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Fundamentals of Physics

Book Description

No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics!

Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

* Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students)

* Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers

* 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter

* Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error

* The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter

* Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students

The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Titlepage
  3. Copyright
  4. Brief Contents
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1 Measurement
    1. 1-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 1-2 Measuring Things
    3. 1-3 The International System of Units
    4. 1-4 Changing Units
    5. 1-5 Length
    6. 1-6 Time
    7. 1-7 Mass
    8. Review & Summary
    9. Problems
  8. Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line
    1. 2-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 2-2 Motion
    3. 2-3 Position and Displacement
    4. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed
    5. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
    6. 2-6 Acceleration
    7. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case
    8. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration
    9. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration
    10. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis
    11. Review & Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Problems
  9. Chapter 3 Vectors
    1. 3-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 3-2 Vectors and Scalars
    3. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically
    4. 3-4 Components of Vectors
    5. 3-5 Unit Vectors
    6. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components
    7. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics
    8. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors
    9. Review & Summary
    10. Questions
    11. Problems
  10. Chapter 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
    1. 4-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 4-2 Position and Displacement
    3. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
    4. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration
    5. 4-5 Projectile Motion
    6. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed
    7. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion
    8. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension
    9. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  11. Chapter 5 Force and Motion—I
    1. 5-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics
    3. 5-3 Newton’s First Law
    4. 5-4 Force
    5. 5-5 Mass
    6. 5-6 Newton’s Second Law
    7. 5-7 Some Particular Forces
    8. 5-8 Newton’s Third Law
    9. 5-9 Applying Newton’s Laws
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  12. Chapter 6 Force and Motion—II
    1. 6-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 6-2 Friction
    3. 6-3 Properties of Friction
    4. 6-4 The Drag Force and Terminal Speed
    5. 6-5 Uniform Circular Motion
    6. Review & Summary
    7. Questions
    8. Problems
  13. Chapter 7 Kinetic Energy and Work
    1. 7-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 7-2 What Is Energy?
    3. 7-3 Kinetic Energy
    4. 7-4 Work
    5. 7-5 Work and Kinetic Energy
    6. 7-6 Work Done by the Gravitational Force
    7. 7-7 Work Done by a Spring Force
    8. 7-8 Work Done by a General Variable Force
    9. 7-9 Power
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  14. Chapter 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
    1. 8-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 8-2 Work and Potential Energy
    3. 8-3 Path Independence of Conservative Forces
    4. 8-4 Determining Potential Energy Values
    5. 8-5 Conservation of Mechanical Energy
    6. 8-6 Reading a Potential Energy Curve
    7. 8-7 Work Done on a System by an External Force
    8. 8-8 Conservation of Energy
    9. Review & Summary
    10. Questions
    11. Problems
  15. Chapter 9 Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
    1. 9-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 9-2 The Center of Mass
    3. 9-3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles
    4. 9-4 Linear Momentum
    5. 9-5 The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
    6. 9-6 Collision and Impulse
    7. 9-7 Conservation of Linear Momentum
    8. 9-8 Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions
    9. 9-9 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    10. 9-10 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    11. 9-11 Collisions in Two Dimensions
    12. 9-12 Systems with Varying Mass: A Rocket
    13. Review & Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  16. Chapter 10 Rotation
    1. 10-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 10-2 The Rotational Variables
    3. 10-3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors?
    4. 10-4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
    5. 10-5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables
    6. 10-6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation
    7. 10-7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia
    8. 10-8 Torque
    9. 10-9 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
    10. 10-10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy
    11. Review & Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Problems
  17. Chapter 11 Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum
    1. 11-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 11-2 Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined
    3. 11-3 The Kinetic Energy of Rolling
    4. 11-4 The Forces of Rolling
    5. 11-5 The Yo-Yo
    6. 11-6 Torque Revisited
    7. 11-7 Angular Momentum
    8. 11-8 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form
