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Fundamentals of Microelectronics, 2nd Edition

Book Description

By helping students develop an intuitive understanding of the subject, Fundamentals of Microelectronics teaches them to think like engineers.

The second edition of Razavi's Fundamentals of Microelectronics retains its hallmark emphasis on analysis by inspection and building students' design intuition. It incorporates a host of new pedagogical features that make the book easy to teach and learn from, including application sidebars; self-check problems with answers; simulation problems with SPICE and MULTISIM; and an expanded problem set that is organized by degree of difficulty and clearly associated with specific chapter sections.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Titlepage
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Preface to First Edition
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Suggestions for Students
  9. Suggestions for Instructors
  10. Contents
  11. 1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROELECTRONICS
    1. 1.1 Electronics versus Microelectronics
    2. 1.2 Examples of Electronic Systems
      1. 1.2.1 Cellular Telephone
      2. 1.2.2 Digital Camera
      3. 1.2.3 Analog Versus Digital
    3. 1.3 Basic Concepts
      1. 1.3.1 Analog and Digital Signals
      2. 1.3.2 Analog Circuits
      3. 1.3.3 Digital Circuits
      4. 1.3.4 Basic Circuit Theorems
    4. 1.4 Chapter Summary
  12. 2 BASIC PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS
    1. 2.1 Semiconductor Materials and Their Properties
      1. 2.1.1 Charge Carriers in Solids
      2. 2.1.2 Modification of Carrier Densities
      3. 2.1.3 Transport of Carriers
    2. 2.2 pn Junction
      1. 2.2.1 pn Junction in Equilibrium
      2. 2.2.2 pn Junction Under Reverse Bias
      3. 2.2.3 pn Junction Under Forward Bias
      4. 2.2.4 I/V Characteristics
    3. 2.3 Reverse Breakdown
      1. 2.3.1 Zener Breakdown
      2. 2.3.2 Avalanche Breakdown
    4. 2.4 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  13. 3 DIODE MODELS AND CIRCUITS
    1. 3.1 Ideal Diode
      1. 3.1.1 Initial Thoughts
      2. 3.1.2 Ideal Diode
      3. 3.1.3 Application Examples
    2. 3.2 pn Junction as a Diode
    3. 3.3 Additional Examples
    4. 3.4 Large-Signal and Small-Signal Operation
    5. 3.5 Applications of Diodes
      1. 3.5.1 Half-Wave and Full-Wave Rectifiers
      2. 3.5.2 Voltage Regulation
      3. 3.5.3 Limiting Circuits
      4. 3.5.4 Voltage Doublers
      5. 3.5.5 Diodes as Level Shifters and Switches
    6. 3.6 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  14. 4 PHYSICS OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS
    1. 4.1 General Considerations
    2. 4.2 Structure of Bipolar Transistor
    3. 4.3 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Active Mode
      1. 4.3.1 Collector Current
      2. 4.3.2 Base and Emitter Currents
    4. 4.4 Bipolar Transistor Models and Characteristics
      1. 4.4.1 Large-Signal Model
      2. 4.4.2 I/V Characteristics
      3. 4.4.3 Concept of Transconductance
      4. 4.4.4 Small-Signal Model
      5. 4.4.5 Early Effect
    5. 4.5 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Saturation Mode
    6. 4.6 The PNP Transistor
      1. 4.6.1 Structure and Operation
      2. 4.6.2 Large-Signal Model
      3. 4.6.3 Small-Signal Model
    7. 4.7 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  15. 5 BIPOLAR AMPLIFIERS
    1. 5.1 General Considerations
      1. 5.1.1 Input and Output Impedances
      2. 5.1.2 Biasing
      3. 5.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis
    2. 5.2 Operating Point Analysis and Design
      1. 5.2.1 Simple Biasing
      2. 5.2.2 Resistive Divider Biasing
      3. 5.2.3 Biasing with Emitter Degeneration
      4. 5.2.4 Self-Biased Stage
      5. 5.2.5 Biasing of PNP Transistors
    3. 5.3 Bipolar Amplifier Topologies
      1. 5.3.1 Common-Emitter Topology
      2. 5.3.2 Common-Base Topology
      3. 5.3.3 Emitter Follower
    4. 5.4 Summary and Additional Examples
    5. 5.5 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  16. 6 PHYSICS OF MOS TRANSISTORS
    1. 6.1 Structure of MOSFET
    2. 6.2 Operation of MOSFET
      1. 6.2.1 Qualitative Analysis
      2. 6.2.2 Derivation of I-V Characteristics
      3. 6.2.3 Channel-Length Modulation
