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Fundamentals of Instrumentation and Measurement

Book Description

This title presents the general principles of instrumentation processes. It explains the theoretical analysis of physical phenomena used by standard sensors and transducers to transform a physical value into an electrical signal. The pre-processing of these signals through electronic circuits - amplification, signal filtering and analog-to-digital conversion - is then detailed, in order to provide useful basic information.

Attention is then given to general complex systems. Topics covered include instrumentation and measurement chains, sensor modeling, digital signal processing and diagnostic methods and the concept of smart sensors, as well as microsystem design and applications. Numerous industrial examples punctuate the discussion, setting the subjects covered in the book in their practical context.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Introduction
  5. Chapter 1: Measurement Instrumentation
    1. 1.1. General introduction and definitions
    2. 1.2. The historical aspects of measurement
    3. 1.3. Terminology: measurement, instrumentation and metrology
    4. 1.4. MIM interactions: measurement-instrumentation-metrology
    5. 1.5. Instrumentation
    6. 1.6. Is a classification of instruments possible?
    7. 1.7. Instrument modeling
    8. 1.8. Characteristics of an instrument
    9. 1.9.Implementing measurement acquisition
    10. 1.10. Analyzing measurements obtained by an instrument
    11. 1.11. Partial conclusion
    12. 1.12. Electronic instrumentation
    13. 1.13. Electronic instrumentation functionality
    14. 1.14. The role of instrumentation in quality control
    15. 1.15. Conclusion
    16. 1.16. Appendix
    17. 1.17. Bibliography
  6. Chapter 2: General Principles of Sensors
    1. 2.1. General points
    2. 2.2. Metrological characteristics of sensors
    3. 2.3. Sensor calibration
    4. 2.4. Band pass and response time
    5. 2.5. Passive sensor conditioners
    6. 2.6. Conditioners for active sensors
    7. 2.7. Bibliography
  7. Chapter 3: Physical Principles of Optical, Thermal and Mechanical Sensors
    1. 3.1. Optical sensors
    2. 3.2. Force and deformation sensors
    3. 3.3. Thermal sensors
    4. 3.4. Bibliography
  8. Chapter 4: Analog Processing Associated with Sensorssss
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. The problem of electronic noise
    3. 4.3. Amplifiers
    4. 4.4 Bibliography
  9. Chapter 5: Analog Filters
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Technological constraints
    3. 5.3 Methods of analog filter calculation
    4. 5.4 Passive filter using inductors and capacitors
    5. 5.5 Active filters
    6. 5.6 Switched capacitor filters
    7. 5.7 Bibliography
  10. Chapter 6: Real-time Data Acquisition and Processing Systems
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Electronic devices for signal sampling and quantification
    3. 6.3 Analog-to-digital converters
    4. 6.4 Real-time digital analysis by a specialized processor
    5. 6.5 Conclusion
    6. 6.6 Bibliography
  11. Chapter 7: The Contribution of Microtechnologies
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Microtechnologies
    3. 7.3 Electronic architectures and the effects of miniaturization
    4. 7.4 Bibliography
  12. Chapter 8: Instruments and Measurement Chains
    1. 8.1. Measurement devices
    2. 8.2. Measurement chains
    3. 8.3. Bibliography
  13. Chapter 9: Elaboration of Models for the Interaction Between the Sensor and its Environment
    1. 9.1. Modeling a sensor’s interactions with its environment
    2. 9.2. Researching the parameters of a given model
    3. 9.3. Determining regression line coefficients
    4. 9.4. Example of a polynomial relation
    5. 9.5. A simple example
    6. 9.6. Examples of multivariable models
    7. 9.7. Dealing with constraints
    8. 9.8. Optimizing the search for a polynomial model
    9. 9.9. Bibliography
  14. Chapter 10: Representation and Analysis of Signals
    1. 10.1. Introduction
    2. 10.2. Analog processing chain
    3. 10.3. Digital processing chain
    4. 10.4. Linear digital filtering
    5. 10.5. Examples of digital processing
    6. 10.6. Frequency, time, time-frequency and wavelet analyses
    7. 10.7. A specific instance of multidimensional signals
    8. 10.8. Bibliography
  15. Chapter 11: Multi-sensor Systems: Diagnostics and Fusion
    1. 11.1. Introduction
    2. 11.2. Representation space: parametrization and selection
    3. 11.3. Signal classification
    4. 11.4. Data fusion
    5. 11.5. General conclusion
    6. 11.6. Bibliography
  16. Chapter 12: Intelligent Sensors
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Users’ needs and technological benefits of sensors
    3. 12.3 Processing and performances
    4. 12.4 Intelligent distance sensors in cars
    5. 12.5 Fieldbus networks
    6. 12.6 Towards a system approach
    7. 12.7 Perspectives and conclusions
    8. 12.8 Bibliography
  17. List of Authors
  18. Index