
        1. Example 5.2 Bandwidth reuse in cellular systems
    3. 5.3 Linear time-invariant Gaussian channels
      1. 5.3.1 Single input multiple output (SIMO) channel
      2. 5.3.2 Multiple input single output (MISO) channel
      3. 5.3.3 Frequency-selective channel
    4. 5.4 Capacity of fading channels
      1. 5.4.1 Slow fading channel
      2. 5.4.2 Receive diversity
      3. 5.4.3 Transmit diversity
        1. Summary 5.2 Transmit and recieve diversity
      4. 5.4.4 Time and frequency diversity
        1. Summary 5.3 Outage for parallel channels
      5. 5.4.5 Fast fading channel
      6. 5.4.6 Transmitter side information
        1. Example 5.3 Rate adaptation in IS-856
      7. 5.4.7 Frequency-selective fading channels
      8. 5.4.8 Summary: a shift in point of view
        1. Chapter 5 The main plot
    5. 5.5 Bibliographical notes
    6. 5.6 Exercises
  15. 6. Multiuser capacity and opportunistic communication
    1. 6.1 Uplink AWGN channel
      1. 6.1.1 Capacity via successive interference cancellation
      2. 6.1.2 Comparison with conventional CDMA
      3. 6.1.3 Comparison with orthogonal multiple access
      4. 6.1.4 General K-user uplink capacity
    2. 6.2 Downlink AWGN channel
      1. 6.2.1 Symmetric case: two capacity-achieving schemes
      2. 6.2.2 General case: superposition coding achieves capacity
        1. Summary 6.1 Uplink and downlink AWGN capacity
        2. Discussion 6.1 SIC: implementation issues
    3. 6.3 Uplink fading channel
      1. 6.3.1 Slow fading channel
      2. 6.3.2 Fast fading channel
      3. 6.3.3 Full channel side information
        1. Summary 6.2 Uplink fading channel
    4. 6.4 Downlink fading channel
      1. 6.4.1 Channel side information at receiver only
      2. 6.4.2 Full channel side information
    5. 6.5 Frequency-selective fading channels
    6. 6.6 Multiuser diversity
      1. 6.6.1 Multiuser diversity gain
      2. 6.6.2 Multiuser versus classical diversity
    7. 6.7 Multiuser diversity: system aspects
      1. 6.7.1 Fair scheduling and multiuser diversity
      2. 6.7.2 Channel prediction and feedback
      3. 6.7.3 Opportunistic beamforming using dumb antennas
      4. 6.7.4 Multiuser diversity in multicell systems
      5. 6.7.5 A system view
        1. Chapter 6 The main plot
    8. 6.8 Bibliographical notes
    9. 6.9 Exercises
  16. 7. MIMO I: spatial multiplexing and channel modeling
    1. 7.1 Multiplexing capability of deterministic MIMO channels
      1. 7.1.1 Capacity via singular value decomposition
      2. 7.1.2 Rank and condition number
    2. 7.2 Physical modeling of MIMO channels
      1. 7.2.1 Line-of-sight SIMO channel
      2. 7.2.2 Line-of-sight MISO channel
      3. 7.2.3 Antenna arrays with only a line-of-sight path
      4. 7.2.4 Geographically separated antennas
      5. 7.2.5 Line-of-sight plus one reflected path
        1. Summary 7.1 Multiplexing capability of MIMO channels
    3. 7.3 Modeling of MIMO fading channels
      1. 7.3.1 Basic approach
      2. 7.3.2 MIMO multipath channel
      3. 7.3.3 Angular domain representation of signals
      4. 7.3.4 Angular domain representation of MIMO channels
      5. 7.3.5 Statistical modeling in the angular domain
      6. 7.3.6 Degrees of freedom and diversity
        1. Example 7.1 Degrees of freedom in clustered response models
      7. 7.3.7 Dependency on antenna spacing
      8. 7.3.8 I.i.d. Rayleigh fading model
        1. Chapter 7 The main plot
    4. 7.4 Bibliographical notes
    5. 7.5 Exercises
  17. 8. MIMO II: capacity and multiplexing architectures
    1. 8.1 The V-BLAST architecture
    2. 8.2 Fast fading MIMO channel
      1. 8.2.1 Capacity with CSI at receiver
      2. 8.2.2 Performance gains
      3. 8.2.3 Full CSI
        1. Summary 8.1 Performance gains in a MIMO channel
    3. 8.3 Receiver architectures
      1. 8.3.1 Linear decorrelator
      2. 8.3.2 Successive cancellation
      3. 8.3.3 Linear MMSE receiver
      4. 8.3.4 Information theoretic optimality
        1. Discussion 8.1 Connections with CDMA multiuser detection and ISI equalization
    4. 8.4 Slow fading MIMO channel
    5. 8.5 D-BLAST: an outage-optimal architecture
      1. 8.5.1 Suboptimality of V-BLAST
      2. 8.5.2 Coding across transmit antennas: D-BLAST
      3. 8.5.3 Discussion
        1. Chapter 8 The main plot
    6. 8.6 Bibliographical notes
    7. 8.7 Exercises
  18. 9. MIMO III: diversity–multiplexing tradeoff and universal space-time codes