      4. 6.2.4 MOS Transconductance
      5. 6.2.5 Velocity Saturation
      6. 6.2.6 Other Second-Order Effects
    3. 6.3 MOS Device Models
      1. 6.3.1 Large-Signal Model
      2. 6.3.2 Small-Signal Model
    4. 6.4 PMOS Transistor
    5. 6.5 CMOS Technology
    6. 6.6 Comparison of Bipolar and MOS Devices
    7. 6.7 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  17. 7 CMOS AMPLIFIERS
    1. 7.1 General Considerations
      1. 7.1.1 MOS Amplifier Topologies
      2. 7.1.2 Biasing
      3. 7.1.3 Realization of Current Sources
    2. 7.2 Common-Source Stage
      1. 7.2.1 CS Core
      2. 7.2.2 CS Stage with Current-Source Load
      3. 7.2.3 CS Stage with Diode-Connected Load
      4. 7.2.4 CS Stage with Degeneration
      5. 7.2.5 CS Core with Biasing
    3. 7.3 Common-Gate Stage
      1. 7.3.1 CG Stage with Biasing
    4. 7.4 Source Follower
      1. 7.4.1 Source Follower Core
      2. 7.4.2 Source Follower with Biasing
    5. 7.5 Summary and Additional Examples
    6. 7.6 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  18. 8 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AS A BLACK BOX
    1. 8.1 General Considerations
    2. 8.2 Op-Amp-Based Circuits
      1. 8.2.1 Noninverting Amplifier
      2. 8.2.2 Inverting Amplifier
      3. 8.2.3 Integrator and Differentiator
      4. 8.2.4 Voltage Adder
    3. 8.3 Nonlinear Functions
      1. 8.3.1 Precision Rectifier
      2. 8.3.2 Logarithmic Amplifier
      3. 8.3.3 Square-Root Amplifier
    4. 8.4 Op Amp Nonidealities
      1. 8.4.1 DC Offsets
      2. 8.4.2 Input Bias Current
      3. 8.4.3 Speed Limitations
      4. 8.4.4 Finite Input and Output Impedances
    5. 8.5 Design Examples
    6. 8.6 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  19. 9 CASCODE STAGES AND CURRENT MIRRORS
    1. 9.1 Cascode Stage
      1. 9.1.1 Cascode as a Current Source
      2. 9.1.2 Cascode as an Amplifier
    2. 9.2 Current Mirrors
      1. 9.2.1 Initial Thoughts
      2. 9.2.2 Bipolar Current Mirror
      3. 9.2.3 MOS Current Mirror
    3. 9.3 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  20. 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS
    1. 10.1 General Considerations
      1. 10.1.1 Initial Thoughts
      2. 10.1.2 Differential Signals
      3. 10.1.3 Differential Pair
    2. 10.2 Bipolar Differential Pair
      1. 10.2.1 Qualitative Analysis
      2. 10.2.2 Large-Signal Analysis
      3. 10.2.3 Small-Signal Analysis
    3. 10.3 MOS Differential Pair
      1. 10.3.1 Qualitative Analysis
      2. 10.3.2 Large-Signal Analysis
      3. 10.3.3 Small-Signal Analysis
    4. 10.4 Cascode Differential Amplifiers
    5. 10.5 Common-Mode Rejection
    6. 10.6 Differential Pair with Active Load
      1. 10.6.1 Qualitative Analysis
      2. 10.6.2 Quantitative Analysis
    7. 10.7 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  21. 11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE
    1. 11.1 Fundamental Concepts
      1. 11.1.1 General Considerations
      2. 11.1.2 Relationship Between Transfer Function and Frequency Response
      3. 11.1.3 Bode’s Rules
      4. 11.1.4 Association of Poles with Nodes
      5. 11.1.5 Miller’s Theorem
      6. 11.1.6 General Frequency Response
    2. 11.2 High-Frequency Models of Transistors
      1. 11.2.1 High-Frequency Model of Bipolar Transistor
      2. 11.2.2 High-Frequency Model of MOSFET
      3. 11.2.3 Transit Frequency
    3. 11.3 Analysis Procedure
    4. 11.4 Frequency Response of CE and CS Stages
      1. 11.4.1 Low-Frequency Response
      2. 11.4.2 High-Frequency Response
      3. 11.4.3 Use of Miller’s Theorem
      4. 11.4.4 Direct Analysis
      5. 11.4.5 Input Impedance
    5. 11.5 Frequency Response of CB and CG Stages
      1. 11.5.1 Low-Frequency Response
      2. 11.5.2 High-Frequency Response
    6. 11.6 Frequency Response of Followers
      1. 11.6.1 Input and Output Impedances
    7. 11.7 Frequency Response of Cascode Stage
      1. 11.7.1 Input and Output Impedances
    8. 11.8 Frequency Response of Differential Pairs
      1. 11.8.1 Common-Mode Frequency Response
    9. 11.9 Additional Examples
    10. 11.10 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  22. 12 FEEDBACK
    1. 12.1 General Considerations
      1. 12.1.1 Loop Gain
    2. 12.2 Properties of Negative Feedback
      1. 12.2.1 Gain Desensitization
      2. 12.2.2 Bandwidth Extension