    9. 11-9 The Angular Momentum of a System of Particles
    10. 11-10 The Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis
    11. 11-11 Conservation of Angular Momentum
    12. 11-12 Precession of a Gyroscope
    13. Review & Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  18. Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity
    1. 12-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 12-2 Equilibrium
    3. 12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium
    4. 12-4 The Center of Gravity
    5. 12-5 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium
    6. 12-6 Indeterminate Structures
    7. 12-7 Elasticity
    8. Review & Summary
    9. Questions
    10. Problems
  19. Chapter 13 Gravitation
    1. 13-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 13-2 Newton’s Law of Gravitation
    3. 13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition
    4. 13-4 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface
    5. 13-5 Gravitation Inside Earth
    6. 13-6 Gravitational Potential Energy
    7. 13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws
    8. 13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Energy
    9. 13-9 Einstein and Gravitation
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  20. Chapter 14 Fluids
    1. 14-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 14-2 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 14-3 Density and Pressure
    4. 14-4 Fluids at Rest
    5. 14-5 Measuring Pressure
    6. 14-6 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 14-7 Archimedes’ Principle
    8. 14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion
    9. 14-9 The Equation of Continuity
    10. 14-10 Bernoulli’s Equation
    11. Review & Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Problems
  21. Chapter 15 Oscillations
    1. 15-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion
    3. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
    4. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
    5. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    6. 15-6 Pendulums
    7. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
    8. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
    9. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  22. Chapter 16 Waves—I
    1. 16-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 16-2 Types of Waves
    3. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
    4. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency
    5. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave
    6. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
    7. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String
    8. 16-8 The Wave Equation
    9. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition for Waves
    10. 16-10 Interference of Waves
    11. 16-11 Phasors
    12. 16-12 Standing Waves
    13. 16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance
    14. Review & Summary
    15. Questions
    16. Problems
  23. Chapter 17 Waves—II
    1. 17-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 17-2 Sound Waves
    3. 17-3 The Speed of Sound
    4. 17-4 Traveling Sound Waves
    5. 17-5 Interference
    6. 17-6 Intensity and Sound Level
    7. 17-7 Sources of Musical Sound
    8. 17-8 Beats
    9. 17-9 The Doppler Effect
    10. 17-10 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves
    11. Review & Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Problems
  24. Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
    1. 18-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 18-2 Temperature
    3. 18-3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
    4. 18-4 Measuring Temperature
    5. 18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales
    6. 18-6 Thermal Expansion
    7. 18-7 Temperature and Heat
    8. 18-8 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids
    9. 18-9 A Closer Look at Heat and Work
    10. 18-10 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    11. 18-11 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics
    12. 18-12 Heat Transfer Mechanisms
    13. Review & Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  25. Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
    1. 19-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 19-2 Avogadro’s Number
    3. 19-3 Ideal Gases
    4. 19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
    5. 19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy
    6. 19-6 Mean Free Path
    7. 19-7 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds
    8. 19-8 The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas
    9. 19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats
    10. 19-10 A Hint of Quantum Theory
    11. 19-11 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas
    12. Review & Summary
    13. Questions
    14. Problems
  26. Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
    1. 20-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy
    3. 20-3 Change in Entropy
    4. 20-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    5. 20-5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines
    6. 20-6 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators
    7. 20-7 The Efficiencies of Real Engines
    8. 20-8 A Statistical View of Entropy
    9. Review & Summary
    10. Questions
    11. Problems
  27. Chapter 21 Electric Charge
    1. 21-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 21-2 Electric Charge
    3. 21-3 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 21-4 Coulomb’s Law
    5. 21-5 Charge Is Quantized
    6. 21-6 Charge Is Conserved
    7. Review & Summary
    8. Questions
    9. Problems
  28. Chapter 22 Electric Fields
    1. 22-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 22-2 The Electric Field
    3. 22-3 Electric Field Lines
    4. 22-4 The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge
    5. 22-5 The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole
    6. 22-6 The Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge
    7. 22-7 The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk
    8. 22-8 A Point Charge in an Electric Field
    9. 22-9 A Dipole in an Electric Field
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  29. Chapter 23 Gauss’ Law
    1. 23-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 23-2 Flux
    3. 23-3 Flux of an Electric Field
    4. 23-4 Gauss’ Law
    5. 23-5 Gauss’ Law and Coulomb’s Law
    6. 23-6 A Charged Isolated Conductor
    7. 23-7 Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry
    8. 23-8 Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry
    9. 23-9 Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  30. Chapter 24 Electric Potential
    1. 24-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 24-2 Electric Potential Energy
    3. 24-3 Electric Potential
    4. 24-4 Equipotential Surfaces
    5. 24-5 Calculating the Potential from the Field
    6. 24-6 Potential Due to a Point Charge
    7. 24-7 Potential Due to a Group of Point Charges
    8. 24-8 Potential Due to an Electric Dipole
    9. 24-9 Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution
    10. 24-10 Calculating the Field from the Potential
    11. 24-11 Electric Potential Energy of a System of Point Charges
    12. 24-12 Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor
    13. Review & Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  31. Chapter 25 Capacitance
    1. 25-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 25-2 Capacitance
    3. 25-3 Calculating the Capacitance
    4. 25-4 Capacitors in Parallel and in Series
    5. 25-5 Energy Stored in an Electric Field
    6. 25-6 Capacitor with a Dielectric
    7. 25-7 Dielectrics: An Atomic View
    8. 25-8 Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law
    9. Review & Summary
    10. Questions
    11. Problems
  32. Chapter 26 Current and Resistance
    1. 26-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 26-2 Electric Current
    3. 26-3 Current Density
    4. 26-4 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 26-5 Ohm’s Law
    6. 26-6 A Microscopic View of Ohm’s Law
    7. 26-7 Power in Electric Circuits
    8. 26-8 Semiconductors
    9. 26-9 Superconductors
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  33. Chapter 27 Circuits
    1. 27-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 27-2 “Pumping” Charges
    3. 27-3 Work, Energy, and Emf
    4. 27-4 Calculating the Current in a Single-Loop Circuit
    5. 27-5 Other Single-Loop Circuits
    6. 27-6 Potential Difference Between Two Points
    7. 27-7 Multiloop Circuits
    8. 27-8 The Ammeter and the Voltmeter
    9. 27-9 RC Circuits
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  34. Chapter 28 Magnetic Fields
    1. 28-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 28-2 What Produces a Magnetic Field?
    3. 28-3 The Definition of B
    4. 28-4 Crossed Fields: Discovery of the Electron
    5. 28-5 Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect
    6. 28-6 A Circulating Charged Particle
    7. 28-7 Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons
    8. 28-8 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire
    9. 28-9 Torque on a Current Loop
    10. 28-10 The Magnetic Dipole Moment
    11. Review & Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Problems
  35. Chapter 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents
    1. 29-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 29-2 Calculating the Magnetic Field Due to a Current
    3. 29-3 Force Between Two Parallel Currents
    4. 29-4 Ampere’s Law
    5. 29-5 Solenoids and Toroids
    6. 29-6 A Current-Carrying Coil as a Magnetic Dipole
    7. Review & Summary
    8. Questions
    9. Problems
  36. Chapter 30 Induction and Inductance
    1. 30-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 30-2 Two Experiments
    3. 30-3 Faraday’s Law of Induction
    4. 30-4 Lenz’s Law
    5. 30-5 Induction and Energy Transfers
    6. 30-6 Induced Electric Fields
    7. 30-7 Inductors and Inductance
    8. 30-8 Self-Induction
    9. 30-9 RL Circuits
    10. 30-10 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
    11. 30-11 Energy Density of a Magnetic Field
    12. 30-12 Mutual Induction
    13. Review & Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  37. Chapter 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current
    1. 31-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 31-2 LC Oscillations, Qualitatively
    3. 31-3 The Electrical–Mechanical Analogy
    4. 31-4 LC Oscillations, Quantitatively
    5. 31-5 Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit
    6. 31-6 Alternating Current
    7. 31-7 Forced Oscillations
    8. 31-8 Three Simple Circuits
    9. 31-9 The Series RLC Circuit
    10. 31-10 Power in Alternating-Current Circuits
    11. 31-11 Transformers
    12. Review & Summary
    13. Questions
    14. Problems
  38. Chapter 32 Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism of Matter
    1. 32-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 32-2 Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields
    3. 32-3 Induced Magnetic Fields
    4. 32-4 Displacement Current
    5. 32-5 Maxwell’s Equations
    6. 32-6 Magnets
    7. 32-7 Magnetism and Electrons
    8. 32-8 Magnetic Materials
    9. 32-9 Diamagnetism
    10. 32-10 Paramagnetism
    11. 32-11 Ferromagnetism
    12. Review & Summary
    13. Questions
    14. Problems
  39. Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. 33-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 33-2 Maxwell’s Rainbow
    3. 33-3 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Qualitatively
    4. 33-4 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Quantitatively
    5. 33-5 Energy Transport and the Poynting Vector
    6. 33-6 Radiation Pressure
    7. 33-7 Polarization
    8. 33-8 Reflection and Refraction
    9. 33-9 Total Internal Reflection
    10. 33-10 Polarization by Reflection
    11. Review & Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Problems
  40. Chapter 34 Images