    1. 9.1 Diversity–multiplexing tradeoff
      1. 9.1.1 Formulation
      2. 9.1.2 Scalar Rayleigh channel
      3. 9.1.3 Parallel Rayleigh channel
      4. 9.1.4 MISO Rayleigh channel
      5. 9.1.5 2 × 2 MIMO Rayleigh channel
      6. 9.1.6 n[sub(t)] × n[sub(r)] MIMO i.i.d. Rayleigh channel
    2. 9.2 Universal code design for optimal diversity–multiplexing tradeoff
      1. 9.2.1 QAM is approximately universal for scalar channels
        1. Summary 9.1 Approximate universality
      2. 9.2.2 Universal code design for parallel channels
        1. Summary 9.2 Universal codes for the parallel channel
      3. 9.2.3 Universal code design for MISO channels
        1. Summary 9.3 Universal codes for the MISO channel
      4. 9.2.4 Universal code design for MIMO channels
        1. Discussion 9.1 Universal codes in the downlink
        2. Chapter 9 The main plot
    3. 9.3 Bibliographical notes
    4. 9.4 Exercises
  19. 10. MIMO IV: multiuser communication
    1. 10.1 Uplink with multiple receive antennas
      1. 10.1.1 Space-division multiple access
      2. 10.1.2 SDMA capacity region
      3. 10.1.3 System implications
        1. Summary 10.1 SDMA and orthogonal multiple access
      4. 10.1.4 Slow fading
      5. 10.1.5 Fast fading
      6. 10.1.6 Multiuser diversity revisited
        1. Summary 10.2 Opportunistic communication and multiple receive antennas
    2. 10.2 MIMO uplink
      1. 10.2.1 SDMA with multiple transmit antennas
      2. 10.2.2 System implications
      3. 10.2.3 Fast fading
    3. 10.3 Downlink with multiple transmit antennas
      1. 10.3.1 Degrees of freedom in the downlink
      2. 10.3.2 Uplink–downlink duality and transmit beamforming
      3. 10.3.3 Precoding for interference known at transmitter
      4. 10.3.4 Precoding for the downlink
      5. 10.3.5 Fast fading
    4. 10.4 MIMO downlink
    5. 10.5 Multiple antennas in cellular networks: a system view
      1. Summary 10.3 System implications of multiple antennas on multiple access
      2. 10.5.1 Inter-cell interference management
      3. 10.5.2 Uplink with multiple receive antennas
      4. 10.5.3 MIMO uplink
      5. 10.5.4 Downlink with multiple receive antennas
      6. 10.5.5 Downlink with multiple transmit antennas
        1. Example 10.1 SDMA in ArrayComm systems
        2. Chapter 10 The main plot
    6. 10.6 Bibliographical notes
    7. 10.7 Exercises
  20. Appendix A: Detection and estimation in additive Gaussian noise
    1. A.1 Gaussian random variables
      1. A.1.1 Scalar real Gaussian random variables
      2. A.1.2 Real Gaussian random vectors
      3. A.1.3 Complex Gaussian random vectors
        1. Summary A.1 Complex Gaussian random vectors
    2. A.2 Detection in Gaussian noise
      1. A.2.1 Scalar detection
      2. A.2.2 Detection in a vector space
      3. A.2.3 Detection in a complex vector space
        1. Summary A.2 Vector detection in complex Gaussian noise
    3. A.3 Estimation in Gaussian noise
      1. A.3.1 Scalar estimation
      2. A.3.2 Estimation in a vector space
      3. A.3.3 Estimation in a complex vector space
        1. Summary A.3 Mean square estimation in a complex vector space
    4. A.4 Exercises
  21. Appendix B: Information theory from first principles
    1. B.1 Discrete memoryless channels
      1. Example B.1 Binary symmetric channel
      2. Example B.2 Binary erasure channel
    2. B.2 Entropy, conditional entropy and mutual information
      1. Example B.3 Binary entropy
    3. B.3 Noisy channel coding theorem
      1. B.3.1 Reliable communication and conditional entropy
      2. B.3.2 A simple upper bound
      3. B.3.3 Achieving the upper bound
        1. Example B.4 Binary symmetric channel
        2. Example B.5 Binary erasure channel
      4. B.3.4 Operational interpretation
    4. B.4 Formal derivation of AWGN capacity
      1. B.4.1 Analog memoryless channels
      2. B.4.2 Derivation of AWGN capacity
    5. B.5 Sphere-packing interpretation
      1. B.5.1 Upper bound
      2. B.5.2 Achievability
    6. B.6 Time-invariant parallel channel
    7. B.7 Capacity of the fast fading channel
      1. B.7.1 Scalar fast fading channel
      2. B.7.2 Fast fading MIMO channel
    8. B.8 Outage formulation
    9. B.9 Multiple access channel
      1. B.9.1 Capacity region
      2. B.9.2 Corner points of the capacity region
      3. B.9.3 Fast fading uplink
    10. B.10 Exercises
  22. References
  23. Index