      3. 12.2.3 Modification of I/O Impedances
      4. 12.2.4 Linearity Improvement
    3. 12.3 Types of Amplifiers
      1. 12.3.1 Simple Amplifier Models
      2. 12.3.2 Examples of Amplifier Types
    4. 12.4 Sense and Return Techniques
    5. 12.5 Polarity of Feedback
    6. 12.6 Feedback Topologies
      1. 12.6.1 Voltage-Voltage Feedback
      2. 12.6.2 Voltage-Current Feedback
      3. 12.6.3 Current-Voltage Feedback
      4. 12.6.4 Current-Current Feedback
    7. 12.7 Effect of Nonideal I/O Impedances
      1. 12.7.1 Inclusion of I/O Effects
    8. 12.8 Stability in Feedback Systems
      1. 12.8.1 Review of Bode’s Rules
      2. 12.8.2 Problem of Instability
      3. 12.8.3 Stability Condition
      4. 12.8.4 Phase Margin
      5. 12.8.5 Frequency Compensation
      6. 12.8.6 Miller Compensation
    9. 12.9 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  23. 13 OSCILLATORS
    1. 13.1 General Considerations
    2. 13.2 Ring Oscillators
    3. 13.3 LC Oscillators
      1. 13.3.1 Parallel LC Tanks
      2. 13.3.2 Cross-Coupled Oscillator
      3. 13.3.3 Colpitts Oscillator
    4. 13.4 Phase Shift Oscillator
    5. 13.5 Wien-Bridge Oscillator
    6. 13.6 Crystal Oscillators
      1. 13.6.1 Crystal Model
      2. 13.6.2 Negative-Resistance Circuit
      3. 13.6.3 Crystal Oscillator Implementation
    7. 13.7 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  24. 14 OUTPUT STAGES AND POWER AMPLIFIERS
    1. 14.1 General Considerations
    2. 14.2 Emitter Follower as Power Amplifier
    3. 14.3 Push-Pull Stage
    4. 14.4 Improved Push-Pull Stage
      1. 14.4.1 Reduction of Crossover Distortion
      2. 14.4.2 Addition of CE Stage
    5. 14.5 Large-Signal Considerations
      1. 14.5.1 Biasing Issues
      2. 14.5.2 Omission of PNP Power Transistor
      3. 14.5.3 High-Fidelity Design
    6. 14.6 Short-Circuit Protection
    7. 14.7 Heat Dissipation
      1. 14.7.1 Emitter Follower Power Rating
      2. 14.7.2 Push-Pull Stage Power Rating
      3. 14.7.3 Thermal Runaway
    8. 14.8 Efficiency
      1. 14.8.1 Efficiency of Emitter Follower
      2. 14.8.2 Efficiency of Push-Pull Stage
    9. 14.9 Power Amplifier Classes
    10. 14.10 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  25. 15 ANALOG FILTERS
    1. 15.1 General Considerations
      1. 15.1.1 Filter Characteristics
      2. 15.1.2 Classification of Filters
      3. 15.1.3 Filter Transfer Function
      4. 15.1.4 Problem of Sensitivity
    2. 15.2 First-Order Filters
    3. 15.3 Second-Order Filters
      1. 15.3.1 Special Cases
      2. 15.3.2 RLC Realizations
    4. 15.4 Active Filters
      1. 15.4.1 Sallen and Key Filter
      2. 15.4.2 Integrator-Based Biquads
      3. 15.4.3 Biquads Using Simulated Inductors
    5. 15.5 Approximation of Filter Response
      1. 15.5.1 Butterworth Response
      2. 15.5.2 Chebyshev Response
    6. 15.6 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  26. 16 DIGITAL CMOS CIRCUITS
    1. 16.1 General Considerations
      1. 16.1.1 Static Characterization of Gates
      2. 16.1.2 Dynamic Characterization of Gates
      3. 16.1.3 Power-Speed Trade-Off
    2. 16.2 CMOS Inverter
      1. 16.2.1 Initial Thoughts
      2. 16.2.2 Voltage Transfer Characteristic
      3. 16.2.3 Dynamic Characteristics
      4. 16.2.4 Power Dissipation
    3. 16.3 CMOS NOR and NAND Gates
      1. 16.3.1 NOR Gate
      2. 16.3.2 NAND Gate
    4. 16.4 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  27. 17 CMOS AMPLIFIERS
    1. 17.1 General Considerations
      1. 17.1.1 Input and Output Impedances
      2. 17.1.2 Biasing
      3. 17.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis
    2. 17.2 Operating Point Analysis and Design
      1. 17.2.1 Simple Biasing
      2. 17.2.2 Biasing with Source Degeneration
      3. 17.2.3 Self-Biased Stage
      4. 17.2.4 Biasing of PMOS Transistors
      5. 17.2.5 Realization of Current Sources
    3. 17.3 CMOS Amplifier Topologies
    4. 17.4 Common-Source Topology
      1. 17.4.1 CS Stage with Current-Source Load
      2. 17.4.2 CS Stage with Diode-Connected Load
      3. 17.4.3 CS Stage with Source Degeneration
      4. 17.4.4 Common-Gate Topology
      5. 17.4.5 Source Follower
    5. 17.5 Additional Examples
    6. 17.6 Chapter Summary
      1. Problems
      2. SPICE Problems
  28. Appendix A INTRODUCTION TO SPICE
  29. Index