    1. 34-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 34-2 Two Types of Image
    3. 34-3 Plane Mirrors
    4. 34-4 Spherical Mirrors
    5. 34-5 Images from Spherical Mirrors
    6. 34-6 Spherical Refracting Surfaces
    7. 34-7 Thin Lenses
    8. 34-8 Optical Instruments
    9. 34-9 Three Proofs
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  41. Chapter 35 Interference
    1. 35-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 35-2 Light as a Wave
    3. 35-3 Diffraction
    4. 35-4 Young’s Interference Experiment
    5. 35-5 Coherence
    6. 35-6 Intensity in Double-Slit Interference
    7. 35-7 Interference from Thin Films
    8. 35-8 Michelson’s Interferometer
    9. Review & Summary
    10. Questions
    11. Problems
  42. Chapter 36 Diffraction
    1. 36-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 36-2 Diffraction and the Wave Theory of Light
    3. 36-3 Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima
    4. 36-4 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Qualitatively
    5. 36-5 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Quantitatively
    6. 36-6 Diffraction by a Circular Aperture
    7. 36-7 Diffraction by a Double Slit
    8. 36-8 Diffraction Gratings
    9. 36-9 Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power
    10. 36-10 X-Ray Diffraction
    11. Review & Summary
    12. Questions
    13. Problems
  43. Chapter 37 Relativity
    1. 37-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 37-2 The Postulates
    3. 37-3 Measuring an Event
    4. 37-4 The Relativity of Simultaneity
    5. 37-5 The Relativity of Time
    6. 37-6 The Relativity of Length
    7. 37-7 The Lorentz Transformation
    8. 37-8 Some Consequences of the Lorentz Equations
    9. 37-9 The Relativity of Velocities
    10. 37-10 Doppler Effect for Light
    11. 37-11 A New Look at Momentum
    12. 37-12 A New Look at Energy
    13. Review & Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  44. Chapter 38 Photons and Matter Waves
    1. 38-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 38-2 The Photon, the Quantum of Light
    3. 38-3 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 38-4 Photons Have Momentum
    5. 38-5 Light as a Probability Wave
    6. 38-6 Electrons and Matter Waves
    7. 38-7 Schrödinger’s Equation
    8. 38-8 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
    9. 38-9 Barrier Tunneling
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  45. Chapter 39 More About Matter Waves
    1. 39-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 39-2 String Waves and Matter Waves
    3. 39-3 Energies of a Trapped Electron
    4. 39-4 Wave Functions of a Trapped Electron
    5. 39-5 An Electron in a Finite Well
    6. 39-6 More Electron Traps
    7. 39-7 Two- and Three-Dimensional Electron Traps
    8. 39-8 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
    9. 39-9 Schrödinger’s Equation and the Hydrogen Atom
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  46. Chapter 40 All About Atoms
    1. 40-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 40-2 Some Properties of Atoms
    3. 40-3 Electron Spin
    4. 40-4 Angular Momenta and Magnetic Dipole Moments
    5. 40-5 The Stern–Gerlach Experiment
    6. 40-6 Magnetic Resonance
    7. 40-7 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    8. 40-8 Multiple Electrons in Rectangular Traps
    9. 40-9 Building the Periodic Table
    10. 40-10 X Rays and the Ordering of the Elements
    11. 40-11 Lasers and Laser Light
    12. 40-12 How Lasers Work
    13. Review & Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  47. Chapter 41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids
    1. 41-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 41-2 The Electrical Properties of Solids
    3. 41-3 Energy Levels in a Crystalline Solid
    4. 41-4 Insulators
    5. 41-5 Metals
    6. 41-6 Semiconductors
    7. 41-7 Doped Semiconductors
    8. 41-8 The p-n Junction
    9. 41-9 The Junction Rectifier
    10. 41-10 The Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
    11. 41-11 The Transistor
    12. Review & Summary
    13. Questions
    14. Problems
  48. Chapter 42 Nuclear Physics
    1. 42-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 42-2 Discovering the Nucleus
    3. 42-3 Some Nuclear Properties
    4. 42-4 Radioactive Decay
    5. 42-5 Alpha Decay
    6. 42-6 Beta Decay
    7. 42-7 Radioactive Dating
    8. 42-8 Measuring Radiation Dosage
    9. 42-9 Nuclear Models
    10. Review & Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  49. Chapter 43 Energy from the Nucleus
    1. 43-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 43-2 Nuclear Fission: The Basic Process
    3. 43-3 A Model for Nuclear Fission
    4. 43-4 The Nuclear Reactor
    5. 43-5 A Natural Nuclear Reaction
    6. 43-6 Thermonuclear Fusion: The Basic Process
    7. 43-7 Thermonuclear Fusion in the Sun and Other Stars
    8. 43-8 Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion
    9. Review & Summary
    10. Questions
    11. Problems
  50. Chapter 44 Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang
    1. 44-1 What Is Physics?
    2. 44-2 Particles, Particles, Particles
    3. 44-3 An Interlude
    4. 44-4 The Leptons
    5. 44-5 The Hadrons
    6. 44-6 Still Another Conservation Law
    7. 44-7 The Eightfold Way
    8. 44-8 The Quark Model
    9. 44-9 The Basic Forces and Messenger Particles
    10. 44-10 A Pause for Reflection
    11. 44-11 The Universe Is Expanding
    12. 44-12 The Cosmic Background Radiation
    13. 44-13 Dark Matter
    14. 44-14 The Big Bang
    15. 44-15 A Summing Up
    16. Review & Summary
    17. Questions
    18. Problems
  51. Appendices
    1. A The International System of Units (SI)
    2. B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics
    3. C Some Astronomical Data
    4. D Conversion Factors
    5. E Mathematical Formulas
    6. F Properties of the Elements
    7. G Periodic Table of the Elements
  52. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems
  53. Index